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Charles W. Rechenbach 

Assisted by 

Angelica Wanjinu Gesuga 
Harold M. Onyango Josiah 

Leslie R. Leinone 
Florence G. Kuipers 

Bureau of Special Research 
in Modern Languages 

The Catholic University of Americ 
Washington. B. C. 20017 

a Prei 



Copyright © 1968 

All Rights Reserved 

Library of Congress Catalog Number 67-3143 8' 

The compilers of this Swahili-English dictionary, the first new lexical work for English speakers 
in many years, hope that they are offering to students and translators a more reliable and certainly a 
more up-to-date working tool than any previously available. They trust that it will prove to be of 
value to libraries, researchers, scholars, and governmental and commercial agencies alike, whose in- 
terests and concerns will benefit from a better understanding and closer communication with peoples 
of Africa. 

The Swahili language (Kisuiahili) is a Bantu language spoken by perhaps as many as forty mil- 
lion people throughout a large part of East and Central Africa. It is, however, a native or 'first' lan- 
guage only in a nnitp restricted area consisting of the islands of Zanzibar and Pemba and the oppo- 
site coast, roughly from Dar es Salaam to Mombasa, 

Outside this relatively small territory, elsewhere in Kenya, in Tanzania (formerly Tanganyika), 
and to a lesser degree in Uganda, in the Republic of the Congo, and in other fringe regions hard to 
delimit, Swahili is a lingua franca of long standing, a 'second' (or 'third' or 'fourth') language enjoy- 
ing a reasonably well accepted status as a supra-tribal or supra-regional medium of communication. 

Its chief competitor in this function is English, and English is of course a formidable competi- 
tor indeed in Kenya and Tanzania and particularly in Uganda. The competitors are both English and 
Luganda in Uganda, both French and Lingala in the Congo. In the long view, the future of Swahili 
is difficult to predict; but, for the present, its position appears to be more stable than that of any 
other African language. 

The older literature of the language, written in Arabic characters, goes back to the seventeenth 
century and includes a wide range of subject matter and forms, from poetry to chronicles and history. 
There is an abundance of modern material, including perhaps a thousand titles in short stories, poet- 
ry, scholarly works, and text books for elementary and secondary schools. Swahili can no longer be 
considered in the category of the 'rarer' languages. There are several Swahili newspapers as well 
as various commercial media in circulation, and there is an abundance of excellent teaching aids, 
such as E.V. Parrott's Teach Yourself Swahili (The English Universities Press Ltd., London). The 
East African Literature Bureau of Nairobi has published a great many Swahili titles, and Longmans, 
Green and Company Ltd., London, should also be mentioned as having made much educational mate- 
rial available in the language. 

In view of these resources, the compilers of this dictionary have not felt it necessary or advis- 
able to expand the volume with phonetic or grammatical aids. This volume is primarily and specific- 
ally a word source for readers and translators. Like all subsequent compilations, it builds gratefully 
upon the Standard Swahili-English and English-Swahili Dictionary in two volumes, prepared under 
the direction of Frederick Johnson and published by the Oxford University Press in 1939. The pres- 
ent dictionary has critically reappraised the entire word-stock of the language, modernizing and aug- 
menting from many sources. It brings the vocabulary up to date, including the fantastic developments 
since World War II. 


The compilers are moved by piety and by a sense of real and deep indebtedness when they ac- 
knowledge the long line of earlier toilers in this particular vineyard: Krapf, Steere, Madan, Johnson 
(and his many associates), Sacleux, Olderogge, and Hoftmann.* 

They wish also to acknowledge the very substantial assistance of Miss Barbara Dudley and Mr. 
Harold A. Goldklang, who furnished lists of new entries and of new senses for old entries drawn from 
their long experience in reading contemporary Swahili texts of many kinds. 

They must finally express their very great obligation to Messrs. Harry Goff and Eugene R, Gar- 
nett, who prepared the final lexl uf the dictionary, and tc the Right Reverend James A. Maener and 
other officials of the Catholic University of America Press, who have given it a handsome and practi- 
cal outward form. 

*See Marcel van Spaandonck, Practical and Systematical Swahili Bibliography, Linguistics 1850- 
1963. Leiden (E.J. Brill), 1965. 



1. Derivative verb forms (applicative, causative, etc.) are listed under the base form of the 
verb. When the base form is not in current use, the derivative forms appear as separate entries. 
In cases where derivative forms are much commoner than, or differ drastically in sense from, the 
base verb, they also appear as separate entries. 

2. Derivative nouns (formed with the prefixes Id-, m-, u-, etc.) appear in the normal alphabeti- 
cal order of the prefix, with a cross-reference to the base word. 

3. At the end of the entry for each base word there is an alphabetical list of derivative words 
(if any) appearing as main entries in this dictionary: Cf. ... 

4. Words of Arabic origin are likewise cross-referenced to derivative or related words. 

5. Common synonyms of rare entries are given in parentheses: ( = ...) 

6. Each noun is followed by its plural prefix in parentheses or by the indications sing, or pi. 
if the entry is commonly used only in the singular or in the plural. The indication (—) after an entry 
means that the entry is a noun having in the plural the same form as in the singular. 

* foreign loanword (from Arabic 
unless otherwise specified) 

(— ) plural the same as singular 
(i.e., without prefix) 

< derived from... 

= (more or less) synonymous with... 

ahhr. abbreviation, abbreviated as... 

abs. absolute 

adj. adjective 

adv. adverb(ial) 

affirm, affirmative 

Afr. Afrikaans 

agr., agric. agriculture 

amplic. amplicative ( = augmentative) 

anat. anatomical 

anth. anthropology 

app. approximately 

appl. applicative 

approx. approximately 

Ar. Arabic 

arch, archaic 

arith. arithmetic 

ass. associative 

astr., astron. astronomy 

augm., augment, augmentative 

auto, automotive term 

aux., auxil. auxiliary 

av. aviation 

Bibl. Biblical 

biol. biological term 

bot. botanical term 

caus. causative 

chem. chemistry 

Christ. Christian (as opposed to 
Muslim) usage 

cl. class 

coll. colloquial 

collec. collective 

comm. communist terminology 

conj. conjunction 

conn, connective 

consec. consecutive 

cont. contactive 

contr. contrast(ed) 

cul. culinary 

dem., demon, demonstrative 

derog. derogatory 

det. determinative 

dial, dialectal 

dimin. diminutive 

dur. durative 

econ. economics 
elec. electricity 
emph. emphatic 
encl. enclitic 
Engl. English 
esp. especially 
eth., ethn. ethnology 
euph. euphemism 
expr. expression 
fern, feminine 
fig. figurative(ly) 
fin. finance 
foil, following 
Fr. French 

gen. general(ly) 

geogr. geographical term 

geom. geometry 

Germ. German 

gramm. grammatical term 

hist, historical 

id. ideophone 

imp., imper. imperative 

Ind. Indian (Hindi, Gujerati, etc.) 

indef. indefinite 

inf. infinitive 
int. intensive 
inter j. interjection 

interr., interrog. interrogative 

intr. intransitive 

inv. inversive 

Isl. (term usually restricted to) 
Islamic (contexts) 

Jap. Japanese 

jur. jurisprudence 

hat. Latin 

leg. legal term 

ling, linguistics 

lit. literal(ly) 

liter, literary 

loc. locative 

Lug. Luganda 

Mai. Malay 

masc. masculine 

math, mathematics 

mech. mechanics 

med. medical term 

meteor, meteorology 

mil. military 

min. mining, mineralogy 

mod. modern 

mus. music 

myth, mythology 

n. noun 

naut. nautical 

neg. negative 

num. numeral 

oh\. object 

obs. obsolete 

onom. onomatopoeic 

opp. (as) opposed (in meaning to...) 

opt. optics 

orig. originally 

ornith. ornithology 

pari, parliamentary term 

part, particle 

pass, passive 

pej., pejor. pejorative 

pers. person, personal 

Pers. Persian 

pharm. pharmaceutical term 

phon. phonetics 

phot, photography 

phy. physiology 

phys. physics 

pi., plur. (occurring commonly only 
in the) plural 

pol. political term 

polyg. (term relating to the practice 
of) polygamy 

Port. Portuguese 

poss. possessive 

pr. proper (noun) 

prep, preposition(al) 

prob. probable, probably 

pron. pronoun 

prov. proverb 

psych, psychology 

punct. punctuation 

railw. railway term 

rec. recent 

red. reduplicated, reduplication 

ref. reference 

re/7, reflexive 

rel. religious 

relat. relative 

Russ. Russian 

sing, (occurring commonly only 
in the) singular 

si, slang 

Span. Spanish 

stat. stative 

suff. suffix(ed) 

tech. technology 

tr., trans, transitive 

Turk. Turkish 

typ. typography 

us. usually 

v. verb 

vulg. vulgar 

w. with 

zool. zoology 

Zu. Zulu 

a, aa, ah inter), expressing surprise, joy, 2 a biria* (ma-) passenger, meli ya -. 
P ain ' passenger ship, motakaa ya — . bus. 

gari la — . passenger train, motokaa 
aali* adj. good, excellent, first-class. ya __ tax j b USci Cf. abiri. 

aasi* see lasi. abu * ( _) Uten father> (= l Da ba.) 

abadan* 1. adv. never, hawatakuja kwetu abudi* (— ) see budi. 

— . They will never come to us. 
2. interj. Make way! abudu* pray, worship; serve; fear. 

— Mungu. worship/serve /fear God. 
abadi, abidi adv., rare always, constantly. appl. abudia. caus. abudisha. Cf. 

(= daima, sikuzote, kila mara, milele.) ibada, uabudiwaji, maabadi, maabudu, 

kazi yake ni kuiba — . He is always mwabudu. 


Abunuwasi*, Banawasi liter, proper name 
abd* (— ) liter, servant, slave. See abudu. ; n tales of Arabic origin; one who tells 

such tales. Cf. kibanawasi. 
abe* see labeka. 

acha, dial, ata leave (behind), desert, 
labedari* LPort. ?] (-) pulley, block abandon; divorce (wife, husband). 

(used on dhows). Fulani amemwacha mkevve. X is divorced 

from his wife, wameuacha mji wao. They 
^abedari* see habedari. have left their town. 2. stop, cease, dis- 

continue; fail to do, neglect. 3. release, 
abidi* see abadi. acquit, pardon. 4. allow, permit, ass. 

achana. leave each other, separate, be 
abiri* 1. travel by sea; pass over, cross separated; be different, diverge (views, 

(river, lake, sea). 2. go, travel (by ship, opinions), appl. achia. leave something 

railway, automobile, airplane), appl. to someone, let someone have something; 

abiria. intr. abirika. caus. abirisha. bequeath, achia mtu mali. bequeath prop- 

pass, abiriwa. Cf. ^abiria. erty to someone, double appl. achilia. 

I. pardon, forgive. 2. :aclii!ia niba'i. 
^abiria* awl. of abiri. cease, break off; leave alone, abandon. 



double appl.-intr. achilika. be excusable/ adhama*, adhima (— ) 1. greatness, grandeur, 
pardonable, caus. achisha. cause to dignity. 2. fame. 3. power, authority, 

leave/abandon/divorce; wean (a child)* 4. pomp, splendor. Cf. adhimisho, 

ass. achana. leave each other; diverge, adhimu, taadhima, taadhimika, 

be different. uadhimishaji. 

achali* (— ) see achari. 
achana ass. of acha. 

adhana* 1. (— ) Isl. call to prayer of the 
muezzin, piga — . call to prayer. 
2. see adhini. 

acnari'% acnaii, ajari Ltna. j \— ; appetizer, 
relish, chutney. 

achisha caus. of acha. 

ada* 1. {— ) fee, (customary) payment, gift 
(that is expected to be forthcoming). — 
ya mganga. doctor's fee. maada ya 
harusi. wedding-present, kiasi cha — tu. 
as is fitting/appropriate. — ya shule. 
school fees. 2. (ma-) contribution, pay- 
ment. — ya kuingilia. admission fee. 

adabu* (— ) politeness, courtesy, consid- 
eration; good manners. Huna — . You have 
no manners, Cf. adibu. 

Adamu* (wa-) 1. pr. n. masc. 2. see 
mwanadamu, binadamu. 

adawa* (— ) see uadui. 

Aden, Edeni sing, (the city of) Aden. 

adesi* (— ) bot. lentils. 

adhabu* 1. punishment, penalty. 2. pain, 
torment, tia (pa, patisha) — . punish, 
chastise. 3. pursuit, persecution. 
Cf. adhibu. 

aaniDisna sec auiiiuu. 

adhibu*, adhibisha 1. punish, chastise; 
pass judgment/sentence. 2. cause pain/ 
torment; harass, molest, annoy. 
watakapochelewa kurudi kwenye masomo 
tutawaadhibu. If they return late to the 
lessons we shall punish them. Cf. 

adhima* (— ) see adhama. 

adhimisha* see adhimu. 

adhimisho* (ma-) {more commonly 

maadhimisho) celebration, solemnity, 
ceremony. — la misa takatifu. rel. 
celebration of the mass. Cf. adhama. 

adhimu* 1. adj. & adv., liter, great, 
important, significant. 2. (also caus. 
adhimisha) praise, honor, glorify, 
celebrate. — (adhimisha) sikukuu. 
celebrate a holiday, appl. adhimia. 
Cf. adhama. 

adhini*, adhana Isl, call to prayer. 

Mwadhini anaadhini. The muezzin calls 
to prayer. Cf. adhana, mwadhini. 



adhiri*, aziri find fault with, reprove, 
criticize; degrade, humiliate; slander, 
defame. Usiniadhiri mbele za watu. 
Don't criticize me in front of the people. 

adhuhuri*, adhuuri (— ) midday, noon (be- 
tween 12 and 2 o' clock), wakati wa — . 
noontime, sala ya — . Isl. time of the 
second prayers. 

adhmiri* (—) set 


adimika*, hadimika be rare /unobtainable. 
Cf. adimu. 

adimu* adj. 1. rare, scarce, unobtainable, 
2. insufficient, inadequate; deficient, 
faulty, unsatisfactory. Cf. adimika. 

adinasi*, wadinasi (— ) 1. arch, free man. 
2. a man of good birth. Cf. ^wadi. 

admpli*. admirali I Knel. I ( — ) admiral. 

adi* arch, go part of the way with some- 
one (e.g., a guest), escort. 
(= ^sindikiza.) 

adua* arch. 1. make offerings/sacrifices. 
2. prepare magic charms (against the 
evil eye) . 

adia*, hidaya (— ) arch, gift, present. Cf. 

adui* (ma-) enemy, opponent. — mbaya. 
rel. devil. Cf. uadui. 

adibisha* caus. of adibu. 

aenzi* (— ) see enzi 

adibu* (also taadabu) 1. (also caus. 

adibisha) bring up, educate, teach good 
manners. 2. adj. polite, courteous, 
gracious, well-bred. 3. interj. taadabu! 
or — nafsi yako! Behave yourself! 
Cf. adabu. 

adili* 1. be just (righteous, impartial); 
conduct oneself well. 2. (ma-, — ) 
morality, ethics; good conduct; justice, 
impartiality. 3. (also adilifu) adj. right, 
correct; just, righteous, impartial; 
straightforward, honest. Cf. adilisha, 

adilifu* see adili 3. 

adilisha* cause to be righteous/moral, 
teach morality /good conduct. Cf. adili. 

afa* (ma-) (more commonly maafa) 1. mis- 
fortune, catastrophe, disaster, calamity, 
mishap, accident, bad luck, damage, 
injury. 2. danger, peril; threat, menace; 
horror, terror. 3. injustice. 

afadhali*, afdhali, afudhali adv. rather, 
better, particularly, ni — kusafiri kuliko 
kukaa. It is better to travel than to stay. 
Cf. fadhili. 

afdhali* see afadhali. 

afendi*, efendi \_Turk. J (— ) mil. effendi 
(title of rank). 

afia* (— ) see ^afya. 
afikana* ass. of afiki. 



afiki* agree, correspond; be the same as; afua* 

fit, be fitting; satisfy, appease; {usually 
ass. afikiana, afikana) come to an agree- 
ment, make a settlement, be reconciled. 
ass.-caus. afikanisha. satisfy, appease, 
reconcile, conciliate. Cf. maafikiano, 

afikiano* (ma-) see maafikiano. 

afisa* lEngl.i (ma-) see ofisa. 

afisi*, ofisi LEngl.i {-) office, department, 

afiuni* (-) see afyuni. 

Afrika* LEngl.i sing, -ya kaskazini. 

North Africa. — ya kusini. South Africa. 

- ya kati (or katikati). Central Africa. 

- ya magharibi. West Africa. - ya 
mashariki. East Africa, nchi ya -. 
African continent. Cf. kiafrika, 

afrikanaizesheni* lEngl.i sing. Africani- 

afriti* (-) 1. (evil) spirit, devil. 2. wicked/ 
malicious person. 

lafu* (-) flower of the wild jasmine. 
Cf. mwafu. 

2 a fu*, afua 1. forgive, pardon. 2. guard, 
protect, defend. 3. free, liberate, re- 
lease. 4. heal, cure. 5. \— , ma-) 
liberation, redemption, salvation, pro- 
tection, defense. 


afudhali* see afadhali. 

lafya*, afia (-) health; strength, vigor. 
bora — . The main thing is health. 
hana — nzuri or — yake si nzuri. He 
is not in good health. 

2afya caus. of apa. 

afyuni*, afiuni (-) opium. (= kasumba.) 

laga take one's leave, say good-bye, 
leave. — dunia. euph. to die. oppL 
agia. take leave of, dismiss, ass. 
agana. take leave of each other (for 
a long period), agana buriani. bid 
each other a final farewell. Cf. 2 agano, 
kiago, 4 m wago. 

2 a ga (usually ass. agana) agree, come to 
an agreement, reach a settlement, make 
a contract, caus. agiza. charge, order, 
commission; instruct, fanya kama 
nilivyokuagiza. Do as I have instructed 
you. caus.-appl. agizia. order/commis- 
sion for... Cf. Ugano, agizo, kiaga, 
^mwago, uagizaji. 

^aga rare destroy. 

Agami* see Uajemi. 

agana ass. of laga, 2 aga. 

lagano (ma-) (more commonly maagano) 
1. agreement, settlement, contract, 
treaty, covenant; arrangement, 



understanding. Agano Jipya. New 
Testament. Agano la Kale. Old Testa- 
ment. 2. promise, vow. Cf. aga. 

ahali*, ahli (— ) 1. relations, family, 

(distant) relative, ndugu na — . brothers 
and (other) relatives. 2. rare wife. 

2agano (ma-) rare departure, farewell. 
Cf. !aga. 

aghalabu*, aghlabu adv. usually, ordi- 
narily, mostly; mainly, chiefly, as a 
rule, maji huchotwa kwa ndoo, — na 
ng'ombe. Water is drawn with buckets, 
but the work is usually done by oxen. 

aghlabu* see aghalabu. 

agiza (caus. of *aga, q.v.) order, direct, 
commission, give instructions. 

agizo (ma-) (more commonly maagizo) 

order, commission, instruction; regula- 
tion, directive. Cf. 2 aga. 

Agosti* LEngl.J (month of) August. 

agua 1. foretell, predict, prophesy; inter- 
pret (a dream or omen). 2. med. treat 
(usually with charms or potions ). Cf. 
aguzi, mwaguzi, uaguzi. 

aguzi (ma-) (usually maaguzi) 1. medicine, 
remedy. 2. interpretation (of a dream or 
omen). 3. prophecy, prediction. Cf. 

ahadi*, wahadi (— ) promise, obligation, 
vow, agreement, toa (funga, pa) — . make 
a promise, vunja — . break a promise/ 
vow. titniza (fikisha, shika) — . keep a 
promise/vow. Cf. ahidi, miadi. 

ahera*, akhera (— ) hereafter, life to come, 
fig. enda — . die. Cf. aheri. 

aheri*, akheri (— ) end; limit, border, toka 
awali hata — . from beginning to end. — 
yako nini? or — yako kiasi gani? What is r ~."k br.ttnm ~.r:cs? C f, ahera. 

ahi* (— ) see yahe. 

ahidi*, w ahidi promise, vow, agree. Cf. 

ahiri*, akhiri 1. be put off/postponed. 
2. delay, hesitate, procrastinate. 
caus. ahirisha. put off, postpone. 
mtihani umeahirishwa mpaka kesho. 
The examination is postponed until 
tomorrow, pass, ahiriwa. Cf. taahari, 

ahli* (— ) see ahali. 

ahsante* see asante. 

aibika* 1. be disgraced/dishonored. 

2. be ashamed/abashed, ameaibika. He 
is ashamed, caus. aibisha. disgrace, 
dishonor; abash, disconcert. Cf. aibu. 

aibisho* (ma-) see aibu. 

aibu* (— ), aibisho (ma-) shame, dishonor, 
scandal, disgrace. Cf. aibika. 



aidha*, waaidha conj. then, thereupon; 
moreover, furthermore. 

aili* (& caus. ailisha) rare reproach, 
criticize. Cf. uaili. 

ailisha* caus. of aili. 

aina* (— ) 1, kind, sort, class, kila — ya... 
all kinds of... 2. biol. sex. 3. bot. 
species, 4. breed (of cattle, etc.). 
5. grade (of merchandise). Cf. aini. 

aini* show; explain, define; classify, 
differentiate, distinguish. Cf. aina, 

aisei* inter}., coll. VEngl. J I say, hello. 

aishi* see ishi. 

ajabu*, ajibu, staajabu 1. marvel, be 

surprised/astonished/amazed. 2. (— , ma-) 
prise, amazement, ona -*. be astounded. 
3. adj. & adv. amazing, astonishing, ex- 
traordinary. 4. (reinforcing mno & sana): 
nyingi mno — . extraordinarily many, an 
amazing number. See also staajabu. 

ajali* (— ) 1. fate, destiny; destination; 
chance, prov. haina kinga wala kafara. 
Nothing can avert an impending blow of 
fate, {lit.: Fate has neither defense nor 
sacrifice.) prov. tabibu hazuii — . The 
physician does not delay fate, 2. hour 
of death. 3. accident, hapa leo pana — . 
An accident occurred there today. 

lajari* (-) see layari. 

^ajari* (— ) see achari. 

ajazi* rare be weak/infirm/helpless. 
intr. ajizika. Cf. ajizi, uajizi. 

Ajemi* see Uajemi. 

ajenti* LEngl.J (—) agent, manager, 
foreman. Cf. uajenti. 

ajibu* see ajabu. 

ajihi* rare pay a visit on someone (at a 
considerable distance). 

a j ili* (— ) arch, reason, cause. Now 
occurring only in the expressions kwa 

— ya as a result of, thanks to and kwa 

— therefore, because of, on the strength 
of. Cf. minajili. 

ajiri* hire, engage, employ, enlist, 
recruit (laborers, soldiers), caus. 
ajirisha. 1. employ someone for pay. 
2. lease, rent. Cf. ijara, ujira. 


(— ) see aji 

ajizi* (also ajiza) 1. (— ) weakness, 
limpness, laziness, negligence. 2. 
(— ) delay, indecision, hesitancy, prov. 
— nyumba ya njaa. Indecision is the 
house of hunger, 3. adj. weak, slack, 
hesitant, dilatory. Cf. ajazi, uajizi. 

ajuza* (— ) rare old woman. ( = kizee.) 

*aka interj. expressing amazement, 
impatience, negation. 



^aka build, erect (with stone), caus. 
akisha, asha. 

^aka act as if.,,, pretend to be..., feign. 
— kimya. feign muteness, 

akali* 1. {— ) rare isolation, segregation. 
2. -adj. few, individual, isolated. — ya 
vitu or vitu — . few things. 

akari* (— ) intoxicating drink. 

-ake (rare -akwe) poss. pron. 3rd pers. 
sing, his, her. kiti chake. his chair. 
viti vyake. his chairs. 

akhera* (— ) see ahera. 

akheri* (— ) see aheri. 

akhiri* see ahiri. 

akhiyari* adv., rare well, better. 

akhtari* (— ) see aktari. 

aki* (— ) see yahe. 

akia* swallow, devour, gulp down; gorge 

akiba* (— ) supply, reserve; savings. 
vyombo vya — . spare parts. — ya 
wananchi. savings bonds, weka — . lay 
aside, save, toa — . dip into one's 
savings, prov.: — haiozi. What is saved 
does not spoil. 

akida* (ma-) 1. chief, leader. 2. official. 
3. officer, adjutant. 4. manager, super- 
visor, foreman. 

akidi* rare suffice; end, conclude, finish. 

akidu* (ma-) contractor. 

akifia* entrust with (a task, money, 

akifu* see wakifu. 

akika* (— ) akika: 1. ceremony of a baby's 
first haircut. 2. burial ceremony for a 
child. Cf. 2 akiki. 

^akiki* (— ) min. carnelian. 

^akiki* 1. the slaughtering of a goat for the 
festival of the first hair-cutting. Cf. 
akika 1. 2. soma — . hold the burial 
ceremony for a child. Cf. akika 2. 

akili* (— ) 1. understanding, reason, intel- 
ligence, intellect; judgment, discretion. 
2. ability, capability, proficiency, com- 
petence. 3. sense, thought, fanya — . 
consider, reflect, prov. — ni mali. Sense 
is wealth. 4. trick; (in a good sense) 

akina*, kina, wakina (— ) family; descent, 
extraction; a person/people like... — 
Said. Said's family. — sisi. people like 
us, — bibi (bvvana). collec. women (men). 

-ako poss. pron. 2nd pers. sing. your. 
tunda lako. your fruit, matunda yako. 

your fruits. 



akrab* sing., rare: — magharibi. south- 
west. — matlai. southeast. 

akraba* (— ) relation, relative (only of the 
first degree). 

akrabu*, akarabu (— ) pointer, indicator, 
hand. — ya saa. hand of a watch or 

aksidenti*, eksidenti lEngl.} (— ) rare 
accident. Cf. ajali. 

aktari*, akhtari (— ) crowd, gathering. - 
ya watu. crowd of people. 

-akwe see -ake. 

*ala* inter], expressing amazement or 

2. indication, marking, trace, tia — . 
mark, indicate. 3. postmark. 4. symptom, 
prognosis, prediction. Cf. mialamu. 

alamsiki* inter], farewell, goodbye. 

alamu* (— ) 1, flag, banner. 2. signalling 
flag, warning. 

alasiri* (—) 1. afternoon. 2. [si. prayer 
(between 3 and 5 o'clock). 

alau* see walau. 

alfabeti* l.Engl.1 {—) alphabet. {= herufi.) 

alfafa* (— ) alfafa (cloth worn after circum- 
cision to protect the wound). 

alfajiri* (— ) 1. dawn, daybreak. 2. Isl. 
prayer (at 4:00 A.M.). 



^ala* (nyala, ala, maala) 1. case, sheath, 
scabbard (for knife, sword). 2. instru- 
ment, tool, implement, apparatus, appli- 
ance, kila - ya kazi. all kinds of in- Alhamdulillahi !* inter;. Praise be to 

struments/tools. amekuja na — zake 
kamili. He came fully equipped. 

alaf* see elfu. 

^alafu* see elfu. 

^alafu* adv., conj. see halafu. 

alama* (— ) 1. sign, mark, symbol. — 


Alhamisi* (— ) Thursday. — kuu. Maundy 

alhasil*, alhasir adv. 1. then, thereupon; 
hence, consequently. 2, thus, in this 
way, similarly, na — . and so forth, 

alia make marks on the body (by a blow). 

ndogo. dot, — ■ ya kushangaa. exclama- 

. .. . , lalika 1. splash, ripple (of water). 2, go 

tion mark. — ya kuuliza. question mark. 

— ya kutaja. quotation mark. — ya 
usawa. equals mark, sign of equality. 

off, explode (of bombs). 3. snap, crack. 
caus. alisha. — vidole. make the joints 
of one's fingers crack. Cf. ^mwaliko, 



^alika 1. call, invite; challenge. — 
karamuni. invite to a feast. — vita. 
summon to battle, declare war. 
2. beckon, entice. 3. inform, explain. 
Cf. Imwaliko, Ijnwalishi. 

"alika confine (a sick person, etc. to a 
house or room). 

aliki* hang, hang up; fasten, attach. 

aliko (ma-) see mwaliko. 

alili adv., rare very. 

alisa (— ) rare dancing place. 

ama* (rare ima) conj. or. — ... — . either 
... or. — hii — hii. either this or that, 
wa — , yet, however. ( = au. ) 

ama!* 1. inter/, expressing amazement or 
impatience. 2. introduction of a question. 
•• ■, huna habari ya baba yako? It is true 
that you have no news of your father? 

''ama rare lie prone. 

lamali* (— ) 1. act, action; behavior. 

2. activity, work, employment, — yao 
ni kujenga nyumba. Their business is 
house-building, 3. occupation, business, 
profession, speciality. Cf. amili, 

Allah* God (usually in Arabic formulas). 

Allah akbar. Allah is great, la ill ah i ila ^amali* (— ) amali (kind of charm) 
Allah. There is no God but Allah, 
Alhamdulillahi. Praise be to Allah. 
Bismillahi. In the name of Allah. 
wallahi. By Allah. 

mana* (— ) vow; pledge, trust, security, 
weka — . leave as a pledge, give as 
security. Cf. lamini. 

almari* (— ) chest of drawers, 

almaria*, halmaria LPort.j(-) 1. embroi- 
dery. 2. braid. 

almasi*, alma/.i (— ) 1. diamond, brilliant. 
2. pr. n. masc. 

almuradi*, mradi conj. then, thereupon; 
hence, consequently. 

alowensi* LEngl. J (— ) allowance. 
( = kipimo.) 

alwaridi* (— ) see halwaridi. 

amani* (— ) peace, security, safety. 
mapatano ya — . peace treaty. Cf. 
amana, lamini. 

amania* liter, trust, believe in, depend/ 
rely on. Cf. amana, lamini. 

amara* (— ) rare (- muhimu) 1. urgent 

matter/business. 2. help, aid, assistance. 
haja — ? Can I do something for you? 

amari* LPort. J anchor-chain/cable. 

'amba 1. arch, speak. 2, speak ill of some- 
one, slander, kumwamba mtu. talk about 


someone behind his back. appl. see 
ambia. Cf. jigamba, kigambo, mgambo, 

^amba rare be in contact, stick together, 
adhere, us. intr. ambika. 1. hold/stick 
together, cohere. 2. prepare a trap for 
fish; bait, lure. inv. see ambua. Cf. 
atnbata, ambo, ambua, ambukizo, 
lohamha. chambo. ohambua. ^earaba, 
ngambi, uambukizo, wamba, wambiso. 

■'amba relat. pron. who, which, that (in 

conj. w. det.J. wale ambao wamekwenda. 
those who have gone. 

ambaa come near to without touching, pass 
by, skirt, hug (the shore); avoid, 
escape, waliambaa mji bila ya kuingia. 
They went past the town without enter- 
ing it. waliambaa hatari. They escaped 
from danger, caus. ambaza. Cf. 
mwambao, tnmwambao. 

ambo (ma-) gum, glue. Cf. ^amba, 

ambua {inv. of 2 am ba) 1. loosen, detach, 
separate, pull off. — ngozi. remove 
skin (rind, bark). — mchungwa. peel an 
orange. 2. profit, benefit, alisoma miaka 
mingi lakini hana alichoambua. He has 
studied for a long time, but hasn't 
benefited from it. intr. ambuka. intr.- 
caus. ambukiza. med. be infectious/ 
contagious, ugonjwa wa kuambukiza. 
contagious disease. Cf. ambukizo, 
chambua, uambukizo. 

ambukizo (ma-) med. infection, contagion. 
Cf. ambua. 

amdelahane* (— ) amdelahane (soft, silky 
material). Cf. mdarahani. 

amerikani* LEngl. J see merekani. 

ami* (— ) see ^amu. 

ambari* (— ) ambergris. 

ambata clasp, cling, stick to, adhere. 
caus. ambatisha. fix, attach, ass. 
ambatana. nguo imeambatana na 
kidonda. The cloth has adhered to the 
wound. Cf. ''amba. 

ambia {appl. of lamba) 1. speak/say 
something to someone. 2. inform; tell, 
relate, pass, ambiwa. nimeambiwa. 
I was told, double appl. ambilia. 
chatter, gossip. 

ambika intr. of -amba. 

amia* protect (a field or garden from birds 
and animals). Cf. mwamizi; also hami, 

amili* 1. do, act; complete, accomplish. 
2. lead, guide, steer. Cf. ^amali. 

^amini* {also staamani) 1. trust, entrust; 
believe; prove oneself worthy of trust, 
nilimwamini na fedha yangu. I trusted 
him with my money, intr. aminika. be 
trustworthy /reliable, mtu huyu haaminiki. 
This man is not reliable, caus. aminisha. 
inspire confidence, give certainty. 
2. (— ) faithfulness, fidelity, devotion, 


reliability. 3. adj. {also aminifu) 
faithful, devoted, reliable, trustworthy. 
Cf. amana, amani, amania, imani, 
mwamana, mwamini, uaminifu, toamini. 

^amini*, yamini (— ) blood brother, huyu ni 
amini yangu. This man is my blood 

aminifu* adj. see *amini 3. 

amiri* (ma-) commander, leader, officer, 
colonel, — jeshi. leader of an army. 
Cf. amri. 

^amiri* begin/start something. — shamba 
(mji). lay out a new field (village). 

amirisho* (ma-) start, beginning. Cf. 

amka wake up, stir. caus. amsha. wake 
up, rouse. — {usually fungua) kinywa. 
eat breakfast. Cf. amkia, changamka, 
kiamshakinywa, maamkio. 

amkia, amkua {appl. of amka) 1. wake up 
for/because of someone. 2. show some- 
one one's respect/esteem. 3. greet 
someone. 4. grow light, dawn. 

amkua see amkia. 

amri* (— , ma-) 1. order, command, directive, 
toa — . give an order, shika (fuata) — . 
carry out an order, obey a command. 
2. authority, rule, mastery, responsi- 
bility, power, ana amri juu yao. He has 
power over them. Cf. ^amiri, amuru. 

amria* appl. of amuru. 

amrisha* caus. of amuru. 

amriwa* pass, of amuru. 

amsha caus. of amka, 

*Amu (the island of) Lamu. 

^arnn*. ami (— ) (paternal) uncle, Cf. 

*amua end/settle a dispute; adjudge, 

decide by arbitration; reach a decision; 
act as an arbitrator, appl. amulia. 
caus. amuliza. Cf. maamuzi, mwamua, 


'amna - amwa. 

amulia appl. of ^amua. 

amuliza caus. of ^amua. 

amuru* 1. order, command, prescribe, 
decide, decree aliniamuru niende. He 
ordered me to go. 2. administer, manage, 
govern, lead. appl. amria. pass, amriwa. 
caus. amrisha. drill, train (soldiers). 
Cf. amri, 

amuzi (ma-) (us. pi.) judgment, verdict. 
Cf. ^amua. 

amwa suck. caus. amwisha. nurse/suckle 
(a baby). 

anana adj. soft, mild, gentle, upepo 

mwanana. gentle wind. fig. mtu mwanana. 
a gentle, modest person. 



anasa* (— ) 1. pleasure, joy; festive mood. 
2. comfort, prosperity, luxury, maisha 
ya — . a life in easy circumstances. Cf. 
anisi, taanasa. 

andaa prepare, make preparations; cook 
(food), appl. andalia. make preparations 
for. waliandalia vita (kazi). They are 
making preparations for war (work). Cf. 
andao. andazi, maandalio, mwandaliaji, 
mwandao, mwandazi. 

andama follow, succeed; accompany, mwezi 
umeandama. new moon. ass. andamana. 
follow one another, go together/in a 
company; walk in a line or row (proces- 
sion, demonstration). Cf. andamano, 
andamo, mwandamano, mwandamo, 
mwandani, uandamano, uandamizi. 

andamano, andamizi (ma-) {usually 

maandamano, maandamizi) 1. series, 
sequence, succession. 2. procession, 
demonstration. Cf. andama. 

andamizi (ma-) (usually maandamizi) see 
andama, andamano. 

andamo adj. following, subsequent, con- 
secutive, mwezi mwandamo. rare new 
moon. Cf. andama. 

andao (ma-) {usually maandao) preparation, 
arrangement, provision, measure; cook- 
ing (of food). Cf. andaa. 

andazi (ma-) {usually maandazi) pastry, 
confectionery; seasoning, garnishing; 
pastry/confectionery shop. Cf. andaa. 

andika 1. put in order, arrange, appl. 
andikia. arrange something. — meza. 
set the table. 2. write; register, enter; 
recruit, sign on. appl. andikia. write 
to someone, alimwandikia barua. He 
wrote him a letter. 3. draw, sketch. 
andikia picha. draw a picture, caus. 
andikisha. cause to write, dictate; have 
the table set (for a meal); (or jiandikisha) 
register (for voting), ass. andikiana. 
write to each other, correspond, ass.- 
caus. andikanya. get each other to write. 
Cf. andiko, maandiko, maandishi, 
mwandiko, mwandikaji, mwandishi, 
uandikishaji, uandishi. 

andikanya ass. -caus. of andika. 

andiko (ma-) (usually maandiko) 1. what is 
written: manuscript, text, book, inscrip- 
tion, address, label, heading, title; 
recent (written) statement, communique. 
2. pi., rel. scriptures. Maandiko Mata- 
katifu. The Holy Scriptures. 3. prepara- 
tion, arrangement. Cf. andika. 

langa, wanga 1. rare hang, be suspended, 
float (in the air). 2. bewitch, enchant, 
cast a spell. 3. spend the night. Cf. 
angama, angika, angua, 3 chango, kiango. 

2anga (ma-) 1. brightness, radiance, 
brilliance. — la jua. sunlight. — la 
mwezi. moonlight. 2. tech. lighting, 
illumination. 3. psych, intuition, per- 
ception. 4. meteor., av. sky, space; 
atmosphere, weather, hali ya anga. 
weather conditions, anga la juu. orbit, 
angani. cosmos, space, chombo cha 




angani. spaceship, safari ya angani. 
space flight, mwanaanga. cosmonaut. 
5. adj. - angavu. Cf. angaa. 

■'anga arch, compute, count. ( = ^wanga.) 

angaa shine, be bright; give light, gleam, 
flash, appl. angalia. be alert, watch; 
look, observe; be careful/cautious; in- 
spect, test, check, angalia! Look! 
Watch out! caus. & int. angaza. light 
up, illuminate; look fixedly, stare. 
mwezi huangaza usiku. The moon lights 
up the night, angaza macho, fix one's 
eyes on something, stare. Cf. 2 an g 3i 
angalifu, angavu, kianga, kiangaza, 
maangalio, maangalizi, mwanga, 
mwangalifu, mwangalizi, mwangaza, 
uangaliaji, uangalifu, uangavu. 

angaika see hangaika. 

angalao see angao. 

angalia appl. of angaa. 

angalifu adj. cautious, careful; consid- 
erate. Cf. angaa. 

angama (stat. of langa) hang, be suspend- 
ed (in, on); hover, float (in the air); be 
caught on, be stuck/tangled. — mtini. 
be caught/tangled in the tree. caus. 
angamiza. cause to hang, hang up; (fig.) 
store, stockpile. Cf. 2uangamizi. 

angamia perish, be ruined; fail, be un- 
successful; be destroyed, caus. 
angamiza. destroy, ruin. Cf. maanga- 
mizi, maangamizo, mwangamizi, 
uangamio, luangamizi. 

angamizi (ma-) (us. pi.) destruction, ruin. 
Cf. angamia. 

angao, angalao conj. 1. although, even if. 
nipe chakula — ni kidogo tu. Give me 
food even if it is only a little. 2. so 
that, in order that. 

angavu, anga adj. 1. bright, gleaming, 
shining. 2. transparent, clear. 3. 'fig. 
intelligent, open-minded, clever. Cf. 

angaza caus. Si int. of angaa. 

angema 1. be despondent/dejected. 2. be 

angika hang up (on the wall, on a tree, 
etc.). Cf. langa, angama, angua. 

-angu poss. pron. 1st pers. sing. my. 
mtoto wangu. my child, nyumba yangu. 

my house. 

angua (inv. of langa) 1. take off/down, 
throw down, bring down; drop. — nazi. 
pick coconuts. 2. hatch. — mayai. hatch 
eggs. 3. pass into a state of..., fall 
into... — kicheko (machozi). burst out 
laughing, burst into tears, appl. angulia. 
intr. anguka. 1. fall down; drip, trickle; 
crash (of an airplane). 2. be ruined. 
3. be seized by, be overtaken by. intr.- 
appl. angukia. fall down (into, on, be- 
fore), angukia miguu. prostrate oneself 
at someone's feet. caus. angusha. 
cause to fall, fell, bring down; ruin. 
Cf. anguko, kiangushio, mwangushi. 

anguka intr. of angua. 





anguko (ma-) (usually maanguko) 1. fall, 
drop, collapse, crash, maanguko ya 
maji. waterfall. 2. fig. downfall, decay, 
ruin. 3. Tuin(s) (of a building, etc.). 
Cf. angua. 

angusha caus. of angua. 

ania* 1. intend, plan, propose, have in 
mind, anaania kazi ya ualimu. He 

intends tO DCCOiac a icaiuu. -. „..,^,.u, 

fight for. aliania maisha yake. He 
fought for his life. Cf. nia, nuia. 

anika, janika put out to dry /air. - nyama 
(samaki). dry meat (fish). - nguo. air/ 
dry clothes. Cf. anua. 

anisi* 1. [also taanisi, taanasa) please, 
delight, cause pleasure, be pleasing. 
2. adj. pleasant, delightful; luxurious. 
Cf. anasa. 

anjili* (-) see injili. 

ankachifu* lEngl.l {-) handkerchief. 

ankra* [/»<*.] (-) 1. bill of lading; bill, 
invoice. 2. label, tag, ticket. 
3. mortgage. 

anna* -LlndJ (-) anna (1/16 of a rupee). 
Cf. rupia. 

anua {inv. of anika) remove, take away 
(out of the sun), take down washing. 
intr. anuka. be dry (of washing), fig. 
kumeanuka sasa. It has stopped raining 
It has cleared up. 

anwani* (— ) address, andika — ya barua. 
address a letter. 

anza begin, start, set about (something). 
— kazi. begin to work. appl. anzia. 
caus. anzisha, or double appl. -caus. 
anzilisha, anziliza. found, establish, 
anzisha chama. found a party. Cf. 
chanzo, maanzilisho, mwanzilishi, 
mwanzo, uanzishaji. 

anzali* (— ) depraved/despised person. 

anzilisha, anziliza double appl. -caus. of 

Anzwani* Anjouan (island of the Comoros). 

1-ao poss. pron. 3rd pers. plur. their. 
nchi yao. their country, nchi zao. their 

2ao* see au. 

apa swear, take an oath. — Kurani. swear 
by the Koran, caus. 1. apisha, (rare) 
afya. put on oath. caus. 2. (w. int. force) 
apiza. swear at, curse, caus. 1-pass. 
(kw)apishwa. be sworn in, take an oath 
(of office), inv. apua. break an oath. 
Cf. apizo, kiapo, mwapaji, mwapizi, 

aparati* [.Germ. ?] (-) apparatus. 
(- nyambo vya kufania kazi.) 

apizo (ma-) (us. maapizo) curse, impreca- 
tion, invective. Cf. apa. 




Aprili* \_Engl.~\ April. 
apua inv. of apa. 

Arabu*: Bara Arabu. Arabia. (= Uarabu.) 
Cf. Mwarabu. 

^Arabuni* (— ) 1. an object of Arabian 
origin. 2. sing. Arabia. Cf. Mwarabu; 
also ^Manga. 

^arabuni* (— ) deposit, advance (payment). 

araka* (— ) arrack; any intoxicating liquor. 

arba*, aroba arch. four. ( = nne.) -a — ■• 
fourth, arbalashara. fourteen. — mia. 
four hundred. 

arbaini* see arobaini. 

arda lay eggs. 

ardhi* (— ) ground, earth; (dry) land (as 
opp. to sea); (rare) world, globe. 

ari* (— ) 1. shame, disgrace, dishonor. 
2. special effort exerted to prevent 
being disgraced, will to succeed/win. 

aria* (— ) rare part, section, party, 

aridhia* explain, expound, demonstrate; 
inform, report; interpret, aliniaridhia 
maneno. He explained (interpreted) the 
words for me. 

aridhilihali* (— ) rare, arch, request, 
petition; memorandum. 

arifu* 1. state, report, inform (usually by 
letter); tell, relate, say. 2. adj. well- 
informed, educated; experienced, versed, 
proficient. Cf. maarifa, maarufu, taarifa, 

arithi* rare want, wish. 

aroba see arba. 

2. forty days of impurity of a woman after 
childbirth. Cf. arba. 

arteri* LEngl.J (— ) see ateri. 

arubaini* see arobaini. 

arufu* see harufu. 

arusi*, harusi (— ) wedding (ceremony and 
festivity), bwana — . bridegroom, bibi — . 
bride, fanya — . get married. 

asa*, wasa forbid, prohibit; warn. 

asaa* conj., arch. if. 

asali* (— ) honey, syrup. — ya nyuki. honey. 
— ya miwa. molasses, prov. fuata nyuki 
ukale — . Follow the bee and you will get 
(eat) honey. (= Attach yourself to the 
right friend.) 

asante*, ahsante thanks. — sana. Thank 
you very much, toa (sema) — . thank. 

asfari* adj. rare yellow. (= kimanjano.) 



asha cans, of z aka. 

ashakum* Excuse it. Pardon the expres- 
sion. (Used in apology for a vulgar word 
or expression). 

ashara* arch. ten. (~ kumi.) 

asharati* (-) see asherati. 

ashekali* 1. rare improvement, ona — . 
note improvement. 2. adj. better, im- 
proved (after an illness). 

asherati*, asharati (-) 1. dissipation, 
debauch, excess; prodigality, waste; , 
amusement, good time. 2. adultery, 
immorality, fornication. Cf. 
mwasherati, uasherati. 


see ishirini. 

ishiki*, ashki 1. be in love, love passion- 
ately, have a passion for, be enamored 
{ # 2. {—) love, passionate desire; 
feeling, affection, fondness; yearning, 
longing, tia — evoke affection/yearn- 
ing. Cf. shauku. 

ashiria* signal, inform promptly, give 
someone an indication/warning. Cf. 

ashki* see ashiki. 

asi*, aasi 1. be disobedient, not meet an 
obligation; revolt, rebel, wameasia 
serikali yao. They have rebelled again* 
their government, caus. asisha. incite 
to rebellion, stir up, agitate. 2. (ma-) 

(us. pi.) revolt, rebellion. Cf. maasi, 
mwasi, uasi. 

asikari* (-) see askari. 

asili* (— ) 1- beginning; origin, source, home; 
foundation, basis; (gramm.) root; (math.) 
denominator. 2. ancestor, forebear; 
descent, ancestry. 3. nature, tempera- 
ment. 4. essence, basic principle; 
reason (for something). 5. adv. originally, 
from the beginning, by nature; in old times. 
babu — of original/proved quality. 
6. adj.: -a -. original. Cf. asilia. 

asilia* adj. original, genuine, real, true. 
Cf. asili. 

asisha* caus. of *asi. 

asisiwa found, establish; appoint, pass. 
asiswa. be named/appointed. 

jskafu* (ma-) see askofu. 

askari*, asikari (-) 1. warrior, soldier, 
military man. 2. guard, overseer. - 
polisi. policeman. - jela. prison guard. 

- kanzu. local constable/constabulary 
(wearing kanzu rather than uniform). 

- wapanda farasi. cavalry. Cf. uaskari. 

askofu*, askafu (ma-) bishop. - mkuu. 

archbishop. - msaidizi. auxiliary bishop. 
Cf. uaskofu. 

askuti* Be still! Silence! Cf. sukutu. 
aspirini* [EnglJ (-) pharm. aspirin. 




astahili* see stahili. 

aste* ilnd.J adv., rare slowly. (= polepole.) 

asubuhi*, asubui, asuhukhi 1. (— ) morning. 

— na mapema. in the early morning, tangu 

— hata jioni. from morning to evening. 
2. adv. in the morning. Cf. sabahi. 

asubui* (— ) see asubuhi. 

asusa* (— ) 1. meat dish. 2. something 
eaten when one is drinking alcoholic bever- 

people are strangers. 3. in requests for 
for repetition: — umesema nini? What did 
you say? 

atia* see 


atibu* scold, swear, abuse, insult; blame, 
find fault with, criticize, reprimand; be 
dissatisfied, appl. atibia. intr. atibika. 

aiika replant, Uauspitiiil, piaiil uui. (sKKu.ii.iif!, 

atikali* rare understand, know; estimate. 

ata* see acha. 

atamia, tamia, latatnia brood, hatch (eggs), 
caus. atamisha, atamiza. 

ateri*, arteri [Engl.j 1. anat. artery. 2. fig. 
arterial road, main route. 

athari* (— ) 1. mark, spot, blemish. 2. scratch, 
abrasion, wound, scar, sore. 3. fig. fault, 
defect, mistake, omission, deficiency, ana 
— ya jicho. He has only one eye (euph.). 
4. influence. 5. v.: (ku)athari. to influ- 
ence. Cf. athiri. 

athiri* damage, injure, destroy, disfigure, de- 
face, pass, athiri wa. be corrupted. Cf. 

ati!, eti! interj. 1. exclamation to attract at- 
tention: Hey! Hey there! — wewe! Hey, 
you! 2. exclamation introducing a state- 
ment: Say..,, Listen... — ! yasemwa watu 
wale ni wageni ! Say, they tell me those 

atilika* rare be injured, deformed (after an 
accident or illness). 

Atlantiki* [.Engl. J (-) geogr. Atlantic 

atlasi* (— ) silk cloth, nguo ya — . satin. 

atomiki* [Engl. J adj. —a—, (or kiatomik). 
atomic, nuclear, bomu la — . atomic bomb. 

atua split, chop (wood); tear, crack, intr. 
atuka. be split, torn, nchi imeatuka kwa 
joto la jua. The ground is cracked from 
theheatof the sun. Cf. mwatuko. 

au*, ao conj. or. — ... — . either ... or. ( = ama.) 

aua 1. inspect, examine, investigate, check 
on. — skuli. inspect a school. 2. survey, 
mark out, lay out. — shamba. survey (mark 
out) a field, appl. aulia. intr. auka. 
caus. auza or ausha, 

auka rare develop, open up (plants). 


aula* adj. better, superior, more impor- 
tant, more suitable, jambo hili ni 
aula... This matter is better (more 
important)... si -. It is unimportant/ 

auni*, awuni, awini 1. help, assist, sup- 
port, appl. aunia. intr. aunika. cans. 
aunisha. 2. rare help, assistance, sup- 
port. Cf. muawana. 

aunsi* lEnglJ W °™ ce (=28.3gr.>. 

uradi* see 


ausha caus. of aua. 

aushi* (-) rare 1. life. 2. permanence, 
durability, vyungu vya -. durable 
pottery. Cf. ishi. 

ausi see eusi. 

„l;* C_-1 see awali. 
auwali \—l scc 

auza caws, of aua. 

avya dial, destroy, waste; squander. 
- fedha (mail), squander money (prop- 

2. adj. & aeZw. in the first place, at first, 
in the beginning; earlier, formerly; almost, 
nearly. 3.: - ya nchi. border/boundary/ 
frontier of a country (i.e., where the 
country begins; = asili, mwanzo, kwanza). 

awaza* see awadha. 

awesia* (-) awesia (kind of dhow). 

awini* see auni. 

awuni* see auni. 

laya* (-) section, part, paragraph (of a 
book), verse (esp. of the Koran). 

2aya* (-) (children's) nurse(maid). 
(= Imlezi.) 

ayala* (-) stag, hart. 

layari*. ajari (-) cheat, swindler, rascal, 
scoundrel, prov. mwangalie - huyu 
aliyeko mtini. Watch out for the scoundrel 
who is in the tree. 

2 aya ri (-) naut. 1. anchor chain. 2. rope 
for hoisting a sail. 3. pulley, block. 

e arch, thank you. (= asanti.) 

awa dial, go out, go away. 

awadha*, awaza rare assign, allot; 
arrange, organize. Cf. mwawazi. 

awali*, auwali 1. <-) beginning, start, 
inception, tangu - hata aheri. from 
beginning to end. prov. - ni -, hakuna 
- mbovu. Take the first or nothing. 


aza see waza. 

azali* adj.,rel. eternal, without beginning. 

azama* (-) *rch. nose ring. 

lazima* (-) talisman, charm; magic. 



^azima lend, borrow; borrow something 
from someone (without leaving an 
equivalent or furnishing security), 
appl. azimia. Cf. maazimo, mwazimo, 

^azima* (ma-) rare ~ azimio. 

azimio* (ma-) {usually maazimio) 1. in- 
tention, purpose, resolution; motive. 

2. proposal, scheme, project, pian. 

3. pari, motion. — la kutokuwa na 
imani. no-confidence motion. Cf. 

azimo (ma-) (usually maazimo) something 
borrowed or lent: loan, debt. Cf. azima. 

azimu* 1. do magic, cast spells. 2 intend, 
determine, propose. Cf. azimio (maazi- 

aziri* see adhiri. 

azizi* 1. (— ) rarity, treasure. 2. adj. 
i i __. - j / __. _ __ _ i 

azur* (— ) see * zuri. 

baa*, balaa, balia ( — ) 1. evil; disaster, 
disturbance, calamity, catastrophe, 
mvua hii imetuletea baa na balaa. This 
rain has led to a great catastrophe. 
2. pestilence, epidemic. 3. person who 
creates trouble or does damage. 

baada* prep, after, behind {usually — 
ya after). — ya miaka mingi. after 
many years. — ya kazi. after work. 
Cf. baidi. 

baadaye* ( < baada yake) adv. & conj. 
thereafter, afterwards, after, then; next. 

quantity, some. — ya watu. some of th< 
people. Wanafunzi wamegawanyika — 
mbili. The students are divided into 

two sections. 

baathi*, buathi rare set up, place upright. 

^baba (— ) 1. father, (paternal) uncle. — 
mkubwa (mdogo). uncle (older/younger 
brother of one's father). — Mtakatifu. 
Holy Father, Pope. 2. ancestor, fore- 
bear. 3. patron, protector. 4, guard, 
watchman. Cf. ubaba; also babu. 

baadhi* ( — ) part, section (of a larger 
whole or number); (small) amount/ 

^baba rare fasten/tie tightly. 




babaika, babayika 1. stutter, stammer 

(from fear). 2. talk deliriously, rave (in 
a fever, etc.). caus. babaisha. deceive, 
swindle, cheat. Cf. babaiko, ubabaiko. 

babaiko, babayiko (ma-) meaningless words, 
nonsense; confused/unintelligible expla- 
nation. Cf. babaika. 

babaisha caus. of babaika. 

babaje (-) babaje (large marine snail). 

babaka 1. prove; argue; convince. 2. fight, 

babakabwela sing, proletariat, 
babale [? 1 adv. just, then. 

babata strike lightly, tap; hammer (metal), 
intr. babatika. (- mbawa) flutter, beat 
(with the wings). 

babayika see babaika. 

babayiko (ma-) see babaiko. 

2babu* (-) kind, sort, category; character, 
quality. - kubwa (ndogo) of superior 
(inferior) quality (character). 

babua pull off, strip off, remove (skin, 
rind); clean, polish, appl. babulia. 
intr. babuka. suffer from a disfiguring 
skin disease. 

Ibadala* (-) substitute, replacement, 
representation. - ya. instead of. Cf. 

2badala* llnd. ?] Badala (name of an 
Indian sect). 

badani*. bidani (-) badani (front or back 
piece of a kanzu, q.v.). 

badhiri*, badiri 1. embezzle, misappropriate, 
defalcate; squander (money, property). 
2. adj. also badhirifu wasteful, extrava- 
gant. Cf. badhirifu, budhara, mbadhiri, 

badhirifu* adj. wasteful, extravagant. 
Cf. badhiri, ubadhirifu. 

babewatoto, babewana (-) ornith. (species 
of) owl. 

babia overfeed (someone). 

Ibabu (-, ma-) 1. grandfather. 2. ancestor, 
forbear, patriarch. Mababu wa Kanisa. 
the Fathers of the Church. 3. respectful 
term of address for an old man. Cf. 
1 baba. 

badili* 1. change, exchange. - shauri. 
change one's mind. - hewa. have a 
change of air (rest, recuperation). - 
fedha. change money. - nguo. change 
clothes. appLbadilia. intr. badilika. 
int. badilibadili. 2. (ma-) change, alter- 
ation, modification; exchange; innovation. 
Cft 1 ba dala, badilifu, badiliko, mbadi- 
lishaji, ubadilifu, ubadilishaji. 



badilifu* adj. exchangeable, interchange- 
able; changeable, inconstant; fig. un- 
stable, whimsical. Cf. badili, ubadilifu. 

badiliko*, badilisho (usually mabadiliko, 
mabadilisho) (ma-) change, alteration, 
variation, transformation (conditions, 
customs, practices). Cf. badili. 

badilisho* (ma-) see badiliko. 

^badiri* ( — ) 1. meteor, celestial phenome- 
non. 2. omen. 

badiri* see badhiri. 

bado* adv. 1. still, huyu ni mtoto — . He 

is still a child. 2. not yet (usually w. 
the negative particle -\a-). hawajafika 
— . They have not yet arrived. 

bafe (— ) poisonous snake, puff adder 
(Bitis arietans). 

bafta*, bafuta (— ) bafta (thin, bleached 
cotton cloth, used for lining clothes). 

Ibafu* [Engl.l (-) bathtub, bath. 

^bafu (ma-) see pafu. 

bafuta* (— ) see bafta. 

bagala* \_Ind. J (— ) bagala (sailing vessel 
with large stern, usually two-masted). 

bagawa use indecent/filthy language. 

baghairi*, minghairi 1. prep., conj. with- 
out, apart from, except. 2. adv. exclusive- 
ly. Cf. ghairi. 

baghala* (— ) mule. ( = nyumbu). 

baghami* 1. (— ) fool, stupid person. 
2. adj. foolish, stupid. 

bagua separate, detach; discriminate, 
i • - • i i - - • i _ .- . 

~~n lc 5 at ~> U1V1UC lip, lay asiuc, pUl. 

away. appl. bagulia. appl. -intr. bagu- 
lika. be separated/divided; in disagree- 
ment/conflict, intr. baguka. intr. -ass. 
bagukana. dispute with one another; be 
opposed to one another in hostile camps, 
be divided (into parties, factions). Cf. 

bahameli*, mahameli (— ) velvet, corduroy. 

bahari* (— ) 1. sea, ocean. — ya Sham. 

Red Sea. — ya Atlantiki. Atlantic Ocean. 

— ya Arktiki. Arctic Ocean. — ya Hindi. 
Indian Ocean. — Nyeusi. Black Sea. 

— ya Pasifiki. Pacific Ocean, safiri/ 
safari (ya) baharini. navigation. 2. fig. 
something vast or immeasurable. Cf. 
baharia, ubaharia. 

baharia* (ma-) sailor, seaman. ( = mwanamaji.) 
Cf. bahari, ubaharia. 

bahasa* adj. cheap, reasonable (in price), 
worth the money. 

bahasha* (— , ma-) 1. envelope. 2. bag, 
sack. 3. package, bundle. 




bahashika* be deceived/embarrassed/ 

bahati*, bakhti (— ) 1. luck, fortune; 

success. — ■ nasibu. lottery. — njema. 
good luck, success. — mbaya. bad luck, 
misfortune, ana bahati. He has good 
luck. He is successful, hana bahati. 
He is unlucky /unsuccessful. 2. lot, fate, 
destiny. 3. chance, accident. 4, -a — . 

bahatika, bahatisha, bahatisho. 

bahatika* be lucky/fortunate. Cf. bahati. 

bahatisha* try one's fortune, trust to luck; 
guess, speculate, hazard. Cf. bahati. 

bahatisho* (— ) 1. guesswork. 2. comm. 
adventurism. Cf. bahati, bahatisha. 

bahili* 1. {— , ma-) miser, prov. mali ya 
— huliwa na wadudu. The property of a 
miser is apt to be eaten by insects. 2. 
adj. miserly, parsimonious, stingy, 
frugal. Cf. ubahili. 

baidi* be apart/separated; be by oneself/ 
distant/remote, caus. baidisha. 
separate, segregate; avoid. Cf. baada. 

baina*, bayana (-) clarity, certainty, in- 
controvertible fact. — ya. between, 
among, in the midst of. — ya Tanga na 
Daressalam, between Tanga and Dar 
es Salaam. — ya watu. among the 
people. Cf. baini. 

amebaini. That murderer is now recognized. 
2. make clear, show. intr. bainika and 
intr.-ass. bainikana. be clear/obvious/ 
irrefutable. Cf. baina, bainifu, bayana, 
mbayana, ubainifu. 

bainifu* adj. clear, plain, apparent, 
obvious, evident, manifest, generally 
known. Cf. baini. 

haisikeli*, haiskeli lEngl.1 (-) bicycle. 

baiskeli* (— ) see baisikeli. 

bajia* llnd. J bajia (small cake made of 
flour, ground beans, and pepper). 

Bajuni, Bajun (ma-) member of the Bajuni 

tribe, native of the coast north of Mombasa. 

baka* (ma-) mark on the body, birthmark; 
scar; ringworm; marking (of animals), 
(fig.) stigma. 

bakhshishi* (-) see bakshishi. 

bakhti* (-) see bahati. 

baki* 1. remain, be left over, remain 
behind, appl. bakia. caus. bakisha, 
bakiza. 2. (ma-) remainder, residue, 
remnant; (math.) remainder (in sub- 
traction), balance. 3. n. & adj. 
neutrality, impartiality; neutral, 
impartial, mtu — . a neutral/impartial 
person (in a quarrel, etc.) siasa ya — . 
pol. (policy of) neutrality. 

baini*, bayini 1. see clearly, recognize, bakiza* caus. of baki. 

know with certainty, yule mwuaji sasa 




bakora* (-) 1. stick; walking-stick, cane. 
- ya kiaskofu. rel. crozier. 2. blow 
(with a stick). 3. fee (given by a father 
to the master who teaches his son a 

bakshishi*, bakhshishi (-) gratuity, gift, 
alms, tip, donation, bonus. 

bakua see bakwia. 

bakuli* (-) (also kibakuli, vi-) basin, 
deep dish, tureen, kibakuli cha chumvi. 

bakwia, bakua take by force, rob, plunder. 
Cf. ubakuaji. 

balaa* (— ) see baa 

balamwezi (-) see mbalamwezi. 

balanga (-) see mbalanga. 

balari* (-) (kind of) chisel. 

Halasi* (-, ma-) balasi (large jug for 
storing water). 

2 balasi* (-) see barasi. 

balbu* lEngl.] (-) (electric-light) bulb. 

bale (ma-) augment, of ubale (larger than 
2 mbale). 

baiegi* see baiehe. 

balehe*, baiegi 1. be ready for marriage, 
reach puberty. 2. bot. reach the fruit- 

bearing stage. 3. (ma-) (also mbalehe, 
wa-) girl or boy at the age of puberty, 
mtoto huyu sasa -. This girl is now at 
the age of puberty. Cf. ubalehe. 

bali* conj. but, however, on the contrary. 

2 bali* Llnd.'] (-) earring. 

balia* ( — ) see baa. 

balozi* (ma-) 1. -hist, administrator, 

political agent. 2. representative of a 
foreign country (ambassador, minister, 
consul). Cf. ubalozi. 

balungi* llnd. Pers. ?] (-) grapefruit. 
Cf. mbalungi. 

bamba (-) rare discussion; affair, 
matter; advice. (= shauri.) 

2 bamba 1. arrest, catch, detain. 2. resist, 

bamba (ma-) 1. any thin, flat object: sheet 
metal, cardboard, paper. - la chuma. 
sheet of metal. - la kobe. shell of a 
tortoise. 2. rare tin (container, for 
gasoline, etc.). Cf. 'bambo, 2 bambo, 
z mbamba, ubamba, ubambo. 

bambika dip, soak, steep (in water). 

bambo (-) 1. sampling rod (for examining 
the contents of sacks). 2. walking-stick. 
Cf. bamba. 

2bambo (ma-) strip of palm-leaf (used to 
weave baskets and mats). Cf. <* bamba. 




bambua peel/strip off. 

bamia* (ma-) bot. olcra (lady's fingers, 
fruit of the mbamia, Hibiscus esculentas). 

bamvua (ma-) spring-tide. 

bana press, squeeze, pinch, crush, intr. 
banika. be fixed (meat, fish) on a spit; 
(w. trans, force) roast (on a spit, at a 
fire), toast, cans, ban za. inv. bannas 
loosen, release pressure, separate, take 
apart. — miguu. spread the legs. Cf. 
bano, banzi, kibaniko, kibanzi, mbano. 

banada*, banaderi LPers. ? J (— ) 1. Somali 
Coast. 2. ports on the coast north of 
Mombasa. Cf. bandari. 

banaderi* (— ) see banada. 

banagiri* (— ) see bangili. 

banajili* (— ) see bangili. 

Banawasi* see Abunuwasi. 

*banda (ma-) 1. hut, shed. 2. workshop, 
factory. 3. stable. — la farasi. horse 
stable. — la motakaa. garage. — la 
gari. railway station. — la ndege. 
hangar. — la starehe. shed erected on 
plantations as a rest place for workers. 
Cf. kibanda. 

^banda (— ) flower-stem of the coconut palm. 
bandama (— ) anat. spleen. (= wengu.) 

bandari*, bendari LPers.J (— ) harbor, 
port, anchorage, roadstead, bandari ya 
mto. river port. Cf. mbandarini. 

bandera* (— ) see bendera. 

bandi (ma-) stitch (in sewing); a row of 
stitches, fanya (shona) — . stitch, sew. 

bandia* llnd., Ar. ?] (-) 1. bolt of cloth. 

2. mtotrs iv a -, drill. 

bandika 1. fit together, join, connect, 

fasten to, attach, stick on, affix, fasten/ 
glue down. — stempu. affix a stamp. — 
dawa. apply a plaster. 2. fig. attach 
oneself to someone, amejibandika kwa 
fulani. He has taken up with X. 

3. load (up). — mzigo. put on a load. 
caus. bandikisha, bandikiza. inv. 
bandua. loosen, remove, strip off (bark, 
skin). Cf. mbandiko, mbanduko. 

bandikiza caus. of .bandika. 
^bandua inv. of bandika. 

^bandua chop up (wood). 

banduru* (— ) naut. bilge, ship's well. 

bange (— ) bange (kind of fish). 

bangi* Llnd. J (— ) hemp, hashish, vuta 
— . smoke hashish. 

bangili*, banagiri, banajili Llnd. A (— ) 
(chased silver) bracelet. — za mguu. 
ankle ring. 




bango (ma-) 1. broad part of the palm-leaf bapa (ma-) 1. flat or slightly curved 

stem, 2. fender, mud-guard (bicycle, surfac?. — la mpanga. flat (side) of a 

automobile). 3. placard, sign. sword. — la kisu. blade of a knife. 

2, adj. flat, level, sura — . level sur- 

banguzi (ma-) (large) wound, sore, abscess. face. Cf. ubapa. 

baniani (ma-) see banyani. 

banika {intr. of bana.) roast, toast. Cf. 

banja crack (nuts, etc.), break, break 
open. Cf. mbanjo. 

banki* (— ) see benki. 

bano (ma-) clamp, vise, press. C f. bana. 

banua inv. of bana. 

banyani*, baniani [_Ind. J ( — ) Hindu 

(neither Moslem nor Christian); Banyan, 
(Indian) small retail tradesman, crafts- 
man (carpenter, tinsmith, barber). 

banza caus. of bana. 

banzi (ma-) 1. rod, pole; spit (for roasting 
meat). 2. peg, pin; stick of wood. 3. 
med. splint. Cf. bana. 

bao, bau (ma-) (also mbao, mi-) 1. board, 
plank. — la kuruka. diving-board, 
trampoline. 2. divining board, piga — . 
prophesy, tell fortunes. 3. bao or bao la 
mtaji. game played on a board. 4. fig., 
sport goal, score, tuliwafunga (coll. 
tuliwapiga) mabao sita. We scored six 
goals. 5. platform (at railroad stations). 
Cf. kibao, kimbaombao, ubao. 

bara* ( — ) 1. land, mainland, interior (as 
opp. to coast). 2. territory, continent. 
— ya Afrika (Ulaya). continent of Africa 
(Europe). — Arabu. Arabia. 

baraba* see barabara. 

^barabara* 1. ( — ) wide road, highway. 

kanuni za barabarani. traffic regulations. 
av. runway, landing strip. 2. coll. 

2barabara*, baraba LPers.'] adj. & adv. 
proper, right, regular, correct. 

baradhuli*, bardhuli (— , ma-) 1. ordinary 
person. 2. stupid person, fool. 3, 
rascal. 4. fop, dandy. Cf. ubaradhuli. 

barafu* LPers.J (— ) ice. mto wa ~. 

baragumu* (— , ma-) 1. horn (used as an 
instrument for giving signals, 'war- 
horn'). 2. name of a newspaper appear- 
ing in Tanganyika. 

baraji* (— ) naut. halyard. 

baraka* (-) 1. blessing, benefaction. 

2. fortune, luck, hana — . He has had bad 
luck. 3. prosperity, advantage. 4. rare 
gift. Cf. bariki, kibaraka, tabaruki. 




barakinya* \_Port. J (— ) rare, naut. brig, mildness, gentleness, maneno ya — . 

schooner. gentle words. 5. med. (intermittent) 

fever. — yabis(i). rheumatism. Cf. 
barakoa* (— ) veil, mask. buruda, burudi, kiburudishaji, kibu- 

rudisho, maburudisho, ubaridi, 
barangeni*, burangeni [Pers.] (— ) two- uburudisho. 

colored dhow. 

bariki* bless; bloom, thrive, prosper, be 
barare (— ) see parare. successful, appl. barikia. 1. bless 

someone. 2. accept a final bid, knock 
barasati* Und.j {-) muiticoiorecl woven down (at an auction), pass, barikiwa. 

fabric. De approved/ratified (by a government). 

Cf. baraka. 
barasi*, balasi ( — ) med. eruption, rash; 

leprosy. bariyo* (— ) leftover (food saved for the 

following morning). 
barawaji* Und.j (— ) barawaji (fabric with 

gold threads). barizi* 1. receive guests, give an audience; 

convene a council. 2. attend a meeting. 
baraza* (— ) 1. orig. reception room, 3. sit (together) out of doors, appl. 

entrance hall. 2. recent assembly, barizia. ass. bariziana. Cf. baraza. 

meeting; council, committee. — ya 

mawaziri. cabinet (of ministers). — la barua* (— ) 1. letter, document. — ya ndege. 

kufanya sheria. legislative assembly. airmail letter. — ya mtengenezaji. 

— la Amani la Dunia. World Peace editorial, leading article, andikiana — . 

Council. — la Usalama. Security correspond (with each other), 2. docu- 

Council. — kuu. parliament. — Kuu la ment, testimonial, certificate. — ya 

Jumuiya ya Madola. General Assembly fedha. (postal) money-order. Cf. 

of the United Nations. 3. members of kibarua. 

a council or cabinet; elders of a tribe. 

Cf. barizi. barubaru* (ma-) vigorous young man. 

Cf. beberu(?). 

barazahi* (— ) rel. paradise. (= peponi, barudi* (— ) see baruti. 


bardhuli* (— , ma-) see baradhuli. baruti*, barudi [Turk. J (— ) gunpowder. 

baridi* ^— ) 1= cold, frost; damp, vita — * bas* see basi- 

cold war. pata — . catch cold, ugonjwa 

wa — . cold, chill, ague. 2. wind, air, basbas* (— ) see basibasi. 

3. coolness, refreshment. 4. fig. 



basbasi* - basibasi. 

basha* [.Turk.'] (-) cards king 

bathdei* [Engl.] (-) birthday. 

bati (ma-) 1. tin, zinc, tia -. coat or line 

ith tin. 2. sheet-metal, galvanized 
iron > corrugated iron, nyumba ya - 
bashiri* 1. predict, announce; interpret. ( mabati) . corrugated-iron hut. fundi wa 

2. report, bring news; deliver, convey -. sheet-metal worker. 

(a report, news). - heri! I hope it is 

good news. Cf. .bashiri, ubashiri. batili* 1. revoke, declare invalid, cancel, 

annul, appl. batilia. caus. batilisha. 
1 basi*, bassi, bas conj. I. at the 2. {also batilifu) adj. invalid, worth- 

beginning of a clause: well, and then, less . ineffective; dishonest, insincere, 

so. - twende. Well, let's go. 2. alone: deceitful. Cf. mbatilifu, ubatili. 

very well, agreed, OK; stop. 

2 basi* [Engl.] (ma-) (motor)bus. 

batilifu see batili 2. 

batini* (-) rare innermost thoughts/ 

basibasi* (-) nutmeg (the spice). Cf. 
kungumanga, mkungumanga. 

batiza* [Engl.'] rel. baptize. Cf. 
bassi* see basi. mbatizaji, ubatizo. 

bastola*. pistola [Port.] (-) pistol, balH * (_) nauL < shi P's) log(-book). 


bato (ma-) 1. med. ringworm (on the head). 
basua* (-) confusion (of ideas), weakness 2 ' Sp0t ' mark (on the skin )' 

(of intellect). Cf. mbasua. 

batobato (ma-) {also kibatobato, vi-) 
bata (ma-) 1. duck. - Bukini. goose. marking(s), spot, stripe (of animals). 

- mzinga. turkey. 2. {also batabata, 

batua) walk like a duck, waddle, walk 2 batobato (ma-) open, level place- (rare) 

flatfooted. j • , 

dancing place. 

batabata see bata 2. 

batua see bata 2. 

batela*. betela [Port. ?] (-) batela bau (ma . } see bao< 

(small boat). 

bateri* (_) see betri. 

baura* [Engl, bower ?] (_) anchor (with 
two flukes). 



^avu, rabavu (ma-) strength, power; force, 
violence, coll. usiniletee — ! Don't 
force me ! 

bazazi* (ma-), mbazazi (wa-) 1. dealer, 
trader; speculator, gambler. 2. cheat, 
sharper, swindler. Cf. ubazazi. 

^bavu (ma-) augment, of ubavu. 

bavuni, ubavuni adv. along, alongside, 
sidewards, at the side; on the other 
side. Cf. ubavu. 

bawa (ma-) (augment, of ubawa) wing 
(of a bird or airplane). 

bawaba* (ma-) hinge (of a door, etc.). 
Cf. bawabu. 

bawabu* (ma-) doorkeeper, porter. — wa 
gereza. guard in a prison. Cf. bawaba, 

bawasili*, bawasiri (— ) med. hemor- 
rhoids, piles. 

bawasiri (— ) see bawasili. 

baya 1. adj. bad, evil, wicked, mtu 
mbaya. bad person, chakula kibaya. 
bad food. 2. adv. vibaya, kubaya. 
leo — nje. The weather is bad today. 
3. (ma-) see mabaya. Cf. ubaya. 

J-bayana* adj., adv. clear, plain, 

obvious; legible; well-known, famous. 
Cf. baina, baini, mbayana. 

^bayana* (— ) see baina. 
bayini* see baini. 

beba 1. carry, transport (in gen.), caus. 
bebesha. put a load on the back/head; 
(fig.) steal, swipe. 2. recent tune (a 
radio, etc.). 

bebea see pepea. 

beberu 1. {ma-) billy goat; male animal 
(especially of certain domestic vari- 
eties); (fig.) strong man. 2. adj. hard, 
strong; recent dictatorial, imperialis- 
tic, serikali ya kibeberu. dictatorial 
government. Cf. ubeberu, barubaru (?). 

bebesha caus. of beba. 

bedani*, behedani [Pers.J (— ) 1. bedani 
(sticky substance used for dressing 
women's hair). 2. seed of the bedani 

bedari see habedari. 

bedawi (ma-) see bedui. 

bedeni* (ma-) bedeni (Arab sailing vessel 
with cut-water and sharp stern). 

bedui*, bedawi (ma-) 1. bedouin, nomad. 
2. vagrant, tramp. 

bee see labeka. 

bega (ma-) shoulder (of man or animal). 
chukua begani. carry on the shoulder. 




— kwa — . shoulder to shoulder, hand in 
hand, closely (inter-)connected, in- 

begi* [.Engl. ] ( J) bag, sack. 

behedani (— ) see bedani. 

behewa* (ma-) 1. orig. inner court of Arab 
houses. 2. empty space (in gen.). 
nyumba hi i ni — . This house consists 
of a single room (i.e., is not divided up 
by partitions). 3. railroad car. — la 
abiria (bidhaa). passenger (freight) car. 
4. storage area. 

bei* (-) value, price, fanya — . set a 
price, pandisha — . push up the price, 
piga — . bargain, dicker, hati ya — . 
bill of sale, contract. 

beit* rare house. — al mal. treasury. 

beja scorn, disdain, treat with contempt. 
Cf. beza. 

beki* [.Engl. ] (ma-) sport back. 

bekua 1. keep off, divert. — mpira. 
(receive and) return a ball, lazima 
ubekue mbu. Mosquitos must be kept 
off. 2. treat with contempt. 3. take 
by force. 

belaghami*, belghami, belghamu (— ) 
1. mucus, saliva, phlegm. 2. med. 
discharge, excretion. 

beled* (-) see buldani. 

beleko (ma-) see mbeleko. 

belenga strut, show off; boast, brag. 

belewasi* (-) kind of ape. 

belghamu* (-) see belaghami. 

beluwa* [ind. , Pers. ?] (_) difficulty, 
trouble, care, worry. 

bemba 1. carry tales, meddle in someone's 
affairs. 2. flatter; wheedle, coax; flirt. 
3. annoy, pester, appl. bembea. double 
appl.-int. bembeleza. pet, caress (a 
child); (fig,) coax, persuade. Cf. bembe, 
bembejea, *mbembe, ubembelezi. 

bembe (ma-) confectionery, dessert (pre- 
sented as a gift during Ramadhan and on 
visits). Cf. bemba. 

bembea rare see pembea. 

bembejea obtain by coaxing; curry favor, 
ingratiate oneself. Cf. bemba. 

bendari* (-) see bandari. 

bendera*, bandera [Port.1 (-) flag, 

banner, tweka -. hoist the flag, bendera 
hufuata upepo. The flag flutters in the 
wind. fig. yeye ni - hufuata upepo. He 
turns like a flag in the wind (= he is 
fickle /unreliable). 

bendi*, beni [Engl. J (-) (jazz-)band, 



beneti* [£ragL ] (-) bayonet. (= singe.) 

bengi* (— ) see benki. 

beni* (— ) see bendi. 

benibeni* sideways, edgeways; askew, 
wrong, amiss. 

benki*, banki. bengi [Engl. J (— ) 

(savings-) bank. — ya shirika. coopera- 
tive bank. — ya akiba kwa njia ya 
posta. postal savings bank. — ya 
ugawaji. bank of issue. 

benua, binua stick out, protrude, put 
forward. — kifua. throw out one's 
chest, swagger, appl. benulia. caus. 
benusha. Cf. mbenuko, mbinu. 

benusha caus. of benua. 

bepari* &nd. ] (ma-) rare (dishonest) 
merchant; hoarder, monopolist. Cf. 
kibepari, ubepari. 

bera despise, scorn, disdain; treat dis- 
dainfully, contemptuously. 

beramu* [Port.] (-) flag. ( = bendera.) 

berenge* (ma-) rare, railway car. Cf. 

beresati* [lnd.1 (-) beresati (kind of 

bereu* [Port.] (-, ma-) 1. orig. 

mixture of oil and lime for caulking 
boats. 2. mod. tar, asphalt, pitch. 

beseni* [Engl. J (-) basin, dish. 

besera* [/reef.] (-) besera (frame for 

bet* (— ) see beti. 

betabeta twist, wind, meander (of a road or 
river); turn, rotate. 

betela* (-) see batela. 

beteri* (-) see betri. 

Ibeti*, bet (-) rare house. Cf. ubeti. 

2beti* pi. of ubeti. 

3beti* [.Engl, belt ?] (ma-) (cartridge) 

betri*, beteri [.Engl.] (-) elec. battery. 

beua scorn, disdain, despise; disregard, 
slight; detest, abhor; displease, offend. 
appl. beulia. caus. beusha. 

beusha caus. of beua. 

beza think little of, scorn, despise; disre- 
gard, slight, neglect. Cf. bezo, mbezi. 

bezo (ma-) scorn, contempt (usually of words 
or admonitions). Cf. beza. 

p-cp. uy, 
Cf. bila, bilashi, binafsi, bismillahi. 

2bi see bibi. 



*bia (ma-) clay vessel, basin. 

^bia* (— ) cooperation, partnership; 

business company, changa — . assume 
an equal share of expenses, hili ni 
duka letu la — . This is our joint 

3bia* lEngl.l (-) beer. 

biabia be industrious, diligent; like to do 

biashara* (— ) business, trade, commerce; 
business company, concern, fanya — . 
engage in trade, carry on business, 
mali ya — . merchandise, tangaza — . 
advertise. — ya nje. foreign trade. — 
ya nchi(ni). domestic trade. 

bibi*, bi LPers.J (ma-) 1. madam, miss 
(term of polite address); lady, mistress 
(of a household). — mkubwa. madam 
(showing a higher degree of respect 
than bibi alone). — harusi, bride. 
2. grandmother. Cf. kibibi. 

bibidia show contempt (by protruding the 
lower lip). 

biblia* [Port.] (-) Bible. Cf. agano. 

bibo* [Port. J (— ) bibo (cashew fruit). 
Cf. mbibo. 

bichboi* [Engl.] ( — ) beach boy (who 
assists passengers in the harbor). 

bichi (dial, biti) adj. 1. unripe, raw, 
fresh. 2. young, immature. 3. damp, 
moist (earth). Cf. ubichi, 

bidaa* (— ) see bidhaa. 

bidani* (— ) see badani. 

bidhaa*, bidaa (— ) goods, merchandise. 

bidhalik(a)* see kadhalika. 

bidi* strain, exert pressure; obligate, 

compel, force (always used impersonally). 
inabidi. It is necessary. It must be. 
imembidi kwenda. He had to go. appl. 
bidia. caus. & intr. bidisha. refl. 
jibidisha. exert oneself, make a special 
effort. Cf. bidii. 

bid i i* (— ) exertion, effort; diligence, 
industry; energy, activity, alacrity, 
fanya — . exert oneself, display energy, 
kwa — . diligent, energetic, industrious. 

Cf. bidi. 

bighairi* ya..., baghairi ya... without, 
except, apart from. Cf. ghairi. 

bihi* 1. forego, renounce, abdicate; 

revoke, repudiate, withdraw. 2. forgive 
(a debt, etc.). 

bikari* (— ) compass (for drawing circles). 

bikira* (ma-) 1. virgin, virginity. 2. some- 
thing untouche 
biki ri, u bikira. 




bikiri* deflower, pass, bikiriwa. Cf. 

bila* prep, without. — ruhusa (udhuru). 
without permission (excuse). — idadi. 
without number, numberless. — kusita. 
constantly. Cf. bilashi. 

biladia* (— ) (anything relating to a) town. 

bilahi*, billahi! inter j. by Allah! 

bilashi*, bileshi adv. in vain, for 

nothing, gratuitously, alimpiga — . He 
struck him without reason. Cf. bila. 

bilau* (-) [Pers.] pilau (rice boiled 
with meat).. Cf. pilau. 

bilauli* (-) see bilauri. 

bilauri*, bilauli (-) glass, crystal; 

bildi* (-) 1. naut. (sounding) lead, tia 
(piga) — . take soundings. 2. -weight 
(of a clock). 

bileshi* see bilashi. 

bilimbi*, birimbi {.Port.'] (-) bilimbi 
(fruit of the cucumber tree). Cf. 

bilingani*, biringani, biringanya (— , ma-) 
(fruit of the) eggplant. Cf. mbilingani. 

bilioni* [Engl.1 (ma-) billion. 

bilisi* 1. tempt, entice; stir up, incite. 
2. (— ) temptation, enticement, coll. 
ana — ya mpira. He is a fanatical foot- 
ball fan. 3. (— ) see ibilisi. 

Ibiliwili (— ) biliwili (kind of fish). 
2 biliwili (-) hot. thistle. 
billahi* see bilahi. 

bilula*, bulule [.At. ?] (-, ma-) (water-) 
faucet, tap. 

bima* [ind. ] (-) 1. insurance. — ya 

maisha. life-insurance. — ya kitaifa ya 
afya. national health insurance, mwenye 
kupiga — . insurance agent. 2. lottery, 
raffle, fanya — . organize a lottery. 
cheza — . hold a lottery, take a chance 
in a lottery. 

bimbashi* [Turk.l (-) mil. bimbashi (rank 
of noncommissioned officer). 

bimbiriza flame up, flare up. ass. bimbiri- 
zana. quarrel with each other, provoke/ 
exasperate each other. 

bimbirizana ass. of bimbiriza. 

bin* (— ) son (only in proper names). 
bin Zaid. Son of Zaid. Cf. binadamu, 
binamu, ^ubini. 

binadamu* (-) (bin + adamu) human being, 
man; fellow. Cf. kibinadamu, ubinadamu. 




binafsi* Lbi + nafsij 1. adv. personally, 
by myself, etc. Mimi nimefika hapa kwa 
matembezi yangu binafsi. I have come 
here on my own personal business. 
2. n. personality ( = ubinafsi). 

binamu* [bin + "^amu] (— ) cousin. 

Hinda* [ind. ] (ma-) hot. okra, lady's- 

finjrer (Hibiscus caculr.nt.iis ', 

^binda* [Engl. J bind, hem, enclose. 

bindo (ma-) see kibindo. 

bingiria roll (a stone, etc.) intr, bingi- 
rika. caus. bingirisha. 

bingwa 1. (ma-) capable/competent 
person (worker); specialist, expert. 
2. adj. capable, competent. Cf. ubingwa. 

bini* 1. forge, hammer. 2. forge, counter- 
feit, fake. Cf. mbini, ^ubini. 

binti* (ma-) 1. daughter (only in proper 
names. — Ali. Daughter of Ali. 
2. forming names of certain birds and 
plants. — Athmani/Ali. (varieties of) 
cassava. — Chuma. Kersten's weaver 
finch ( = kinanda). 

binua see benua. 

binya pinch, nip, tweak. 

binzari* (— ) spice, {us. -) curry powder. 

biri* Llnd. J (— ) tobacco leaf (rolled up 
for smoking). 

biriani (-) see birinzi. 

Birigiji* \_Fr. Belgique] 1. adj. Belgian. 
Kongo — . Belgian Congo. 2. sing. 
birigiji (a kind of cloth of a light 
brownish yellow color). 

birika* (ma-) 1. (metal) vessel for water. 
2. kettle. 3. tank, cistern. 

birimbi* [Port.l (-) see bilimbi. 

biringa see viringa. 

biringani*, biringanya (— , ma-) see 

birinzi*, biriani [Pers.[\ (— ) birinzi 
(highly spiced dish of meat and rice). 

bisari (— ) bisari (annual edible plant). 

bisbis* (-) see bisibisi. 

bisha 1. knock, rap (on a door). — mlango 
(hodi). ask admittance. 2. resist, 
oppose; quarrel. 3. joke, jest. 4. naut. 
tack. ass. bishana. argue, dispute, 
quarrel (with each other); tease (each 
other). Cf. bishi, bisho, mabishano, 
*mbishi, ubishi. 

bishaushi* [.Turk. ?] (ma-) sergeant. 

bishi adj. 1. quarrelsome; nagging, 
grumbling, fault-finding; obstinate. 
2. humorous, fun-loving. Cf. bisha. 

bisho (-) 1. blow, knock (on the door). 
2. naut. tacking, upepo ya — . head 
wind. Cf. bisha. 




bisi* [? ] (— ), mbisi (mi-) roasted/ 
parched corn, maize; popcorn. 

bisibisi*, bisbis [ind. ?1 (-) screw- 
driver, wrench. 

biskiti* (— ) see biskuti. 

biskuti*, biskiti [Engl. J (-) biscuit, 

bismillahi!* inter], in the name of Allah! 
Cf. simile. 

bitana* (— ) thin fabric, lining (of cloth- 

bitarehe see tarehe. 

biti see bichi. 

bivu adj. ripe (of fruits); cooked, well 
done. Cf. iva, ubivu. 

biwi (ma-) heap, pile (of weeds, leaves, 

bizari* (-) 1. seed, grain (of pepper, 

coriander, etc.). 2. (pi.) curry powder. 

bizi* [Engl.'] adj. busy. 

bizimu* (-) 1. buckle. 2. brooch, clasp, 
fastener. ( = kifungo.) 

blangeti* see blanketi. 

blanketi*, blangeti, bulangeti [.Engl. J 
(ma-) blanket. 

bluu* see buluu. 

boba rare bind, tie. 

bobari* (— ) chisel, gouge , ( = ngabu.) 

bobo* (— ) see popoo. 

boboka talk indiscreetly, blabber, let the 
cat out ol the bag. 

Ibodi* [.Engl. J (— ) body (of an automo- 

^bodi* [Engl. J (— ) board. — ya taifa. 
national board. 

bodoa obs. see jibodoa. 

bofu (ma-) {augment, of kibofu) 1. anat. 
bladder. 2. fig. balloon. 

bofulo* [.Port. ?J sing. (European type 
of) bread. 

bofya caus. of bopa. 

boga (ma-) pumpkin, gourd. Cf. mboga. 

bohara* (ma-) see bohora. 

bohari*, bokhari (— , ma-) 1. storehouse, 
warehouse; large store, department store. 
2. rare chronicle, annals. 

bohora*, bohara Und.j (ma-) member of the 
Bohora (sect of Indian Moslems). 

boi* [.Engl. ] (ma-) boy, house-servant, 




boji* (— ) 1. intoxicating beverage, new 
beer. 2. oatmeal porridge. 

bokhari* (— ) see bohari. 

boko (ma-) augment, of kiboko. 

bokoa 1. penetrate forcibly; decompose, 
disintegrate; break in, invade. 2. have 
a good harvest. 

bokoboko ( — ) something soft/gelatinous: 

1. a kind of meat pie. 2. a variety of 
banana. 3. a kind of sugarcane. 

bokoka fall off, come loose, come off 
(button, etc.); be separated/detached. 

boma* LPers. J (ma-) 1. pile of earth/ 
stones; mound, wall; palisade, en- 
closure. 2. fort, fortress, fanya (tia) 
— . fortify, enclose, fence in. 3. (govern- 
ment) administrative office. 4. rare 
framework {of a house). 5. stable {for 
cattle). 6. fig.: — kubwa. mainstay. 

bomba* [Port. J (— , ma-) 1. (water) pump. 

2. (large) pipe. — la mafuta. petroleum 
pipeline, mabomba. piping. 3. (water) 
tap, faucet. 4. chimney, smokestack, 
stack (of a ship). 5. med. syringe, 
hypodermic needle. 

bombo* sing. 1.: suruali — . short, baggy 
trousers. 2. see bom bom 2. 

bombom*. bombomu [Engl. J (— ) 1.. 'bomb, 
shell, (mzinga wa) — . machine gun. 
2. {also bombo) (homa ya) — . dial., med. 
influenza, grippe, pneumonia. 

bombwe (ma-) 1. carving, sculpture, 
ornament. 2. pattern, model, kata 
mabombwe. carve figures/ornaments. 

bomoa break down, tear down, demolish; 
break through, pierce. — ukuta. tear 
down/pierce a wall. appl. bomolea. 
intr. bomoka. caus. bomosha. Cf. 
bomoko, mbomoshi. 

bomoko (ma-) (us. pi.) I. (act of) destroy- 
ing/demolishing, destruction. 2. col- 
lapse, landslide. 3. ruins. Cf. bomoa. 

bomolea appl. of bomoa. 

Ibomu (ma-) 1. id. a loud noise (shot, 
drum). 2. rare a kind of dance. 

2bomu*, bom [Engl. J (ma-) bomb. — la 
atomiki. atom bomb. — la kutoa moslii. 


bonas* [Engl. } {—) bonus, premium, 
prize, dividend. 

bonde (ma-) valley, hollow, low ground. 
— la mto. river bed. 

bonge (ma-) 1. clod (of earth); ball (of 
yarn). 2. pharm. {us. kibonge) tablet. 

bongo (ma-) coll. brain, hana — . He is 
stupid. Cf. ubongo. 

bong'oa 1. bend down, stoop, bow. 2. fig. 
show one's respect for someone. 

bonyea be soft/yielding, yield to pressure, 
give way. caus. bonyeza, bonyesha. 




squeeze out (also fig., of examinations , 
etc.: 'put through the wringer'). 

bonyeza caus. of bonyea. 

boosa rare be lame. 

bopa 1. be soft to the touch, feel soft 
(fruit,, sores), ndizi zikibopa zimeiva. 
When the bananas feel soft they are 
ripe. 2. sink in, become hollow, caus. 
bofya. Cf. bopo. 

bopo (ma-) hole, pit, groove, furrow; dent, 
depression. Cf. bopa. 

bora* adj. excellent, first-class; best. 
— afya. The best thing is good health. 
Cf. ubora. 

^bori* CPers.J (— ) 1. bowl of a pipe. 
2. dial, (ma-) fruit of the mkunazi tree. 

^bori* (— ) see buri. 

boriti* {.Port. ?] (-, ma-) 1. (mangrove) 
post. 2. (in gen.), post, beam, girder. 

borohoa* LPers.l (-) native dish of 
cooked beans. 

boromoka intr. of poromoa. 

boronga 1. botch, bungle, do sloppy work. 
2. confuse, throw into disorder. Cf. 

borongo (ma-) disorder, confusion, 
muddle, mess. Cf. boronga. 

bovu adj. 1. bad, spoiled, decayed, un- 
wholesome. 2. fig. unhealthy; worthless, 
unreliable, mtu mbovu. unreliable person. 
Cf. ubovu. 

boya* LPort.J (ma-) naut. buoy. 

boza* LPers.j (— ) 1. intoxicating beverage, 
beer. 2. narcotic. 

bozi* 1. (ma-) fool, idiot, useless person. 
2. red.: bozibozi adj. stupid, useless. 
Cf. ubozi. 

bozibozi see bozi 2. 

bradha* LEngl.J, bruda* {.Germ. A (wa-) 
rel. brother. 

brashi*, burashi LEngl.l (— ) brush, piga 
— . to brush. 

breki* {Engl. J (— ) brake (of automobile, 
etc.). tia (piga) — . put on the brake. 

bruda* [.Germ. J (wa-) see bradha. 

bua (ma-) hot, stem, stalk (millet, maize, 

buabua cut/hew/slice (a little off the top 
of something). 

buana (— , ma-) see bwana. 

buathi see baathi. 

buba (ma-) med. frambesia, yaws. 




Ibubu, bubwi 1. (ma-) mute person. 
2. adj. dumb, mute. Cf. ububu. 

^bubu (ma-) anat. nipple. 

bubujika, buguika 1. gush/stream out, 
foam up, burst out. maji yanabubujika. 
The water gushes out. — maneno. 
burst out with a flood of words. 2. 
burst, explode. Cf. bubujiko. 

bubujiko (ma-) spring (of water). Cf. 

buburusha 1. scrape, scratch, paw (of 
animals). 2. push, shove, ass. 
buburushana. watu walibuburushana. 
The people were pushing and shoving 
(each other). 

bubuta rare strike, hit. Cf. buta. 

bubwi (ma-) see bubu. 

buchari* Und. J (— ) (large) knife. 

budaa become lumpy (soup, etc.). 

buddi (— ) see budi. 

budhara* (— ) extravagance. Cf. badhiri. 

budi*, buddi, abudi ( — ) way out, loophole, 
evasion, alternative, usually in neg. 
expressions: hapana — . There is no 
alternative. One must... 

bueta (ma-) see bweta. 

bufuu, bupu, bupura, bupuru (ma-) empty 
shell/husk. — la kichwa. skull. 

buga 1. hunt for, gather, collect, glean. 
2. sponge, cadge. 

buge (ma-) person or animal missing a 
finger or toe. 

bughudha* (-) 1. aversion, dislike, repug- 
nance, abhorrence, hatred, hostility. 
2. slander, calumny. Cf. bughudhi. 

bughudhi*, bughudhu hate, abhor; insult, 
slander. Cf. bughudha. 

bughudhu* see bughudhi. 

bugia, bwakia, bwia bite off, put into the 
month. Cf. mbuge, ubuge. 

bugu (ma-) flexible twig/wand (used for 
weaving baskets). 

buguika see bubujika. 

buheri*: — wa afya. recovery (of health, 
after an illness). Cf. heri. 

buhumu* (ma-) anat. lung. (= pafu, pumu.) 

buhuri* (— ) 1. incense; fumigation. 
2. steam bath (for invalids). 

bui (— ) 1- large spider, tarantula. 2. mchezi 
wa — . children's game (a kind of hide-andi 
seek). Cf. buibui. 




buibui (— , ma-) 1. spider, utando wa — . 
spider's web, cobweb. 2. buibui (a 
black veil for women). Cf. bui. 

bujua press out, squeeze out. 

buka (— ) rare care, worry, grief. 

^Buki, Bukini Madagascar, komba wa — . 
lemur. Cf. Mbuki. 

^buki (ma-) kidney. (- nso, figo.) 
Bukini see *Buki. 

Ibuku (ma-) large rat (Cricetomys 

^buku [.Engl. J rare (large) book. 
(= kitabu.) 

bukua uncover, discover, reveal (secret, 
scandal), appl. bukulia. intr. bukuka. 
Cf. mbukulia, ubukuzi. 

bulangeti* (ma-) see blanketi. 

buldani*, beled (-) district (of a city). 

buli* LPort.l (ma-) teapot. 

bulibuli* (— ): kofia ya — embroidered 
white cap. 

bulula (— , ma-) see bilula. 

buluu*, biuu, kibuluu L.Engt.. _i j.. adj. 
blue. 2. sing, bluing, bleach. 

bumani* (— ) building, structure. 

bumba, pumba (ma-) 1. lump, heap. — la 
nyuki. swarm of bees. 2. package, pack, 
— la sigara. pack of cigarettes. 

bumbi (— ) bot. kind of salad herb, cress 
(Barbarea vulgaris). 

bumbuasa adj. lumpy. 

bumbuaza 1. confuse/perplex someone, 
cause someone discomfort. 2. startle, 
frighten, astonish. 3. drive a person into 
a corner; disconcert, embarrass. Cf. 

bumbuazi (— , ma-) confusion, consterna- 
tion, dismay, embarrassment, perplexity. 
shikwa na — . be perplexed/dismayed. 
Cf. bumbuaza. 

bumbura* \_lnd. J (— ) edible sea-fish; 
dried fish. 

bumburuka be startled, be scared away; 
run away, bolt. caus. bumburusha. 
start up, scare away (birds). 

bumbwi (— ) see bwimbwi. 

bumia* [.Pers. ? J (— ) naut. sternpost (of 
a native boat). 

bumunda (ma-) bumunda (dumplings made 
of flour and bananas). 

bunda* \_Engl.1 (ma-) 1. bundle, package. 
— la tumbaku (ehai). a package of tobacco 
(tea). — la noti. a bundle of banknotes. 
2. bale. 3. knot. 



bunde ( — ) empty coconut. 

bundi (— , ma-) ornith. (species of) owl. 

bunduki* ( — ) gun, rifle, piga — . shoot. 
elekeza — . aim. — ya marisaa. shotgun. 

— ya midomo miwili. double-barreled 
gun. — ya kupigia vifaru. antitank gun. 

— ya mtombo. machine gun. — ya nusu 
mtombo. su hmarhinp pun. 

z buni* 1. construct, put together, arrange; 
write (fiction). — kitabu. write a book. 
2. invent; fabricate, start false rumors. 
— maneno. fabricate statements, appl. 
bunia. Cf. ^mbuni. 

bunju (— ) round, inedible fish. prov. 

mimi — , akili yangu kichwani. I am like 
a bunju, I am clever. ( = I overcome all 

bunga adj.: mtu — . feeble-minded/foolish/ 
silly person. 

Bungala* geogr. Bengal, mpunga (muhogo) 

wa — . Bengal rice, manioc. 

bunge sing, parliament. Cf. mbunge. 

*bungo (— ) bungo (small dish). 

^bungo (ma-) bot. bungo (fruit of the 
rubber liana). 

bungu (— ) 1. a stinging insect which bores 
holes in wood. 2. kind of caterpillar. 
Cf. bungua. 

bungua bore (of insects which bore holes 
in wood), intr. bunguka. be eaten away 
by insects (wood, grain). Cf. bungu. 

bunguu (ma-) large earthenware cooking- 

lbur.i* (-) coffee-bean, coffee. Cf. 

bunta* [.Engl.] (— ) pontoon, landing- 
stage, pier. 

*bunzi (ma-) large stinging fly, 

^bunzi (ma-) see gunzi. 

bupu (ma-) see bufuu. 

bupura, bupuru (ma-) see bufuu. 

^buraa* (— ) buraa (Arab garment). 

^buraa* (— ) forgiveness, exemption. Cf. 

buraha* (— ) rest, comfort. Cf. burahi. 

burahi* rest, make oneself comfortable, 
take it easy. Cf. buraha. 

burai* forgive, remit (debts); release, 
absolve (from obligations); vindicate, 
exculpate, acquit, appl. buraia. Cf. 

buraia appl. of burai. 




burangeni* (-) see barangeni. 

burashi* (— ) see brashi. 

burda* (— ) see buruda. 

bure* adv. 1. for nothing, free of charge, 
gratis. 2. uselessly, without purpose, 
fruitlessly, in vain, fanya kazi — , do 
work to no purpose. 3. without cause/ 
reason, tukana — . scold/swear without 
reason. 4. rashly, frivolously, sema 
maneno ya — . make rash statements. 
Cf. ubure. 

buri*, bori (— ) buri (medium-sized 
elephant tusk). 

buriani* (— ) leave-taking, farewell (only 
before a journey of some length), peana 
— . take leave, say farewell, agana — . 
exchange farewells. 

buru (ma-) rare calabash (used for churn- 
ing butter). 

buruda*, burda, burudai (— ) Isl. prayer 
(in distress, illness, etc.). Cf. baridi, 

burudai* (— ) see buruda. 

burudi* be cool/cold, usually intr.: buru- 
dika. fig. be soothed, appeased, paci- 
fied, caus. burudisha (also tabaradi, 
tabaridi, tabarudu). cool, refresh; calm, 
sooth, appease, Cf. baridi, maburudisho. 

buruga 1. stir up, mix (foods). 2. turn up 
the ground (hoe, weed, etc., preparatory 

to planting). 3. fig. confuse, complicate 
(affairs), ass. -caus. buruganya. mix 
together. Cf. mburugo; also vuruga. 

buruganya ass. -caus. of buruga. 

buruhani* (— ) 1. test, evidence, proof. 
2. power of efficacious prayer. 

Ihuruii* (— ) arch-, battlement. 

2 buruji* [Engl. ?.] (-) bugle. 

buruma* (— ) water-pipe, hookah. ( = kikororo.) 

burunga make balls of earth/clay. 

burura, buruta 1. pull, haul, drag. 2. fan 
(a fire), mama anaburuta moto. Mother 
is fanning the fire. (- pepea). Cf. 
kiburuta, maburuzo, mburuzo. 

buruta see burura. 

busa* (— ) busa (Arab beer, made of barley 
and millet). 

busara* {rare tabasuri) (— ) 1. sense, 
prudence, sagacity, foresight, astute- 
ness, skill, adroitness, tumia — . act 
shrewdly, astutely, leta — . display 
sagacity. 2. intention, plan. 3. trick, 

busati* (— , ma-) (kind of) mat (used chief- 
ly in mosques). 

busha*, fusha ( — ) 1. mil. wad, swab. 
2. med. elephantiasis of the scrotum. 




bushashi* (— ) bushashi (thin cotton fabric buyuka burst, explode; open up (of an 
similar to muslin). ( = shashi.) ulcer). 

bushti* (— , ma-) see bushuti. buza* (— ) intoxicating beverage (made 

with honey). 
bushuti*, bushti (— , ma-) bushuti (Arab 

cloak). bwabwaja, bwata id. talk confusedly/ 

bustani* LPers.J (— ) (flower) garden (us. 

a small plot in the back yard, for raising bwaga 1. throw off/down. 2. -fig. free one- 

flowers or vegetables). 

busu* LAr., Pers.l 1. (-) kiss. 2. to 
kiss. appl. busia. appl.-ass, busiana. 
busiana mikono. kiss each other's 

busuri* take care, be careful; worry. 

buta, puta rare strike, hit. Cf. bubuta. 

butaa* (— ) surprise, amazement. 

butu 1. {ma-) stump, stub. 2. adj. dull, 
obtuse, kisu — . a dull knife, pembetatu 
— . an obtuse-angled triangle, fig. dull- 
witted, feeble-minded. Cf. butua, kibu- 
butu, ubutu. 

butua 1. cut off, knock off (the end of 
something), dull. 2. fig. amputate. 
Cf. butu. 

*buu! inter j. Be quiet! 

^buu (ma-) zool. grub, maggot, larva. 

buyu (ma-) 1. bot. buyu (fruit of the 
baobab). 2. calabash (made from the 
shell of the fruit). Cf. mbuyu, ubuyu. 

self of something. — moyo. free the 
heart, be comforted. 3. fig., sport.: 
Wanderers iliwabwaga Brazil kwa mabao 
matatu. The Wanderers defeated (the) 
Brazil (team) by three goals. Cf. mbwago. 

bwakia 1. put/toss into the mouth (e.g., 
nuts, tobacco). 2. see bugia, bwia. 

bvvakua tear away, take away by force; 
fig. snatch. 

bwana, buana (— , ma-) 1. sir, Mr. (term of 
address), bwana mkubwa. sir (showing 
a higher degree of respect than bwana 
alone, but sometimes humorous or con- 
temptuous, especially when used of 
women). 2. owner, proprietor. — shamba. 
landlord; supervisor of a shamba; (some- 
times used in a derogatory way to refer 
to the former) colonial landowners. 
3. arch. — arusi. bridegroom. 4.: — 
shauri. administrative officer (Tangan- 
yika). 5. rel. Lord. Cf. kibwana, ubwana. 

bwata see bwabwaja. 

bwawa (ma-) swamp, fen, bog, quagmire. 

bweha, mbweha (— ) jackal. 




bweka bark (of dogs), appl. bwekea. 
bark at. Cf. mbweko. 

bwende (ma-) bwende (garment worn by 
those working in the fields). 

bweni (— ) 1. sleeping quarters of un- 
married young men or girls. 2. sport 
junior team. 3. boarding-school pupil. 

bwenzi (— ) tuft of hair (left on top of the 
shaven head). 

bvveshu (ma-) unpleasant, ill-disposed 

bvveta*, bueta L Port. J (ma-) small box, 

bwimbwi, bumbwi (— , ma-) bwimbwi (rice- 
flour mixed with sugar and coconut milk; 
eaten uncooked). 


T:ha conn. ki-/ch- class: kitabu — 
mwanafunzi. the pupil's book. 

^cha fear, be afraid of; tremble, appl. 
chea. double appl. chelea. intr. 
cheka. caus. chesha. ass. chana. 
Cf, kicho, macheleo, mcha, mchea, 
mchelea, uchaji. 

''cha dawn, become light, kunakucha. It 
is growing light. Day is breaking. 
appl. chea. double appl. chelea. 
double appl. -caus. cheleza. cause to 
remain (all night, for a long time), de- 
lay, pass, chewa. be surprised/over- 
taken by sunrise, caus. chesha. re- 
main until morning, tumechesha tukii- 
mbi. We sang the whole night through. 
appl.-pass. chelewa. oversleep, be 

late. appl. -pass. -caus. chelewesha. 
let someone wait. Cf. ^chelezo, ki- 
chea, *kucha, macheo, uchao, uchea- 
chea, uchelewaji. 

^cha see ja. 

^chaa (— ) chaa (edible sea-fish). 

^chaa (— ) group of people who cultivate 
land in common. 

"'chaa (— ) dial, cattle-pen. 

chacha ( — ) chacha (kind of grass which 
grows in damp places), 

^chacha be stormy (of the sea). 




^chacha turn sour, ferment, foam; (fig.) 
be angry, caus. chachisha. make sour; 
(fig.) challenge, provoke someone, 
inv. chachua. allow something to 
ferment, inv. -intr. chachuka. = chacha. 
Cf, chachu, uchachu. 

chachachika be pounded/crushed. 

chachaga wash (clothes). 

chachaniza see chachawiza. 

chachari (ma-) {usually machachari) 

1. unrest, excitement, restlessness. 

2. stubbornness, obstinacy. 3. diffi- 

chacharika, chachatika 1. tingle, sizzle. 
2. insist strongly, persist. 3. gesticu- 
late. 4. run quickly back and forth. 
appl. chacharikia. 

chachatika see chacharika. 

chachawa 1. jump, leap; be delighted, 
enjoy oneself. 2. emulate someone, 
make a strong effort. 

chachawi ( — ) confused speech. 

chachawiza {rare chachaniza) interrupt/ 
disturb someone (with noises). Cf. 

chachawizo (ma-) 1. noise. 2. inter- 

chache adj. 1, little, few; insufficient, 
incomplete; unimportant. 2. distant, 
remote. 3. rare, scarce. Cf. uchache. 

chachi* (— ) see shashi. 

chachia 1. be difficult, complicated; be 
too much. 2. confuse, involve in dif- 
ficulties, pass, chachiwa. 

chachiii (ma-) ignorant person; timid person. 

chachu (— ) leaven, yeast, -a — , sour. 
Cf. chacha. 

chachua inv. of '^chacha. 

^chachuka surge, roll, heave (of the sea). 

"^chachuka inv. -intr. of chacha. 
ehadi* see jadi, ^jadi, jadi. 

*chal'i, tasi (— ) chafi (kind of fish). 

^-chafi (— ) chafi (kind of insect). 

chafia see chafya. 

*chafu adj. 1. dirty, unclean. 2. fig. 
indecent, obscene. Cf. chafua, 

^chafu (— ) chafu (basket, pannier). 

•^chafu (ma-) see shavu. 





chafua 1. soil, pollute; spoil; (fig.) dis- 
turb, disarrange; ruin, destroy. 
2. smoke, blacken. 3. be disorderly, 
messy. 4. surge, be rough (of the 
sea), appl. chafulia. intr. chafuka. 
bahari ilichafuka saga. The sea was 
very rough, caus. chafusha. Cf. 
chafu, chafuko, machafuko, mchafuko, 
mchafuzi, uchafuko, uchafuzi. 

chafuka intr. of chafua. 

chafuko (ma-), mchafuko (mi-) 1. unrest, 
disorder, movement; crisis. — wa 
kilimwengu. international crisis. 
2. naut. wave, surge, surf. Cf. 

chafulia appl. of chafua. 

chafuo (-) tsetse fly (= mbungo.) 

chafusha caus. of chafua. 

chafya, chafia sing, sneezing, piga 
(enda) — . to sneeze. 

1 chaga 1. be excited/startled. 2. begin 
something (work). 3. emulate (some- 
one). 4. be prevalent (disease, etc.). 
caus. & int. chagiza. annoy, pester, 
be insistent; press one's point; be 

^chaga pi. of uchaga. 

chagernati* Llnd.'] chagernati (bleached 
cotton cloth). 

chagina 1. (— ) brave, courageous person; 
bold, daring, impudent person. 2. adj. 
brave; bold, audacious, impudent. 

chagiza caus. of chaga. 

Ichago (-, ma-) (also mchago, uchago) 
head end of a bedstead, 

^chago ( — ) land-crab. 

chagua 1. seek out, select, choose. 

- kwa kura. 2. pol. elect. 3. distort, 
deform; be unjust/unfair/prejudiced. 
appl. chagulia. caus. chaguza. 
Cf. chaguzi, mchagua, mchaguo, 
mchaguzi, uchaguzi. 

chagulia appl. of chagua. 

chaguza caus. of chagua. 

chaguzi adj. fastidious, critical. 
Cf. chagua. 

chai* LChin.-Ar.l (-) tea (the bever- 
age). Cf. mchai. 

chaji* lEng.l (-) charges, expenditure, 

Ichaka (ma-) 1. hot season (December to 
February). 2. heat, blazing sun. 

^chaka (ma-) thicket, bushes, under- 
growth; clump of trees. 



chakaa grow old, be worn out/used up/ 
exhausted; use up, wear out. appl. 
chakalia. caus. chakaza. use up, 
spend, consume. Cf. chakavu. 

chakaazi (— ) hot. a succulent tree 
(Euphorbia tirucalle). 

chakacha 1. rustle (of grass, when one 
walks through it), crackle, murmur. 
— menoni. gnash the teeth. 2. crush, 
grind. Cf. chakarisha, mchakacho, 

chakari 1. adv. much, very, to a high 
degree. 2. fig., coll. be drunk. 
alikuwa — . He was drunk. 

chakarisha, charakisha frighten, startle, 
start (game); make a rustling sound 
(in dry grass). Cf. chakacha. 

chakavu, chakafu adj. old, worn-out, 
shabby, ragged. Cf. chakaa. 

chakaza caus. of chakaa. 

chake see -ake. 

chakeleti* (— ) see chokoleti. 

chaki* [ Engl. J (— ) see choki. 

chakleti* (— ) see chokoleti. 

chako see -ako. 

chakogea (vyakogea) see chakugea. 

chakua 1. stir (foods). 2. chew. 

3. clean the teeth. 4.: — matakataka. 
(of fowl) peck, pick up (grains). 

chakubimbi (vi-) liar, slanderer. 

chakugea, chakogea (yyakugea) bathtub. 
(<cha kogea; cf. oga.) 

chakula (vyakula) food, nourishment, 
victuals; something edible. — cha 
asubuhi (mchana, jioni). breakfast 
(lunch, dinner), vyakula vikavu. 
food (as opp. to drink). ( <cha kula; 
cf. Ma.) 

chakura 1. scrape, scratch, paw (of 
horses). 2. fig. search carefully, 
spy. Cf. mchakuro. 

chakuzidishwa (vy-) math., multiplicand. 
( < cha kuzidishwa; cf. zidi.) 

^chale (— , ma-) cut, scratch; tattooing 
(tribal marks), chanja — . tattoo. 
Cf. uchale. 

chale: — cha pwani. sea-urchin. 

^chale (— ) chale (kind of fish). 

chali, chani, tani adv., arch, backwards, 
on the back, lala — . lie on one's 
back. Cf. kichali. 

chama (vyama) 1. association, society, 
club. — cha biashara. business 
company. — cha ushirika. cooperative. 




2. organization, party. — cha wafanya 
kazi. labor union, trade union. — cha 
siasa. political party, utawala wa — 
kimoja. one-party rule. — cha Msalaba 
Mwekundu. Red Cross Society. — Kikuu 
cha Dunia. United Nations Organiza- 

chamanda* (— ) see jamanda. 

Ichamba (vyamba) 1. hot. bark (of a tree). 
2. anat. cornea. Cf. amba. 

chamba wash (esp. after using the 
toilet), caus, chambiza. wipe up. 

chambi, chamvi (— ) movement in dancing, 

chambo (vyambo) 1. bait, lure. prov. 
mtego bila — haunasi. A trap without 
bait catches nothing. 2. fig. tempta- 
tion. Cf. ^amba. 

chambua, chamvua 1. clean (fruits, meat); 
husk, shell (grain, beans); pull off, 
pluck out, tease (fibers). 2. fig. 
criticize, appl. chambulia. Cf. ambua. 

chambulia appl. of chambua. 

chamburo (— ) flat-nosed pliers (used by 

chamchela (-) whirlwind; hurricane, 
cyclone, tornado. 

chamia* rare gather, collect. 

chamka 1. be repeated, recur (of 

disease). 2. open up, break (wounds, 
abscesses). Cf. chamko. 

chamkano (ma-) 1. separation, division, 
partition. 2. fraction; section, de- 

chamko ( — ) return, repetition; recurrence, 
relapse (diseases). Cf. chamka. 

championi* LEngl.J (ma-) sport cham- 

chamshakinywa (vy-) see kiamshakinywa. 

chamvi see chambi. 

chamvua see chambua. 

Ichana (— ) bundle; cluster, bunch 
(of large fruits). 

^chana (— ) larva of the bee. Cf. jana. 

^chana separate, slit, split, cleave, cut 
up, dissect, kitambaa. tear cloth. 

— miyaa. slit leaves (for plaiting). 

— nywele. comb the hair. intr. 
chanika. be torn/cut up. inv. chanua. 
comb, smooth out; loosen, detach. 
inv. -appl. chanulia. inv. -intr. 
chanuka. Cf. chane, chanuo, kichane. 

^chana ass. of T;ha. 
chanaba* (— ) see janaba. 



lehanda (ma-) chanda (leaf of the coco- 
nut palm). 

chanda (vyanda) arch, finger, toe. 
( - kidole.) Only in the prov. chanda 
na kidole. stick together ( = be in- 
separable like fingers or toes). 

chandalua*, chandarua, tandarua, jandaru 
L Ind . J ( — , vvandalua) (protective) 
covering: 1. mosquito-net. 2. tar- 
paulin, awning, canopy. 3. hood 
(of an automobile). 

chandarua* ( — ) see chandalua. 

chando ( — ) kind of dance; dance-step. 

chane ( — ) 1. strip of leaf (for weaving 
mats). 2, bundle. C f. chana. 

1 changa 1. bring together, gather, col- 
lect; recruit (soldiers). — fedha. col- 
lect (voluntary contributions of) money, 
take up a collection. 2. shuffle 
(cards), caus. changisha, changiza. 
ass. changana. ass. -caus. changanya. 
gather, assemble; mix, mingle; jumble, 
confuse, changanya maneno. jumble 
words, ass. -double caus. changanyisha. 
ass. -caus. -intr. changanyika. be mixed/ 
jumbled/confused, ass. -int. changa- 
niza. falsify, forge; produce utter 
confusion, stat.-ass. changamana 
{dial, tangamana) be in a condition of 
mixture; mix with (people); adjoin, 
border on. inv. changua. take apart, 
dismember, ass. -inv. changanua. 

take apart, dissect; analyse. Cf. 
changamano, *chango, kichango, 
kichangany iko, machanganyiko, 
machanganyo, mchanganuo, 
mchanganyaji, mchanganyiko, 
mchanganyo, ''mchango, uchanganuo. 

changa 1. chop up (firewood, etc.). 
2. fig. damage, injure; cause pain. 

changa, janga adj. young, immature, 
undeveloped, in an early stage of 
growth, mwezi mchanga. new moon. 
Cf, 2 ucnan g a= 

changamana stat.-ass. of ^changa. 

changamano {dial, tangamano) (ma-) 
union, association; connection, 
contact; mixture, blend. Cf. ^changa. 

changamfu adj. gay, cheerful, good- 
humored, amiable; enlivening, 
animating, encouraging. Cf. changam- 
ka, uchangamfu. 

changamka {dial, chanjamka) 1. wake 
up (from sleep). 2. be gay/cheerful/ 
merry; look happy, caus. changamsha, 
chanjamsha. 1. wake someone up. 
2. please, make happy, cheer up, 
cause pleasure, intr. changamuka, 
changanuka, chanjanuka. 1. be awake. 
2. fig. be enlightened/progressive. 
Cf. amka, changamfu, changamko, 
K i c h a n ga Hi s a a , u e u an ga rn i u . 




changamko (ma-) (also kichangamko, vi-) 
1. entertainment, amusement; play, 
game. 2. annoyance, nuisance. 
Cf. changamka. 

changamsha caus. of changamka. 
changaniza ass. -int. of changa. 
changanua ass.-inv. of changa. 
changanya ass. -caus. of changa. 
changanyika ass. -caus. -intr. of Changa. 

changarawe, changawe (— , vi-; us. pi.) 
pebbles, gravel. 

changawe (— , vi-) see changarawe. 

^chango (— , ma-)l. contribution (of money, 
food, etc.). 2. fee, subscription (to a 
newspaper or magazine). 3. recruit- 
ment, levy (of soldiers). Cf. ^changa. 

^chango (— , ma-) 1. small intestine 
( = uchengelele). 2. intestinal worm. 

^chango (vi-) hook, (wooden) peg/pin, 
dowel; cross-beam, railing. Cf. anga. 

*changu see -angu. 

^changu (— ) changu (small edible fish). 

"changua (— ) rare wilderness, desert. 
Cf. jangwa. 

^changua inv. of ^changa. 

^■chani see chali. 

^chani, chanui (— ) sea-urchin, sea- 

chania (— ) rare comb. ( = chanuo.) 

chanikiwiti adj., rare see janikiwiti. 

Ichanja (-), kichanja (vi-) 1. basket- 
work, wickerwork, grill, screen. — ya 
chuma. iron grillwork, wire netting. 
2. stand for storing grain (in a house). 

^chanja 1. cut in pieces, cut up; make 
a cut/incision in something. — kuni. 
chop up firewood. 2. fig. inoculate, 
give a hypodermic injection. — ndui. 
vaccinate against smallpox, appl.- 
ass. chanjiana. make cuts in each 
other, chanjiana uchale. conclude 
blood-brotherhood. Cf. chanjo, 

chanjamka see changamka. 

chanjanuka intr. of changamka. 

chanjari see sanjari. 

chanje (-) (variety of) crab. 

chanjo (ma-) 1. cut, incision; slit, 

scratch, gash, slash. 2. inoculation, 
vaccination. 3. tattooing. Cf. ^chanja. 



chano (vyano) 1. wooden trough, board 
for carrying mortar. 2. serving-tray. 

^chanua inv. of ^;hana. 

^chanua unfold, open (of buds). 

chanui see ^chani. 


.-_.. -/3 

. uj chitiia. 

chanulia inv.-appl. o/3 c hana. 

chanuo (also shanuo) (— ) 1. wooden 
comb (with long teeth). 2. comb 
(in gen.). Cf. 3 c hana. 

chanyata 1. cut up, slice (fruits). 

2. wash carefully/gently (fine fabrics). 
Cf. mchanyato. 

chanyatia (— ) chanyatia (kind of fish, 

appearing usually in mangrove swamps). 

chanzi (ma-, — ) see ganzi. 

chanzo (vya-) start, beginning; source; 
basis, foundation; cat'se. — cha 
dharuba. storm center. Cf. anza. 

^chao see -ao. 

^chao (— ) naut. roller (used for 

Ichapa* Lind.?J 1. strike, stamp. 
— miguu. stamp the feet, walk 
heavily. 2. fig. print, stamp. 

— magazeti. print newspapers, inv. 
chapua. strike; run fast, intr, chapuka. 
3. (— ) blow, stroke; stamp, impression, 
printing; trademark, brand, piga — . 
stamp, print. Cf. mchapaji, mchapo, 
uehapaji, uchapishaji. 

chapa ad], many, numerous, 
"-"chapa, chapara tie very drunk. 
chapara see ''chapa. 
chapeo* (— ) see chepeo. 
chapua inv. of *chapa. 

chapuchapu 1. adv. quickly, speedily, 
briskly. 2. inter j. hurry up ! 

chapukia be delicious/appetizing. 

chapuo (— ) chapuo (small drum). 

chapwa adj. 1. tasteless, insipid, flat. 
2. repulsive, nasty; unpleasant, 

charahani* (— ) see cherehani. 

charakisha see chakarisha. 

charaza 1. play (an instrument); dance; 
beat time. 2, fig. do something 
skilfully or energetically. 

charo (vyaro) caravan, party of travelers. 
( = msafara.) 




charuka 1. begin something over again, 
start anew. 2. emulate someone. 

chasasa (— ) chasasa (kind of pearl). 

chasi (vi-) abundance, plenty, a great 

chasiri* venture, dare, risk. Cf. jasiri. 

chata hiss; hum, buzz. 

chati* [EregZ.] (_) chart. 

chatu (— ) python, boa constrictor. 

^chavu (— ) rare net. Cf. wavu. 

^chavu (ma-) see shavu. 

chawa ( — ) louse, prov. kidole kimoja 
hakivunji — . A single finger kills no 

chaza*, shaza [Pers.PJ (-) oyster. 

chazi (— ) hot. (kind of) liana {Cissus 

chazo (— ) sucker-fish. 

chea appZ. of 4ha, **cha. 

checha 1. divide, cut up. 2. object, 
contradict; forbid; criticize. Cf. 

Icheche, chechi (— , ma-) {and mcheche, 
mi-) small piece, slice (of cassava, 
etc.). — ya (la) moto. spark, ray. 
— ya (la) umeme (stimu). electric 
spark. Cf. checha. 

^cheche (— ), kieheche (vi-) a small 
animal resembling a mongoose. 

chechea walk carefully; be lame, limp. 
stat.-appl. chechemea. be lame, limp. 
caus. chechesha, checheza. support, 
help someone walk. 

chechele (— ) forgetfulness, absentminded- 

chechemea stat.-appl. of chechea. 

chechemua stimulate. 

chechesha caus. of chechea. 

chechevu, kekevu (— ) hiccup. 

checheza caus. of chechea. 

chechi (— ) see cheche. 

chefua cause nausea, intr. chefuka. 
have a feeling of nausea. Cf. 

chega shave off, shave; cut off, dock, 
clip; cut the hair. 

chegama see egama. 




^chege (ma-) see tege. 

chege, tege adj. 1. moist, damp, watery. 
muhogo mchege. watery manioc. 2. fig. 
feebleminded, inane, stupid, foolish. 

chegema see egama. 

chego (ma-) see gego. 

cheka 1. laugh; smile, grin. 2. (also 
appl. chekelea, chekerea) laugh at, 
deride, mock, tease, caus. chekesha. 
make someone laugh; amuse, stimu- 
late. Cf. chekeshaji, cheko, *cheshi, 
kichekesho, kicheko, mchekeshi, 
mcheko, mcheshi, ueheshi. 

cheka intr. of cha. 

chekeamwezi ( — ) ornith. stone curlew. 

chekecha sift, select; shake; reduce, 
Cf. chekecheke, mchekecho. 

ehekechea ( — ) ornith. bishop-bird 
(Euplectes hordacea). 

chekecheke (— ) 1. sieve. 2. fig. re- 
trenchment, frugality, economy, thrift. 
Cf. chekecha. 

chekehukwa (— ) ornith. golden plover, 

chekelea. chekerea anpL of cheka. 

chekenene ( — ) rare, med. sty. 
( = chokea.) 

chekerea see chekelea. 

chekeshaji adj. gay, jolly, amusing. 

ni mtu mchekeshaji. He is an amusing 
person. Cf. Icheka. 

cheki* I Engl. J (— ) fin. check. 

cheko (— , ma-) laugh, laughter. 
Cf. Icheka. 

chekua dig out. 

chekwa, chekwachekvva adj. many, in 
great numbers. 

^chekwa pass, of *cheka. 
chekwachekvva see ^chekwa. 

chelebi* ( — ) chelebi (kind of light 

chelema adj. watery (of fruit after 
cooking). Cf. mchelema. 

^cheleo (ma-) {usually macheleo) 

1. fear, terror. 2. fig. awe, rever- 
ence. Cf. cha. 

^cheleo (ma-) delay, postponement. 
fig.-, fin. respite, delay of payment. 
Cf. 3 cha. 


cnelewa see cha. 




2 chelewa (-) rattle (used in dances). 

3 chelewa (-) vein in a leaf. 

1 cheleza see 3 cha. 

2 cheleza unload, discharge cargo (ships). 

1 chelezo (vyelezo) buoy; life-belt; float 
(on a fishing-line). Cf. elea. 

2 chelezo (ma-) hindrance, obstacle, 
disturbance; delay. Cf. cha. 

chembamba (vyembamba) chembamba 
(a small, thin worm). 

Ichembe (-) {and kichembe, vi-) grain 
(cereal, sand), tiny particle. 
chembechembe adj. granular, granu- 
lated, sukari chembechembe. granu- 
lated sugar. 

2 chembe (vyembe) point, head (of arrow, 
spear, harpoon). Cf. jembe, kijembe. 

1 chembeu (vi-) rare chisel. 

2 chembeu (-) anat. diaphragm. 

chemchemi (-) spring (of water). Cf. 

chemka, chemuka bubble, seethe, effer- 
vesce, boil; boil over; be hot. caus. 
chemsha, chemusha. boil/cook some- 
thing, heat (up). Cf. chemko, 

chemko (-), mchemko (mi-) bubbling, 
seething, effervescence; boiling, 
cooking. Cf. chemka. 

chemne*, chemni, chemli lEngl.} 
(-, ma-) chimney (of a lamp). 

chemni (-, ma-) see chemne. 

chemsha caus. of chemka. 

chemua sneeze. 

chemuka see chemka. 

chemusha caus. of chemka. 

chena (- ) chena (kind of haddock). 

chenene (-) (kind of) cricket. 

cheneo, kieneo (vi-) rare, usually 
eneo, q.v. 

cheneta itch, irritate; become inflamed; 
smart, hurt. 

chenezo, kienezo (vi-) measure 
(measuring-rod, yardstick, tape- 
measure, etc.) Cf. enea. 

Ichenga, shenga 1. cut/saw/hack/chop 
off, split, -kuni. chop firewood. Cf. 
mchengo. 2. (-) {also chenge, -; 
chengechenge, vi-) grain, particle, 
chip, shaving, splinter, chengachenga. 
adv. in small particles, granular, unga 
wa -. flour that is not well ground. 




^chenga 1. deceive. 2. {— ) excuse, 
evasion, piga — . sport dribble 
(a football), avoid, dodge. 

chengachenga see ^chenga. 

chengechenge (vi-) see ^chenga. 

chengelele (ma-) see jengelele. 

chengeu (vi-) lampshade. 

chengo (vyengo) (dwelling-)house, resi- 
dence; stopping-place, camp; village. 

chengua rare tear down, demolish 

chenji* LEngl.J 1. (— ) substitute. 
fin. change, exchange, fedha ya — . 
(small) change. 2. v. to change/ 


see -enu. 

chenza (ma-) chenza (kind of Mandarin 
orange). Cf. mchenza. 

cheo (vyeo) 1. rare measure, measure- 
ment, dimension(s); scale. 2. fig. 
rank, degree, status, title; class 
(railway), abiria wa — cha kwanza. 
first-class passenger. 

chepe 1. (ma-) rude, ill-bred person. 
2. adj. rude, coarse, rough, ill-bred. 

chepechepe adj. wet, moist, damp, 
watery. Cf. uchepechepe. 

chepeo*, chapeo, chepeu L Port. J (— ) 
(European) hat. 

cherahani* (— ) see cherehani. 

cheraka* (— ) see jeraha. 

cherehani*, cherahani, charahani LPers.J 
(— ) small machine. — ■ ya kushonea. sew- 

sewn work, fundi — . tailor, shona 
kwa — . sew with the sewing machine. 
— ya barafu. refrigerator. 

cherehe* LPers.J (— ) grindstone, whet- 

cheruhi* see jeruhi. 


chesha caus. of cha. 

cheshi adj. funny, amusing, comical. 
Cf. *cheka. 

•^cheshi (ma-) see jeshi. 

chete (— ) dial, market-place, market- 

chetezo (— ) incense burner, censer. 

chethamu* (— ) see jethamu. 

cheti* Llnd.J (— , vyeti) 1. chit, note, 
paper. 2. certificate, receipt, ticket. 
3«: — cha njia. passport. 4. testi- 
monial, document. 




chetu see -etu. 

cheu (— ) 1. ruminating, chewing the cud. 
2. belch(ing). Cf. cheua. 

cheua 1. chew the cud (cattle). 

2. belch, intr. cheuka. caus. cheusha. 
Cf. cheu, cheuo. 

1 cheuka dial, boil, bubble. 

cheuka intr. of cheua. 

cheuo (-) cnA (of ruminants). Cf. cheu, 

cheusha caus. of cheua. 

cheuzi* (vyeuzi) pair (of shoes, etc.),. 
Cf. ijozi. 

chewa (-) chewa (large sea-fish; kind of 
rock-cod with very large mouth), coll. 
kinywa kama — . very large mouth 
(of a person). 

cheyaman* L Engl. J (vyeaman) chair- 
man. ( = mwenye kiti.) 

cheyo (ma-) see gego 

cheza 1. play, amuse oneself; dance; 
engage in sports; waste time. 2. set 
in motion, start (a mechanism), int. 
chezacheza. dally, joke. appl. 
chezea. play with; make fun of, tease. 
intr. chezeka. Cf, chezo, mchcza, 
mchezo, uchezaji. 

chezacheza int. of cheza. 

chezo (-) 1. game. 2. sport. Cf. chezc 

chiazi* (-) mil. cartridge. Cf. ^kiasi. 

chibene (— ) see jibini. 

chiboa (— ) rare young dog. Cf. mbwa. 

chicha (-, ma-) oilcake (flesh of a ripe 
coconut after the oil has been pressed 

chicha coll. very drunk, alikuwa — . 
He was very drunk. 

chichiri (— ), kijiri (vi-) bribe. 
(~ rushwa, hongo.) 

chifu* {.Engl.l (ma-) chief, leader, 
chairman. Cf. uchifu. 

chigi (-) chigi (a small yellow bird). 

chika (— ) chika (kind of plant: 
Abyssinian dock, sorrel). 

chikicha, tikita rare cut (as with a dull 
knife), saw away at something. 
Cf. tikisa. 

chikichi (— ) bot. palm-nut (fruit of the 
oil-palm). Cf. mchikichi. 

chiku (— ) see chiriku. 




chikwaya (— ) bot.: — dume. Dichapeta- 
lum mosambicense. — jike. Dichape- 
talum macrocarpum. 

chimba (dial, timba) 1. dig, excavate. 
— kisima. dig a well. fig. injure, 
damage, inv. chimbua. inv.-intr. 
chimbuka. appear, come up (sun, moon). 
inv.-int.(-caus.). chimbuza. force its 
way out, make its appearance, appear 
through the clouds (sun). 2. fig. cause 
trouble/misfortune (to one's parents). 
Cf. chimbo, chimvu, mchimbaji, 
mchimbi, uchimbaji, uchimvi. 

chimbi (ma-) dial. cook. 

chimbo, chimbuko (ma-) 1. hole. 2, min. 
shaft, pit. 3. excavation, ditch, 
trench. Cf. chimba. 

chimbua inv. of chimba. 

chimbuko (ma-) 1. see chimbo. 
2. source; beginning, start. 

chimbule (— ) chimbule (kind of bird). 

chimbuza inv. -int. of chimba. 

chimvi (ma-) (rare mtimbi, wa-) 1. un- 
lucky person (with certain peculiari- 
ties which are regarded as bad omens), 
one who brings misfortune, jinx, 
troublemaker. 2. medicine man (who 
prepares charms). Cf. chimba, 
mchimbi, uchimvi. 

china 1. be late, be delayed, fail to show 
up. 2. stay on the shelf, find no takers 
(merchandise). 3. (of a girl) fail to 
find a husband at the proper age (the 
girl is not only disappointed because 
she has not met the expectations of 
her society, but is actually considered 
to be delinquent). 

chindi (— ) dial, see kindi. 

chingirisha pour off (water, etc., gently 
so as to leave the sediment). ( = gida.) 

chini 1. (— ) underside, lower part; 
ground, floor; (euph.) the genital 
organs. — ya utaw ala wa ... under 
the domination/rule of... 2. adv. be- 
low, underneath; on the ground; down- 
stairs; at the feet; on foot, enda — . 
go on foot. — kwa — . very far below, 
underground; (fig.) secretly, weka — . 
underestimate. 3. —a — . adj. low; 
inferior, humble. Cf. kichinichini. 

chinja (dial, tinda) slaughter, cut the 
throat, stick (pigs, etc.). Cf. chinjo, 
chinyango, kichinja, mchinjoni, 
mchinjaji, mchinjo. 

chinjo (ma-) 1. slaughter(ing). 2. fig. 
massacre, carnage, bloodshed. 
Cf. chinja. 

chinjoni see machinjoni. 



chinusi, chunusi (ma-) 1. liter, sea- 
monster, water-sprite, liwa na — . be 
eaten by the sea-monster (i.e., drown). 
2. (swimmer's) cramp. 

chinyango (— ) piece of meat (prepared 
for cooking). Cf, chinja. 

chirwa (— ) med. rickets (- nyongea). 
Cf. chira. 

chisi* (— ) see chizi. 

chizi*, chisi LEngl.J (—) cheese. 
( = jibini.) 

chipua grow, bud, sprout, intr. chipuka. 
caus. chipukisha, chipuza. Cf. chipu- 
kizi, kichipukizi, mchipukizi, uchipuko. 

chipukizi, chipuko (ma-) sprout, shoot. 
Cf. chipua. 

chipuko (ma-) see chipukizi. 

cho det. ki- cl.: kitu — chote. anything 

choa (— ) med. 1. growth, tumor, 2. skin 
disease, ringworm. 

chobea (and ass. chobeana) stand op- 
posite each other (in dancing). 

chira, chura do harm (e.g., to a child) by 
failure to observe taboos and tradi- 
tional restrictions, cause bad luck 
(to someone). Cf. chirwa, churo, 

chiriku, chiku (— ) 1. ornith. finch 
(Fringilla coelebs), canary. 2. fig. 
talkative person, chatterbox. 

chiririka (dial, tiririka) 1. drip, trickle; 
lick; flow, run. 2. glide (of snakes). 
Cf. chirizi, mchiririko, mchirizi. 

chiriwa (— ) see jiriwa. 

chirizi adj. dripping, trickling, machozi 
machirizi. trickling tears. Cf. chiri- 

chiroko (— ) see choroko. 

chobeana see chobea. 

chocha prod, urge forward (animals); 
stir, poke, stir up. appl. chochea. 
stir (a fire), chochea matata (ugomvi). 
stir up unrest (conflict), incite, in- 
flame, double appl, chochelea. caus. 
& int. chocheleza. enrage, provoke, 
excite, irritate, challenge. Cf. kicho- 
cheo, kichocho, mchocheaji, mchocheo, 
mchochezi, uchochezi. 

chochoro (ma-) see kichochoro. 

chochota feel, suffer (severe pain); 
burn/scald oneself. Cf. chonyota, 

chogoe (— ) 1. hooked stick (used to 
pull down branches in fruit-picking), 
2. golf-club. 




Ichoka grow tired, be exhausted; be tired 
of/disgusted with something; be im- 
patient. - safari (kazi). be tired of a 
trip (job), fig. lose strength (or good 
properties), be exhausted (e.g., the 
soil), caus. chokesha, chokeza, chosha. 
tire out, exhaust, caus.-ass. choshana. 
tire/weary each other. Cf. choshi, 
chovu, mchoshi, uchovu. 

2 choka (ma-) see joka. 

3 choka (ma-) see shoka. 

chokaa (-) lime, mortar, plaster, stucco. 
choma — prepare lime by burning. 

chokea (-) med. sty. 

chokesha, chokeza caus. of choka. 

Ichoki (-) hot. liana (Strophanthus 

kombe, the seeds of which are used for 
preparing arrow poison). 

2 choki*. chaki LEngl.l (-) chalk, 
whiting, pipeclay. Cf. chokaa. 

choko (vyoko) rare oven. 

chokoa, chokocha, chokora pick at, clear 
out, take out the contents (e.g., the 
meat of a coconut); stir up. - meno. 
pick the teeth. oppZ. chokolea. caus. 
chokoza. tease, irritate, annoy; de- 
ceive, cheat. Cf. chokochoko, 
kichokoo, mchokocho, mchokoo, 
mchokozi, uchokozi. 

chokocha see chokoa. 

chokochoko (-) difficulty, trouble, 
annoyance; dispute, disagreement, 
provocation. Cf. chokoa. 

chokolea oppZ. of chokoa. 

chokoleti*, chakeleti, chakleti LEngl.J 
(-) chocolate. 

! C hokora (ma-) see chotara. 

2 chokora see chokoa. 

chokoza (caus. of chokoa) tease, annoy; 
deceive, cheat. 

ichole (-) chole (edible fish). 
2 chole (-) chole (kind of bird). 

ichoma stick, stab, pierce; hurt, injure. 

fig. stimulate, excite, spur on, impel. 

oppZ. chomea. intr. chomeka. be 

stuck/pierced/stimulated (also tr.: 

stick /thrust into something), inv. 

chomoa (rare shumua). pull out; 

borrow, chomoa kisu. pull out/borrow 

a knife, chomoa fedha (nguo). borrow 

money (clothes), inv. -appl. chomolea. 

pull out for/from someone; (fig.) steal 

from. inv. -caus. chomoza. appear, 

1 i 

come out (sun). Cf. ^homeo, chomo, 

kichomi, 2 mchoma, 2 mchomo, uchomozi. 

2 choma burn, be on fire; set fire to; smoke 
out (bees, etc.). jua linachoma. The 



sun is very hot. Cf. 2 chomeo, 2 chomo, 
kichoma, kichomo, * mchoma, mchomaji, 
A mchomo, uchomaji. 

chombo (vyombo) 1. tool, implement, 
instrument, utensil, apparatus; item of 
household goods, piece of furniture, 
cha kufanyia kazi. tool, implement 
(used in working), vyombo vya akiba. 
spare parts. 2. cooking-pot, pan, jar, 
jug, cup. 3.: vyombo. household 
goods, personal belongings; gear, 
machinery. 4. sailing-vessel (of vari- 
ous kinds), loc. chomboni. on board. 

— cha angani. spaceship. — cha 
kuandikishia maneno. tape-recorder. 

— cha kunyunyizia. pulverizer, 
atomizer. — cha kukuzia sauti. micro- 
phone. — cha simu. telephone booth. 

^-chomeo (ma-) 1. pointed object (stick, 
awl, etc.). 2. pain. 3. small wound, 
prick (left after removing a thorn, etc.) 
Cf. *choma. 


chomoza inv.-caus. of *choma. 

*chondo ( — ) 1. musical instrument 
(kind of xylophone). 2. signaling 

^chondo (vyondo) chondo (small travel- 

"'chondo (vyondo) chondo (small sea- 

chonga 1. cut (with an instrument), 
chop, carve. — sanamu. carve a 
statue. 2. cut to a point, sharpen. 
— kalamu. sharpen a pencil, appl. 
chongea. cut, sharpen something. 
3. fig. slander, chongea kwa maneno 
mabaya. bring someone into discredit 
by spreading tales about him. in v. 
chongoa. shape, round off. inv.-intr. 
chongoka. Cf. chonge, chongelezo, 
mchongezi, mchongo, uchongezi. 

^chomeo (ma-) something used for cook- chonge (— ) anat. canine tooth; tooth 

ing: frying-pan, grill, etc. Cf. 2 c homa. filed to a point. Cf. chonga. 

chomo (ma-) blow, cut, stab, prick. 
Cf. choma. 

^chomo (ma-) 1. burn, scar from burn- 
ing. 2. product of combustion, slag. 
— la chuma. iron slag. Cf. ^choma. 

chomoa inv. of ^chortia. 
chomolea inv. -appl. of *choma. 

chongelezo (ma-) slander, calumny, 
gossip. Cf. chonga. 

^chongo (— ) see mchongo. 

^chongo (— ) hump (on the back). 

''chongo (— ) condition of having only 
one eye. mwenye — . one-eyed person. 
ana — . He has only one eye. Cf. 



^chongo (— ) chongo (purulent discharge 
from the eye). 

chongoa inv. of chonga. 

chongoe (vi-) chongoe (large fish). 

chongoo (ma-) see 1 jongoo. 

chonjo (— ) incitement (to quarrel, combat). 

chonjomoa incite, instigate, stimulate, 
impel. Cf. chonjo. 

chonyota prickle, sting, burn, pilipili 
inachonyota ulimini. The pepper burns 
on the tongue. Cf. chochota. 

chonza (— ) discord, unrest, tia — . 
cause unrest. 

choo (vyoo) 1. toilet, privy, water closet. 
enda chooni. go to the toilet. 2. need 
to relieve oneself; bowel movement, 
urination. — yabisi. constipation, 
vyoo excreta. — kidogo. urine. — 
kikubwa. feces. 

chooko (— ) see choroko. 

chopa 1. take (a small amount, a hand- 
ful); engage in business on a small 
scale, vend, hawk. inv. chopoa. pull 
out; snatch away, seize; (fig.) steal. 
inv.-intr. slip away; (fig.) be stolen. 
2. (ma-) handful, bundle (of firewood). 
Cf. kichopa, mchopozi. 

chopi adj. /adv. 1. crooked, lopsided, 
enda — . be lame, limp. 2. fig. drunk, 

chopoa inv. of chopa. 

chopoka inv.-intr. of chopa. 

^chora 1. scratch, carve; cut/carve in 
stone. 2. int. chorachora. scribble, 
write illegioiy. u/. cnoro, nicuuiu, 
mchorachora, mchoraji, mchoro, 
mchorochoro, uchoraji. 

2 chora* (— ) see shura. 

chorachora int. of chora. 

choro (-, ma-) scratch; drawing, engrav- 
ing; (chorochoro) scribble, scrawl. 
Cf. *chora. 

choroa (-) zool. fringe-eared oryx. 

chorochoro (ma-) see choro. 

choroko, chooko, chiroko (— ) choroko 
(small green bean). 

chosha caus. of choka. 

choshi adj. tiring, exhausting. 
Cf. Ichoka. 

chosho (ma-) see josho. 
chosi (— ) chosi (kind of bird). 




chota take a little of something. — maji. 
draw water (by the bucketful), caus. 
chotesha, choteza. fig. alinichota 
akili. He deceived/cheated me. 
Cf. choto, mchoto. 

chotara*, chokora (ma-) 1. half-breed, 
mestizo* 2. person who works at odd 
jobs, servant performing heavy /dirty 
work. 3. fig. hanger-on. 


see -ote. 

choto (ma-) small amount: piece, bit, 
fragment, morsel. Cf. chota. 

chovu adj. 1. tired, exhausted. 
2. tiring, boring, annoying. 
Cf. *choka. 

chovya put/dip/plunge into a liquid; 
submerge, appl. chovyea. pass. 
chovywa. Cf. chovyo, mchovya, 

chovyo (ma-) dipping, plunging, sub- 
merging. Cf. chovya. 

chovywa pass, of chovya. 

choyo (— ) greed, avarice; parsimony, 
stinginess; meanness, pettiness, 
mwenye — . miser, ana — . He is 
stingy. Cf. ntoyo. 

*chozi, jozi (ma-) tear, lia (toka) 
machozi. shed tears. 

^chozi (— ) ornith. sunbird. Cf. kichozi, 

chua, tua rub, rub in, massage; clean, 
polish (by rubbing); (fig.) flatter, de- 
ceive, appl. chulia. rub something, 
jiwe la kuchulia. pestle, grindstone. 
ass. chuana. rub/massage each other; 
(fig.) quarrel, caus. chusha. irri- 
tate, anger, provoke, refl. jichua. 

^chua (vyua) see chura. 

chuakari (— ) rare precious stone, 
jewel. Cf. johari. 

chub! inter j. Be quiet! 

chubua abrade, rub off (skin), rub sore, 
bruise badly, gall. — miguu. get sore 
feet. appl. chubulia. intr. chubuka. 
Cf. chubuko. 

chubui (— ) see chubwi. 

chubuko (ma-) abrasion, bruise, sore. 
Cf. chubua. 

chubwi, chubui (— ) 1. naut. lead. 
2. sinker (on a fishing line), plumb- 

chucha see ^chicha. 

chuchia shake, move back and forth, 
swing. — mtoto. rock a child. 




^chuchu (ma-) rare dwarf, pygmy. 

^chuchu ( — , ma-) anat. nipple. 
(= titi.) 

chuchumaa squat, crouch, caus. 

chuchumaza caus. of chuchumaa. 

chuchumia stretch, stand on tiptoe or 
hind legs (animals). 

chuchunge (— ) swordfish (Nemiramphus 
far). {- mchumbururu.) 

chudi (— ) see jadi. 

chugachuga be uneasy, feel uncomfort- 
able; be confused, unprepared. Cf. 

chuguu ( — ) (augment . of kichuguu) 

1. anthill, termite-heap. 2. pile of 
ashes or refuse. 

chui (— ) leopard, comm. chui wa 
karatasi. paper tiger. 

chuja filter, strain; press out; cleanse, 
purify; fig. separate, isolate, pick 
out, select, sort, refine. — watu 
wengine. pick out a few people. 
inv. chujua. thin, dilute, water down. 
inv.-intr. chujuka. be washed-out/ 
faded; fade (of colors), appl. chujia. 
chujia mvuke. liquefy. Cf. chujio, 
chujo, uchujo. 

chujio (— , ma-), kichujio (vi-) filter, 
strainer. Cf. chuja. 

chujo (— , ma-) 1. = chujio. 2. product 
of filtering/straining: residue, de- 
posit, precipitate. Cf. chuja. 

chujua inv. of chuja. 

chujuka inv.-intr. of chuja. 

chuki (— ) 1. bad humor/mood, dis- 
satisfaction. 2. dislike, aversion, 
contempt, ona — . be in a bad humor. 
— na majivuno ya kitaifa. chauvinism. 
Cf. chukia, chukio, uchukivu. 

chukia hate, despise, abhor, loath. 
caus. chukiza. offend, insult. 
refl. -caus. jichukiza. be annoyed 
with oneself, ass. chukiana. Cf. 

chukio, chukizo (ma-) (usually machukio, 
machukizo) hatred, disgust; offense, 
insult. Cf. chuki, chukia. 

chukiza caus. of chukia. 

chukizo (ma-) see chukio. 

chuku ( — ) 1. med. cupping-glass. 
piga — . cup, bleed; (fig.) exagger- 
ate, tell unbelievable stories. 
2. rare lie, falsehood; something 
invented, fiction; nostrum, hadithi 
ya — . story, fiction. 

chukua 1. carry, take along; take, take 
away, remove, maji yanachukua 
mchanga. The water washes the sand 




away. 2. fig. bear, endure. — taabu. 
endure hardships. 3. last. — muda 
mkubvva. last a long time. appl. 
chukulia. 1. carry to/for someone. 
2. fig. have sympathy, feel for. 
appl.-intT. chukulika. haichukuliki. 
It is unbearable, ass. chukuana. sup- 
port each other, agree together, con- 
form, appl.-ass. chukuliana. caus. 
chukuza. employ someone to carry 
something, hire as a bearer, ass.- 
caus. chukuzana. 1. carry by turns. 
2. accompany each other, go together. 
Cf. mchukuzi, uchukuzi. 

turret (of an airplane). — cha dwa. 
drugstore. — chakuni. shed, barn. 
— cha kulala. bedroom. — cha kulia. 
dining-room. — cha maktaba. reading- 
room. Cf. chumbisha, jumba, kichu- 
mba, kijichumba, mchumba, nyumba, 
uchumba, unyumba. 

chumbe (vyumbe) see kiumbe. 

chumbisha bring about an engagement. 
pass, chumbishvva. be engaged (of 
a girl). Cf. chumba, mchumba, 

chukulia appl. of chukua. 
chukuti pi. of uchukuti. 
chukuza caus. of chukua. 
chula (vyula) see chura. 

*chuma (vyuma) 1. (piece of) iron. 

— cha pua. steel, mabamba ya — . 
sheet iron. — cha noti. tuning-fork, 
bao la — . iron bar. — cha reli. rail, 
chuma chapua kisioganda/kisichoingia 
kutu. stainless steel. 2. fig. hard- 
ness, severity, mtu huyu ni — . This 
man is steady /reliable. 

^chuma {dial, tunda) 1. gather, pick 
(fruit). 2. fig. earn, make a profit. 
Cf. chumi, chumo, uchumaji, uchumi. 

chumba (vyumba) room (of a house). 

— cha mwendesha ndege. cockpit, 

chumi (— ) cowrie-shell(s) (used in 
playing games). Cf. ^chuma. 

chumo (ma-) total product, yield; (fig.) 
receipts, earnings, profits. Cf. ^chuma. 

chumu (vi-) rare good luck. 

chumvi (— ) salt; saltiness, salinity; 
sharpness, pungency. — ya haluli. 
Epsom salts, sulphate of magnesia. 
fig. tia — . exaggerate, boast. 
coll. kula — nyingi. have a long life. 

chuna (and inv. chunua) skin, flay 

(animals); strip off (bark), scrape off. 
Cf. chuno, mchunaji. 

Ichunga sift, screen; shake; (fig.) 
tremble (from fear), inv. chungua. 
inv. -appl. chungulia. inv. -caus. (int.) 
chunguza. examine/investigate care- 
fully; (fig.) pry into/meddle in someone 
else's affairs. Cf. chungio, mchunguzi, 




^chunga, shunga watch over, take care of, 
tend, take to pasture (cattle, sheep, 
etc.). Cf. machunga, mchungaji, 

''chunga (— ) hull, pod, shell. 
chungio (— ) sieve. Cf. ^chunga. 

1 chungu (vyungu), ungu (nyungu) clay 
vessel, cooking pot. kufinyanga 
vyungu. pottery. Cf. kichungu, 
jungu, ^mkungu. 

^chungu, kichungu adj. 1. bitter, sharp, 
acrid. 2. fig. unpleasant, angry, 
harsh, maneno machungu. bitter/harsh 
words. Cf. uchungu. 

"chungu (— , ma-), kichungu (vi-) heap, 
pile; quantity; mass, crowd. — nzima. 
a great deal, a lot (of...), mkutanoni 
walikuwapo watu — nzima. There were 
a lot of people in the gathering. 
chunguchungu. adv. in great quantity/ 

^chungu (— ) (black) ant. 
chungua inv. of chunga. 


chunguchungu see chungu. 
chungulia inv. -appl. of chunga. 
chunguza inv. -caus. & int. of chunga, 
chungwa (ma-) orange. Cf. mchungwa. 

chuni (— ) chuni (waterfowl). 
chunjua ( — ) med. wart. 

A chuno (ma-) (usually machuno) skinning 
flaying. Cf. chuna. 

chuno (— ) see kiuno. 

chunuka favor/encourage someone, be 
well-disposed toward someone. See 
also tunuka. 

^chunusi, kinusi (— ) med. acne. 

"'chunusi (ma-) see chinusi. 

chur.yu (— ) salt-deposit/incrustation 
(from sea-water); salinity, ardhi ina — . 
saiiferous earth. Cf. chumvi, munyu. 

*chuo (vyuo) 1. school. — kikuu. uni- 
versity, enda chuoni. go to school, 
mwana chuoni. learned man, scholar. 
2. rare book (~ kitabu). — cha sala. 

chuo (vyuo) chuo (pointed stick used 
for opening coconuts). 

chupa (— , ma-) 1. bottle. 2. jar (for 
jam, etc.). 3. anat. uterus, womb. 
kuvunja — . first stages of childbirth. 




^chupa 1. jump, hop. chura anachura. 

The frog jumps. 2. fig. become too 
short/small (of clothes), suruali 
yangu imechupa. My trousers have be- 
come too small for me. appZ. chupia. 
move fast, gallop. 

chura (vyura) {rare chula, chua) frog, 

chura see chira. 

churo adj. unlucky, ill-omened, mtoto 
mchuro. child who is supposed to 
bring misfortune to his family because 
of omens (marks, etc.). Cf. chira, 

churua see surua. 

churupuka flee, run away, escape; slip 
from one's hand. 

churura {and int. churuza, chuuza) drip, 
trickle; run, flow (off), drain, intr. 
chururika {and int. chururiza). fig. 
be wasted away, emaciated (after an 
illness). Cf. chururu. 

chururika intr. of churura. 

chururiza int. of churura. 

chururu (— ) efflux, trickle; leak, seepage. 
Cf. churura. 

churusi (vyurusi) chisel. 

churuwa* (— ) med measles Cf, surua. 

churuza int. of churura. 

chusa*, chussa L?J (vyusa) harpoon 
(for large fish) , 

chusha caus. of chua. 

chussa* (vyussa) see chusa. 

chut! inter/. - kefii ! 

chutama squat, crouch. 

^chuuza int. of churura. 

''chuuza engage in business in a small 
way, be a hawker/peddler, have a 
small shop. Cf. mchuuzi, uchuuzi. 

chuzuu* (— ) see tuzuu. 

chwa {also twa) go down, set (sun). 
kumekuchwa. The sun has gone 
down. It is evening, mchana kutwa. 
the whole day long, kutwa kucha. 
every day and every night, kucha 
hata (mpaka) kuchwa. from morning 
till evening, the whole day through. 
kesho kutwa. day after tomorrow. 
appl. chwea. double appl.-pass. 
chwelewa. be overtaken by darkness. 
Cf. machwa. 

chwelewa double appl.-pass. of chwa. 



daa ( — ) daa (kind of worm used for fish- 

daawa*, dai ( — , ma-) lawsuit, (legal) 
action, (civil) suit, claim. Cf. dai, 
mdaawa, mdai, mdaiwa. 

Maba* (ma-) simpleton, fooi. 

"daba (— , ma-) see debe. 

dabaulo* see tahawali. 

dabiku* ( — ) rare sacrifice, offering. 
Cf. dhabihu. 

dabiri* rare find (again). 

dabwadabwa, debwedebwe adj. fluid, 
watery, diluted, wali wa — . watery 

iDachi* I Engl.'] adj. Dutch. 

^Dachi* L Germ. J adj., arch. German. 
( = -a kijeremani.) Cf. Kidachi, Mda- 
chi, Udachi. 

dada (— , ma-) 1. sister. 2. form of po- 
lite address among women. 

dadisa gird, wind around. 

dadisi* besiege with questions, pump; 
spy on. intr. dadisika. be curious/ 

inquisitive, appl. dadisia. caus. da- 
disiza. Cf. mdadisi, udadisi. 

dadisika* intr. of dadisi. 

dadisiza* caus. of dadisi. 

Hadn* ( — . ma-) see dadu. 

dadu*, dado LPort.J (-, ma-) 1. die, 
dice. 2. any game played with dice. 

dafi* ( — ) tambourine. 

dafina* ( — ) 1. something valuable/pre- 
cious. 2. hidden treasure, find, 
treasure trove. 3. unexpected gift, 

dafrao*, dafurao 1. (— ) collision, im- 
pact, clash; accident, motakaa mbili 
ziligongona (pigana) — . Two automo- 
biles collided. 2. adv. face to face. 
piga (pigana) — . fight hand to hand. 

daftari*, deftari (— ) 1. ledger, account 
book, catalogue, index, list. — ya 
hesabu. account book. 2. notebook, 
exercise book. 

dafu (— ) dafu (coconut in the unripe 
stage, with much milk), dafu or maji 
ya — . coconut milk. 

dafurao* (— ) see dafrao. 

daga* (— ) see dagaa. 




dagaa*, daga (-) 1. dagaa (small fish, 
anchovy, sardine). 2. fig. trifle, 
inconsequential thing. 

daghadagha* 1. (-) confusion (of mind), 
uncertainty. 2. v. be uncertain. 
Cf. dukuduku. 

dagla* [lnd.1 (ma-) cloth coat (dec- 
orated with ornaments). 

daha* see dai. 

dahabu* (-) see dhahabu. 

dahari* 1. (— ) epoch, century, age. 
2. adv. always, constantly. 

dahi dial, offer, sacrifice, 

dahili* 1. be well informed about a per- 
son. 2. (ma-) inquiry, investigation. 
Cf. mdahalo. 

dai*, daha 1. demand, claim; (leg.) 

press claims, bring action, sue. appl. 
daia. demand in someone else's name, 
act as attorney/solicitor, ass. 
daiana. refl. jidai. demand something 
for oneself (without justification, 
falsely). 2. (ma-) (also daawa) de- 
mand, claim, madai ya fedha. claim 
for money, amount due, debt. Cf. 
daawa, mdaawa, mdai, mdaiwa. 



daima*, dawamu, dawama 1. adv. always, 
constantly, continually, emph. 

— dawamu. 2. adj. -a — . permanent, 
constant, lasting. 3. mil. regular, 
afisa wa — . regular officer. Cf. dumu. 

1 daka 1. grasp, seize; catch. — mpira, 
catch a ball. 2. fig. catch at (an 
idea). — maneno. make a quick/ 
shrewd reply, contradict, appl. dakia. 
jump over/across (water, from tree to 
tree), caus. dakiza. retort, object, 
contradict, interrupt (a conversation), 
inv. dakua. talk foolishly, chatter, 
gossip, dakua siri. divulge secrets, 
blab. inv. -appl. -caus. dakuliza. 
protest, object to, demur, disavow, 
Cf. dakizo, mdakizi, mdako, mdaku- 
lizi, udakaji, udaku, udakuzi; also 
dukiza, dukizi. 

^daka (ma-) 1. hiding-place, niche. 
2. shelf (on a wall), cupboard. 
Cf. kidaka. 

dakalika rare be tired/exhausted. 

dakawa* (— ) naut. tow-rope, hawser. 
vuta — . to tow. 

dakika* (— ) minute, (brief) period of 
time, kwa — moja. in a moment, 
immediately, at once, ndani ya — 
chache. in a few minutes. 

dakiza caus. of daka. 

dakizo (ma-) objection, protest, con- 
tradiction; interruption (of a conver- 
sation). Cf. daka. 




dakta* (ma-) see daktari. 

daktari*, dakta L Engl. J (ma-) doctor, 
physician. Cf. mganga. — wa kupa- 
suwa. rare surgeon. ( = kuchinja.) 
Cf. udaktari. 

daku* (— ) feast of Muhammadans at the 
conclusion of Ramadhan. 

dakua inv. of A daka. 

dakuliza inv. -appl. -caus. of daka. 

dalali* (ma-) agent, broker, auctioneer. 
Cf. udalali. 

dalasini*, daliasini LPers.J cinnamon. 
Cf. mdalasini. 

dalia* (— ) powder (cosmetic). 

dalili*, delili (— ) 1. sign, trace, signal, 
indication. — ya mguu. footprint. 
prov.: — ya mvua ni mawingu. Clouds 
are the signs of rain ( = one can always 
tell when there is something wrong 
with someone whom one knows well). 
2. omen. — mbaya. a bad omen, si 
hata — . not a bit, not in the least. 

dalji* adv. kuenda — . walk gracefully; 
amble (of horses). 

dalki* see telki. 

daliasini* (-) see dalasini. 

dama* (— ) see tama. 

dama* {.Port. J (— ) game played on a 
board. ( = bao 3.) 

dambwa (ma-) dambwa (secret place 
where preparations are made for the 
circumcision ceremonies). 

damisi* adj. cheerful, jolly. Cf. 

damka obs. see jidamka. 

damu* (— ) 1. blood, toa — . bleed. 
2. fig. menstruation, ingia damuni. 
menstruate. 3. blood relationship. 
coll. — yangu mwenyewe. my own 
flesh and blood (i.e., child), watu 
wenye — moja. blood relatives. 
prov. — ni nzito kuliko maji. Blood 
is thicker than water. 

danda rare see panda. 

dandalo (— ) dandalo (a kind of dance). 

Manga: — maji dip up water (carefully, 
in small quantities). 

^danga (— ) (white) yam (Dioscorea 

dang'a (— ) dang'a (the first milk of an 
animal after having given birth; 

danganya lie to someone, deceive, 
cheat, swindle. appl. danganyia. 
caus. danganyisha. Cf. danganyifu, 
danganyo, mdanganyi, udanganyifu. 


danganyifu adj. deceitful, fraudulent. 
mtu mdanganyifu. a deceitful person, 
mke mdanganyifu. an unfaithful wife. 
Cf. danganya. 

danganyo (ma-) (usually madanganyo) 
deceit, deception, fraud; hypocrisy. 
Cf. danganya. 

daraka* (ma-) (usually madaraka) 1. ar- 
rangement, regulation, precept. 2. ob- 
ligation, responsibility, duty, chukua 
— . have responsibility, be responsible. 
madaraka ya kiasi. limited responsi- 
bility/liability, madaraka bila kiasi. 
unlimited responsibility /liability. 
3. pledge, security, guarantee. 4. full 
responsibility, plenary powers; (pol.) 

splf.irnvp.nm.nt =„t rt \--\}-\ 

danguro*, dangro LPort.J (ma-) 1. house 
of ill fame, brothel, loc. danguroni. 
section of a city where brothels are 
located. 2. rare prostitute, whore. 

dansi*, densi lEngl. J (— ) (European) 

danzi (ma-) bitter orange. Cf. mdanzi. 

dapa see tapa. 

dara* LPers.J 1. touch, feel. 2. fig. 
try out, put to the test. 

daraba* (— ) lavatory space (on a dhow), 

darabi* (ma-) rose apple. Cf. mdarabi. 

darasa* (ma-, — ) instruction; lesson, 
class; classroom, madarasa rare 
school. Cf. durusi. 

darau* see dharau. 

daraza* see darizi. 

darbini* (— ) see darubini. 

dari* LPers.J (—) 1. roof, attic; upper 
floor; ceiling (of a room); (flat) roof. 
(Originally the space under the roof 
where clothing and food were stored.) 
anakaa katika nyumba ya — . He lives 
in a house of more than one floor/story. 
2. fig., naut. deck of a boat/ship. 

darii* (— ) see deraya. 

daraja* (ma-, — ) 1. bridge. — ya reli. 
railroad bridge. 2. fig. rank, degree, 
social status, amepewa — ya juu. He 
has been promoted. 3. terrace (in 
agriculture). 4. pi. steps, (flight of) 
stairs; ladder (= ngazi). Cf. kida- 

darizi*, daraza, tarizi, taraza 1. em- 
broider (a border, edging). 2. (— ) 
(also tarazo) embroidery, decoration. 
kanzu ya — . a kanzu decorated with 
embroidery. 3. adj. decorated, or- 




darubini*, durubini, darbini LPers.J ( — ) 
telescope, binoculars. — ya vidudu. 

darumeti* L ? J ( — ) interior framework of 
a (native) ship. 

darzeni* ( — ) see dazani. 

^dasi* LP ers.? J ( — ) naut. rope (sewed 
into the edge of a sail). 

^dasi* ( — ) med. dasi (disease of don- 

dasili* (— ) dasili (a powder used as a 
remedy for skin diseases; prepared 
from the leaves of the mkunazi tree). 

dasturi* (— ) naut. bowsprit. 

dasturi* (— ) see desturi. 

data rare crack, crackle (noise of twigs 

datama crouch down, bend over. 

dau* ( — ) dhow (sailing vessel). 

dauati* (— ) see dawati. 

daula* ( — , ma-) see dola. 

dausi*, tausi (— ) ornith. peacock. 

dawa* (— , ma-) 1. medicine, remedy, 
drug. — ya homa. febrifuge. 

— ya kuhara (kuharisha). purgative, 
laxative. — ya kupatisha. emetic. 

— ya kunywa. medicine for internal 
use. — ya kupaka. salve, ointment. 

— ya sindano. vaccine, serum. 

2. (also nyumba ya — or nyumba ya 
kutoa — ) pharmacy, drugstore, 

dawaa* see duwaa. 

dawama*, dawamu* see daima. 

dawati*, dauati (— ) (also kidawati) 
writing desk. ( = meza.) 

dazani*, dazeni, darzeni L Engl. J ( — ) 

dazeni* (— ) see dazani. 

debe*, daba [ Ind. J ( — , ma-) 1. tin 
can, tank (for gasoline or kerosine ). 
2. sheet metal. 

debwani* ( — ) turban cloth. 

debwedebwe see dabwadabwa. 

dede adv.: simama — . stand unsteadily 

(as an infant first learning to walk). 

defa* (— ) rare time, occasion. — mbili. 
twice. ( = mara.) 

deftari* ( — ) see daftari. 

dega see tega. 

^dege (ma-) see ndege. 




''dege (— ) dege (kind of moth). 

dege (— ) med. cramps, convulsions 
(esp. of small children). 

4 dege (ma-): — la watoto. hot. kind of 
fern (Pteris longifolia). 

deheni* 1. (— ) deheni (waterproof mix- 
ture tor caulking boats). 2. v. to 
caulk with deheni. 

deheri* rare be plain/evident. 

deka put on airs, be presumptuous/arro- 
gant, caus. dekeza. spoil (a child). 

dekua (dial, dengua) bring down, knock 
down (birds with stones). — kichwa. 
behead, decapitate, appl. dekulia. 
Cf. udekuaji. 

delali* L?J (ma-) rare peddler 
( = mchuuzi). 

dele*, deli (— ) {also mdele, mi-) coffee- 
pot (made of metal). (- mdila.) 

deli* (— ) see dele. 

delili* (— ) see dalili. 

dema, ndema (— ) wickerwork fish-trap. 

demani* (— ) 1. season (of the year; 
period of the southeast monsoon from 
August to October), autumn. 2. naut. 
sheet. 3. naut.: (upande wa — ) lee 

demokrasi* LEngl. J (— ) democracy. 
— yenye kiini kimoja. comm. demo- 
cratic centralism, jamhuri ya — . 
democratic republic, kidemokrasi. 
adj. democratic. 

demu (ma-) work clothes (for field work). 

Menge (— ) denge (a style of wearing the 
hair: the head is shaved leaving only a 
patch on top). Cf. ^dengua. 

^denge (— ) 1.: — ya mbuzi. billy goat. 
( = beberu.) 2. goat pen (on poles; raised 
off the ground). 

dengezi (— ) dengezi (kind of fish). 

dengo* (— ) see dengu. 

dengu*, dengo Llnd.J (—) 1. bot. 

lentil. (= adesi.) 2. (us.) the thick 
soup made of lentils (or of beans or 
peas). Cf. mdengu. 

^dengua see dekua. 

dengua shave off (the hair,, for a par- 
ticular hair-style). Cf. denge. 

deni* (-, ma-) debt, (financial) obliga- 
tion, fanya (ingia) — . run into debt. 
lipa — . pay debts. Cf. mdeni. 

densi* (-) see dansi. 

deraya*, darii, dirii, durui (— ) armor, 




derereka drip, trickle, flow. 

dereva*, dreva LEngl. J (ma-) 1. driver, 
chauffeur. — wa ndege. pilot. 2. ma- 
chinist, mechanic. Cf. udereva. 

Desemba* LEngl. J (— ) December. 

deski* LEngl.l (-) (school) desk. 

deste* (ma-) deste (vessel in which 
halua is stored). 

desturi*, dasturi (— ) custom, usage, prac- 
tice; customary /prescriptive law; rou- 
tine, ni — . it is customary, kama — . 
according to custom, fuata — . comply 
with customs. 

dete, detepwani (— ) ornith. (species of) 

detea rare limp, hobble. 

detepwani (— ) see dete. 

deua 1. take down/off (a pot from the 
fire). 2. fig. turn (the head, scorn- 

deuli* Llnd.?] (— ) 1. silk sash or 
waistband. 2. cloth for covering a 
bier, pall. 

devu (ma-) augment, of udevu. 

dhabihu*, (rare) dabiku 1. sacrifice 

(things or animals). 2. (— ) sacrifice. 
Cf. madhabahu, madhabuha. 

dhahabu*, dahabu (— ) min. gold, -a — . 

dhahiri* adj. & adv. (well) known, clear, 
plain, evident, obvious. Cf. dhihiri, 

dhaifu*, daifu adj. 1. weak, sickly, in- 
firm, feeble, powerless. 2. insignifi- 
cant, slight, poor (in quality); unsuit- 
able, useless. 3. bad-tempered. 
Cf. dhoofika, udhaifu. 

dhaka* (— ) rare jest, joke; mockery, 

dhakari* (— ) anat. penis. (- uume, 

dhalika* see kadhalika. 

dhalili* adj. deplorable, pitiful, miser- 
able, wretched; humble, meek, obse- 

dhalimu* 1. (ma-) swindler, cheat; 
oppressor, tyrant; unjust person. 

2. adj. unjust, cruel, oppressive, 
violent. Cf. mdhalimu, udhalimu. 

3. v., see dhulumu. 

dhaluma* (— ) see dhuluma. 

dhamana* (-) pledge, guarantee, se- 
curity, bail, weka — . give a guaran- 
tee, go bail. — ya maisha. social 
security. Cf. dhamini. 




dhamani* sing, last month of the south 

dhambi* ( — , ma-) transgression, offense, 
crime; (rel.) sin. mwenye — tupu. 
constant offender/sinner, incorrigible 
criminal. — ya asili. original sin. 

dhambu* (— ) see tambuu. 

dhamini* 1. (— ) guarantee, bail. 2. v. 
vouch for, go bail for, stand up for, 
guarantee, sponsor, appl, dhaminia. 
caus. dhaminisha. Cf. dhamana, 
mdhamini, udhamini. 

dhania. think of/about, suspect. 
pass, dhaniwa. Cf. dhana, 'udhani. 

dhara* (ma-) (usually madhara) damage, 
injury, harm , loss; misfortune, acci- 
dent, pata — . come to harm, be 
damaged/injured, —a — . adj. injuri- 
ous, harmful. Cf. dhuru. 

dharau*, darau 1. despise, disregard, 
have a low opinion ot, scorn; deride, 
ridicule, appl. dharaulia. 2. (— ) 
contempt, scorn; derision. 

dharba* (— ) see dharuba. 

dhamira* (— ) see dhamiri. 

dhamiri*, dhamira 1. (— ) thought, wish; 
(innermost) conviction, intention; 
conscience, ni — ya Waafrika kupata 
uhuru. It is the desire of the Africans 
to achieve independence. 2. v. think, 
intend, appl. dhamiria. reflect (about 
something); intend, contemplate; (ur- 
gently) desire. 

dhamiria* appZ. of dhamiri 2. 

dhamisa* rare bring to an end, conclude. 

dhana* (— ) 1. thought, idea; opinion; 
suggestion, proposal. 2. suspicion, 
conjecture, surmise. Cf. dhani, 

dhani* think, consider, reflect; believe, 
imagine; assume, conjecture, appl. 

dhariri* (— ) radioactive dust. 

dharuba*, dharba (— ) 1. pressure; im- 
pact, shock; blow, stroke (of an ax, 
etc.). 2. storm, gust of wind. 3. Tare, 
arith. multiplication. 

dharura* (— ) 1. (sudden, unexpected) 
event, occurrence; confusion, commo- 
tion. 2. rare business transaction, 

dhati* (-) 1. intention, plan, purpose, 
goal, aim. 2. essence, nature, char- 
acter. 3. adv. doubtless, definitely. 

dhiaka* (ma-) 1. bait, lure. 2. alert- 
ness, readiness (to meet a danger). 

dhiba* (— ) arch, auxiliary troops, 




dhibiti* defend, protect from; manage, 

control, caus. dhibitisha. Cf. madhubuti, 

dhidi* ya... adv. anti-, against. 

dhifa* ( — ) guesthouse; feast. 

dhihaka* ( — ) derision, mockery, laughter, 

inking teasing. «ema (fanya) — . make 

fun of, mock, deride. Cf. dhihaki. 

dhihaki* joke, mock, deride, tease, appl. 
dhihakia. caus. dhihakisha. Cf. 

dhihiri*, dhahiri be clear, obvious, 

apparent^ prov. kweli ikidhihiri uvvongo 
hujitenga. When the truth is obvious, 
falsehood usually gives way. appl. 
dhihiria. caus. dhihirisha explain, 
show, reveal, expose. Cf. dhahiri, 
dhihirifu, udhahirifu. 

dhihirifu* adj. clear, plain, obvious, 
apparent, well known. Cf. dhahiri, 

dhii* dwindle, waste away (strength, 

powers); grow weak, pine away, perish; 
grieve, intr. dhiika. caus. dhiisha. 

dhiika* intr. of dhii. 

dhiisha* caus. of dhii. 

dhiki* 1. be in need, be poor; be in dis- 
tress/difficulty; oppress, afflict. appZ. 
dhikia. intr. dhikika. be in distress. 
2. (ma-) difficulty, want, need, 

misfortune, ana — gani? What kind of 
difficulties does he have? Cf. udhiki. 

dhikiri*, dhukuru, zikri (— ) Isl. mention 
of the name of God. 

dhila* see dhili. 

dhili*, dhila 1. degrade, humiliate, despise. 
2. { — ) humiliation, disparagement, dis- 
tress. 3 {also dhilifu) adj. low, abject, 
humiliated, degraded. Cf. madhilifu, 

dhilifu* see dhili 3. 

dhima* ( — ) responsibility. 

dhiraa* (— ) ell, cubit (unit of measure: 
about 18 inches or half a yard). 

dhoofika*, dhoofu become weak/feeble/ 
infirm, caus. dhoofisha. Cf. dhaifu. 

dhoofisha caus. of dhoofika. 

dhoofu see dhoofika. 

dhoruba* (— ) storm, hurricane. 

dhuha* (— ) 1. period between sunrise and 
noon. 2 Isl. prayer of this time. 

dhuku* rare taste, try. 

dhukuru* 1. remember, think, consider; 
praise (the name of Allah). 2. { — ) see 

dhulu* rare be discovered, come to light. 



dhuluma*, dhaluma (— ) injustice, oppres- 
sion, tyranny, exploitation. Cf. 
dhulumu, dhalima. 

dhulumu* 1. treat unjustly, exploit, oppress; 
do wrong, deceive, appl. dhulumia. 
2. (— •, ma-) injustice, oppression, 
tyranny. Cf. dhuluma, dhalimu. 

dhumna* (— ) dice game, dominoes. 

dhuria* (— ) descendants, progeny. 

dhurisha* caus. of dhuru. 

dhuru* damage, hurt, injure, haidhuru. It 
does no harm. It does not matter. All 
right, OK. appl. dhuria. caus. dhurisha. 
Cf. dhara. 

dia* (— ) punishment, penalty, fine; atone- 
ment (for homicide); ransom; (rel.) re- 
tribution, toa (lipa) — . pay a penalty. 

dibaji* (— ) style (of writing); introduction 
(to a letter or book). Cf. udibaji. 

didima, didimia sink in/down, be sub- 
merged, be swallowed up. intr. didimika 
& intr.-appl. didimikia. bore, pierce, 
penetrate (with an implement), caus. 
didimisha. put/stuff into. 

didimia see didima. 

difensi* [Engl.l sport 1. <-) defense. 
2. (ma-) fullback (football). 

difu* (ma-) {also kidifu, kilifu, vi-) fiber 
(of young coconut leaves). 

digali* (— ) stem of a hookah. Cf. mdakale. 

digrii* [.Engl. J (— , ma-) 1. (academic) 
degree, rank. 2. degree (of temperature, 
etc.). {~ daraja.) 

dike* see tike. 

diko* (ma-) naut. landing-place, moorings. 

dikteshin*, diktesheni (— ) [Engl. J dicta- 
tion (in school). Cf. imla. 

dikteta* [Engl. ] (-) dictator. Cf. 

dila* (— ) dipper, bailer. 

dili (— ) dili (kind of snake). 

dimba (ma-) dimba (camp at which initiation 
rites are performed). 

dimbwi (ma-) pool, puddle. Cf. kidimbwi. 

dimu (— ) see ndimu. 

dinari* (— ) arch, dinar (gold coin). 

dinda 1. be firm /taut. 2. phy. be erect, 
have an erection (of the penis). 3. be 
lasting/durable. 4. be contrary /opposed. 

dindi (ma-) see lindi. 

dindia sink down, go to the bottom; 

dini* (— ) religion, creed, faith, worship. 



Idira* cut the hair, shave the head. 

^dira* (— , ma-) 1. naut. compass. 2. elec. 

3dira (-) dira (kind of bird). 

dirabu* arch. spin. 

dirauira* tSiK cvasivclj', beat muunu the 
bush. Cf. duara, duru. 

dirhamu* (— ) arch. dirhem (coin). 

dirii* (— ) see deraya. 

diriki* {also tadariki, tadaraki) be able, 
be in time (for something); manage, 
achieve, attain; be successful, have 
possibilities; undertake, venture, appl. 
dirikia. Cf. daraka. 

dirisha* [Pers.j (ma-) 1. square, 
rectangle, -a madirisha. checkered, 
checked; divided into squares. 
2. window. Cf. kidirisha. 

Idirizi* [Fr. diriger?J direct, lead (singing, 

^dirizi* (— ) arch, iron armor. 

disa vulg. be erect (of the penis). 
( = dinda.) 

dishi*, disi [.Engl. J (ma-) dish, tureen; 
(rare) dishes, crockery. 

diski* [Engl. J (— ) rare disc, phonograph 

dispensari* [Engl. J (— ) 1. dispensary, 
pharmacy. 2. public health service. 

divai* [Fr. du vinj (— ) wine. 

divisheni* [Engl. J (— ) division, part, 

diwani* (ma-) 1. adviser. 2. public servant; 
civil leader, dignitary. 3. collection of 
poems. 4. arch, court/council of a king. 

doa 1. (ma-) spot, blot. — la mafuta. grease 
spot. 2. pi. madoa {also red. madoadoa 
w. adj. sense: spotted, varicolored. 

doana (ma-) see ndoana. 

*dobi* [ind. J (ma-) laundryman. Cf. 

^dobi adj. heavily laden (a vessel, etc.). 

doda 1. turn bad (of perishable goods), 
become cold (of foods), appl. dodea. 
caus. dodesha. 2. fail to get something 
which one has long desired. 3. drop, 
drip, trickle. 

dodi (ma-), udodi (dodi) 1. wire (iron or 
brass). 2. -bracelet (made of such wire). 

dodo (ma-) 1. breast (of a young woman). 
2.:- embe — . large mango. 




dodoa rare preserve, keep, lay aside. 

dodofu (— ) dodofu (kind of fish). 

dodoki* (ma-) hot. (fruit of the) luffah 
(Luffa acutangula). Cf. m dodoki. 

*dodosa 1. hesitate, drawl; falter, stammer 
(in speaking or reading). 2. cross- 

^dodosa strike, beat, knock, rattle; 
scratch, scrape. 

doea 1. interfere, meddle; spy; observe, 
investigate, study; pursue. 2. mil. 
engage in reconnaissance, appl. doelea. 
Cf. doya, mdoezi. 

dofara*, dofra (ma-) dofara (sailmaker's 

dofra* (ma-) see dofara. 

dogo adj. /adv. 1. small, little; young. 
mtolo mdogo. a small child, red. dogo- 
dogo. very small, tiny. 2. fig. sub-, 
junior, deputy, komiti ndogo. sub- 
committee, vvaziri mdogo. deputy 
minister. 3. slight, insignificant, un- 
important. 4.: kidogo adv. a little, 
somewhat, not much. Cf. kidogo, udogo. 

dogori (ma-) dogori (kind of drum). 

dohani*, dokhani (-) 1. smoke-vent, 
chimney. 2. smoke, soot. 3. long, 
narrow basket (for carrying fruit). 

dohori* (— ) 1. rare midday, noon. 2. Isl. 
time of prayer. 

dokeza 1. indicate, suggest, hint; tell some- 
thing secretly. 2. use something in small 
amounts (e.g., medicine). Cf. dokezo, 
dokoa, kidokezo, kidoko. 

dokezi (ma-) hindrance, obstacle, 

dokezo (ma-) suggestion, hint, recommenda- 
tion. Cf. dokeza. 

dokhani* ( — ) see ^dohani. 

dokoa 1. break/bite off a small amount of 
something. 2. = dokeza. appl. dokolea. 
report, tell (news). Cf. dokeza. 

dokolea appl. of dokoa. 

dokua (— ) dokua (kind of beer). 

Idola*, daula, daulati (— , ma-) government, 
state, power. Jumuia ya Madola. United 
Nations, mkuu wa — . chief of state. 

2dola* LEngl.l (-) dollar. 

dole (ma-) 1. augment, of kidole. 2. (single) 
banana. 3. clumsy person. 

doli* [Engl J (-) doll. 

dolola 1. dribble, drool, slaver (of saliva). 

2. be unsuccessful (in getting something). 

3. take a long time (in agreeing on the 
price, when making a purchase). 



dominika* i_Lal. j (—) re I. Sunday 

( = siku ya Bwana). — ya Malawi. Palm 

domo (ma-) (augment, ofmdomo) 1. {large) 
lip/beak. 2. fig. talkativeness, boast- 
ing, ana — . He talks constantly/ 
chatters, piga — . boast, brag. 3. fig. 
projection, crag; promentory, cape. 

dona 1. pick at, peck, pick up; bite (fish, 
at bait), kuku wanadona nafaka. Chickens 
pick up grain, sar aki wanadona sasa. 
The fish are biting now (it is a good time 
for fishing), appl. donea. caus. donesha. 
ass. donana. peck each other (chickens , 
etc.). inv. donoa. peck, sting, bite; 
(fig,) kiss. 2. (ma-) grain of poor 
quality. Cf. mdono. 

donda (ma-) (large) ulcer, sore. — ndugu. 
sore that refuses to heal. Cf. dondoa, 

*dondo (ma-) 1. {large) cowrie-shell. 
2. starch (for clothing) , gloss. 

■^dondo, dondoo (ma-) {usually madondo) 
excerpt, quotation, extract; note(s). 
Cf. ^dondoa. 

Idondoa 1. pick up a little at a time. 
2. {also caus. dondosha) drop (one 
object after another). 3. make a 
selection. 4. quote. 

^dondoa form/cause sores; wound, injure. 
Cf. donda. 

^dondoo (ma-) see ^dondo. 

■^dondoo (— ) see dondoro. 

1 dondoro, dondoo (— ) dondoro (kind of 
antelope, steinbuck). 

■^dondoro (— ) dondoro (stinging insect, 

donge (ma-) 1. lump, ball. — la uzi. ball 
of yarn. — la damu. clot of blood. 
2. coll. money; winnings; bonus, raise 
in pay. Cf. tonge, kidonge. 

dongo see udongo. 

dongoa (— ) mass, lump. 

donoa inv. of dona. 

dopa* (ma-) sailmaker's palm (of leather 
or canvas, to protect the hand when 
sewing heavy material). 

dopoa rare see toboa. 

Idoria* Llnd.l (-) doria (bleached 

z doria* (— ) mil. patrol, advance guard. 
askari — . outpost, picket, linda — . to 

dosari* (— ) rare error, mistake; fault, 




doti* Llnd.l (-) 1. loincloth (- ^shuka.) 
2. measure of length (4 yards). — ya 
kanga. a part of the kanga (see kanga). 

dovuo (— ) dribble of saliva (during sleep). 

doya, doyadoya reconnoiter, spy, investi- 
gate; sponge (o free meal, although un- 
invited), caus. doyeza. Cf. doea, 

doyadoya see doya. 

doyeza caus. of doya. 

drammeja* [Engl.} (— ) drummer. 

dresa* [.Engl, dresser] (ma-) orderly, 
nurse's aide. Cf. udresa. 

dreva* (ma-) see dereva. 

dua* (— ) 1. prayer; plea, petition, omba 
— . pray. prou. — ya kuku haimpati 
mwewe. The prayer of the hen does not 
reach the hawk. 2. curse, spell, incanta- 



duara*, duwara (— , ma-) 1. circle. 

2. wheel; windlass, winch. — ya maji. 
waterwheel. — ya meno. cogwheel. — 
kamili. elec. circuit. 3. adj. round, 
circular, usukani ni mduara. The 
steering wheel is round. Cf. diradira, 
duru, mduara. 

duazi*, duwazi (ma-) a person who is 

speechless from amazement. Cf. duwaa. 

duba* rare be partially/ not quite full/ 

^dubu* rare improve, correct. 

^dubu* (— ) zool. bear. 

dubwana* [.Ind.^1 1. (ma-) giant. 2. adj. huge, 
gigantic; extreme, excessive. 

dubwasha* Und.J (— ) loud (dull, reverber- 
ating) sound (report of a shotgun, noise 
of an ax striking wood, etc.). Cf. 

dude* (ma-) 1. anything the name of which 
one does not know or cannot remember, 
what's-its-name, thingumbob. — gani 
hili? What kind of a thing is that? 
2. coll. worthless person, good-for- 
nothing. Cf. kidude; also dudu (?). 

dudia rare fill in (a hole); fill up, pour 

^dudu* (ma-) 1. augment, of *mdudu. 
2. (fig.) parasite (term of abuse). 

2dudu (ma-) med. infectious disease; 
smallpox. — mai. chicken pox. Cf. 

duduka {also dudulika) be deformed, dis- 
figured (as a result of illness or an 
accident). — uso. have a pockmarked 
face. Cf. ~dudu, duduvule, kidudusi. 

dudulika see duduka. 




dudumi (— ) dudumi (large horn). 

dudumia pierce, puncture, perforate, cons. 
dudumiza. intr. dudumika. intr.-ass. 
dudumikana. cause each other embarrass- 
ment, intr. -caus. dudumikiza. press, 

dudumikiza intr. -caus. of dudumia. 

dudumizi (ma-) dudumizi (kind of bird, 
coucal). (= tipitipi.) 

duduvule (— ) duduvule (kind of wood-boring 
hornet), Cf. dudu. 

dufi (— ) dufi (kind of sea-tortoise). 

dufu* 1. (ma-) simplicity, folly, stupidity. 
— la mtu or mtu — . foolish/stupid person. 
2. adj. stupid, foolish, silly; dull, 
narrow-minded; useless, uninteresting; 
(fig.) insipid, in bad taste. Cf. udufu. 

dugi adj. dull, blunt, kisu kidugi. a dull 
knife. Cf. dugika. 

dugika be dull/blunt. Cf. dugi. 

dugu (— ) dugu (round mat). 

duguda shake, jog, jolt. 

duhushi* search out; look into, investigate; 

duka* (ma-) shop, store, business, weka 
(anza) — . open up a business, weka 
dukani. display for sale, vunja — . give 
up a business, tembea madukani. go on 

a shopping trip. — la vitabu (mboga). 
book (vegetable) store. 

dukisa see dukiza. 

dukisi (ma-) see dukizi. 

dukiza, dukisa impose oneself, intrude; 

listen (secretly), eavesdrop, appl. dukizia. 
Cf. daka (?), dukizi. 

dukizi, dukisi (ma-) eavesdropping, gossip- 
mongering. Cf. dukiza. 

dukuduku* (— ) 1. confusion, embarrassment; 
amazement, speechlessness; unrest, ex- 
citement; alarm, apprehension. 2. urgent 
request. Cf. daghadagha. 

dulabu* (— ) spinning wheel. 

duma (— ) zool. cheetah. 

dumaa be stunted, underdeveloped, atrophied; 
be backward, retarded (mentally). 

dumbu dial. see umbu. 

dume (ma-) male animal, male sex. — la 
farasi or farasi — . stallion, fig. amezaa 
— . She has given birth to a boy. sauti 
— . bass voice. Cf. Time. 

dumiliza* go through the ceremony of blood- 
friendship. Cf. dumilizo; also dumu, 

dumilizo* (ma-) (ceremony of) blood- 
friendship. Cf. dumiliza. 




dumisha* conclude a blood-friendship. 
Cf. dumu caus. 

1 dumu (ma-) can, jug, mug, pot. 
( = mdurau.) 

dumu* remain, keep on, last (a long time), 
continue. -» daima. last forever, caus. 
dumisha. Cf. daima. 

dunda strike forcibly against something. 
Cf. mdundo. 

*dundu (ma-) dried gourd or pumpkin used 
as a container for liquids, calabash. 

^dundu (— ) scavenger beetle. 

dundua be deformed/mutilated. 

dunduiza begin to ripen (of fruit). 

dunduliza put aside, lay away, save, 
keep in reserve. 

dundumio (ma-) anat. larynx, Adam's 
apple. ( = kikoromeo.) 

*dunga bore, pierce (usually the ears, for 
ornaments); (fig.) administer a hypo- 
dermic injection. Cf. kidungadunga. 

^dunga (ma-) dunga (covered basket). 

dunge (ma-) (green) cashew apple. See 
also bibo, mbibo. 

dungu (ma-) hut or shelter for a watchman 
guarding crops against birds; 

scaffolding; (rel.) pulpit. — la ndege. 
cockpit (of an airplane). 

dungudungu (ma-) 1. deformity. 2. deformed 
person. 3. something badly made. 
4. confusion of mind. 

dungumaro (-) 1. evil spirit. 2. drum for 
warding off such a spirit, ngoma ya — . 
ceremony for exorcising an evil spirit. 

duni* adj. insignificant, low, mean, 

inferior; unimportant, useless, jambo — . 
an unimportant matter, lowness, vulgari- 
ty, mtu — . an insignificant person. 

dunia* (— ) universe, world, globe, earth. 
sehemu ya — . continent, fariki/aga — . 
euph. depart from the world, die. 

dunzi (ma-) see mdunzidunzi. 

1 dupa step/jump over, cross; press forward, 
push one's way through. 

^dupa (ma-) see tupa. 

dura* (-) parrot. (= kasuku.) 

duriani* \_Mal.~] (-) fruit of the breadfruit 
tree. Cf. mduriani. 

duru* 1. surround, encircle; go around. 
fig. akili zimemduru. He has lost his 
mind. 2. {— ) turn, revolution, rotation; 
(fig-) drinking by turn. coll. sasa ni — 
yangu. Now it is my turn (to drink). Cf. 

durubini* (-) see darubini. 



durufu (ma-) canvas cover. 
durui* (_) see deraya. 

durusi* rare attend a school, learn, 
study. Cf. darasa. 

dusa* (& appl. dusia) sponge, live at 
others' expense. Cf. mdusi. 

dutu (-, ma -) 1. form, shape, appearand 
constitution. 2. fig. spot, blemish; 
pimple, wart. 

duvi pi. of uduvi. 

duwaa*, dawaa, duala be dumbfounded, 
shocked, unnerved; be silent (from 
astonishment); be in a difficult situa- 
tion; become cnnfnaeA. C f . duazi. 

dusamali*(_) see dusumali. duwara* (-, ma .) see duara . 

dusumali*. dusamali [PersJ (-) (colored) duwazi * ( ma -) *« duazi. 
kerchief or scarf (worn by women). i 

duzi (ma-) rare eavesdropper, gossip. 

duta rebound, bounce back (a ball); re- 2 

verberate; return, reflect (light). dUZ '* ^ ma *^ ( semi - wild ) tomcat. 

ebee* see labeka 
ebu!* see 2 hebu! 

eda* (-, ma-) eda (ritual seclusion of a 

woman after the death of her husband or eewaa*. eewala ,-„ 
after divorce). 

edita* [Engl.1 (-) editor. 

ee! inter], oh! -walla, certainly, all 

edaha* (_) edaha (a sacrifice). 

edashara*. hedashara (-) arch, eleven. 
-a — . eleventh. 

Edeni* see Aden. 

terj. see ewaa. 
efendi* (-) see afendi. 
efya caus. of epa. 

egama, chegama, egema, chegema lean on, 
rest on, be supported; approach, prov. 
mwega haanguki ela mwega kugwa. Who 




supports himself does not fall, unless 
his support falls, appl. egamia, egemea. 
intr. egamika, egameka. caus. egesha, 
egamisha, egamiza, egamesha, egameza. 
support, prop up; establish, confirm. 
caus. -ass. egeshana. bring together, 
connect. Cf. egesha, egemeo, mche- 
gamo, mwegamo. 

egema see egama. 

egemeo (ma-) 1. prop, support; railing, 
banister. 2. fig. support, assistance. 
Cf. egama. 

egesha bring up close, bring into contact 
with; secure, moor, meli imeegesha. 
The ship is moored (at the wharf), appl. 
egeshea. ass. egeshana. Cf. egama. 
caus. -ass. 

ehee! enhee! inter], expressing agreement 
or approval: yes. 

ehsani* (-) see hisani. 

ehuka be a lunatic, be seized with mad- 
ness. Cf. mwehu. 

eidi* (-) see idi. 

eka* [EngZ.3 (-) acre. 

ekevu see elekevu. 

ekeza rare intr.-appl.-caus. of elea. 

eksidenti* {.Engl.1 (-) see aksidenti. 

ekua, wekua break (down), destroy, knock 
to pieces, intr. ekuka. 

ekuka intr. of ekua. 

ekundu adj. red (all shades from yellow- 
red to red-brown). — kidogo. reddish. 

ekwata* LEngl.l (-) see ikweta. 

elafu* see elfu. 

elea 1. be on the surface, float, swim. 

samaki wanaelea. Fish swim. 2. fig. be 
clear/plain/evident, maneno yako 
yamenielea. Your words are clear/ 
obvious to me. caus. eleza. 1. cause 
to float. 2. make clear, explain, caus.- 
appl. elezea, appl.-caus. eleleza. 
imitate, copy. intr. -appl. elekea. point 
to, be directed toward; incline toward, 
tend to. intr.-appl.-ass. elekeana. be 
face to face, confront each other, be 
opposite; agree, correspond, intr. -ass. - 
caus. elekeanisha. intr.-appl.-caus. 
elekeza. show, show the way; order, 
direct, elekeza chombo. steer a ship. 
intr.-appl.-caus. -ass. elekezana. reach 
an agreement, ass. -caus. elekanya. put 
one object on top of another, pile up. 
See also elekea, elewa, and cf. ^chelezo 
elekevu, elezo, kieleaji, kielekezo, kielezo, 
maelekeo, maelezi, maelezo, mwelewa, 
mwelezaji, mwelezo, ueleano, uelekeo, 
uelekevu, uelekezo, uelezaji. 

eleka carry (a child on one's hip/back). 
Cf. mbeleko, mweleko. 



elekanya ass. -caus. of elea. 

elekea, lekea 1. point to, be directed 

toward, nyumba yangu inaelekea kusini. 
My house faces south. 2. appear, seem. 
inaelekea kuwa atakuja. It seems that he 
will come. 3. realize, understand, sasa 
wanaanza kuelekea. Now they are be- 
ginning to understand. Cf. elea (intr.- 
appl.), elekevu, kielekezo, maelekeo, 
mwelekeo, uelekeo, uelekevu, uelekezo. 

-elekeana, -a kuelekeana adj. opposite, 
mistari inayoelekeana. opposite lines/ 
sides. Cf. elea. 

elekevu, lekevu, ekevu adj. clear, sensi- 
ble, reasonable, intelligent, understand- 
ing; (fig') enlightened, open-minded. 
Cf. elekea, uelekevu. 

elekeza intr.-appl.-caus. of elea. 

elektrisiti* {.Engl.1 (-) electricity. 
( = umeme.) 

eleleza appl.-caus. of elea. 

elemea see lemea. 

elementi* LEngl.J (-) chem. element. 

elemisha* see elimisha. 

elewa (pass, of elea, used actively) 
understand, sielewi maana. I don't 
understand, simuelewi kamwe. I don't 
understand him. naelewa kwamba 
hatafika tena. I understand that he will 
not come again. Cf. mwelewa. 

eleza caus. of elea. 

elezo (ma-) (usually maelezo) explanation, 
description, commentary. Cf. elea, 

elfeen* (-) arch, two thousand. 

elfu*, elafu, alfu, alaf, alafu (ma-) thousand. 
red. elfu elfu. great number. 

eliki*, elki, iliki, hiliki Dnd.l (-) carda- 
mom (E lettaria cardamomum). 

elimika* be well informed/educated. Cf. 

elimisha*, elemisha impart knowledge, 
teach, instruct, train, drill, appl. eli- 
mishia. teach something to someone. 
pass, elimishwa. Cf. elimu. 

elimu*, ilmu, ilimu (— ) knowledge, educa- 
tion, science. — ya hesabu. arithmetic, 
mathematics. — ya afya. hygiene. — ya 
roho {or nafsi). psychology. — ya ukulima. 
agricultural science. Cf. elimika, eli- 
misha, maalum, mwalimu, taalamu, 
taalimu, mtaalamu, utaalamu, uwalimu. 

Eljuma* see Ijumaa. 

elki* (-) see eliki. 

ema adj. good (in gen.), chakula chema. 
good food, moyo mwema. a good heart. 
upepo mwema. pleasant breeze. Cf. 
mem a, vema, wema. 

«a (-) dial, weir-basket, fishing-net. 



embamba adj. 1. thin, narrow; slender, 

slim, bonde jembamba. a narrow valley. 
mtu mwembamba. a slim/slender person. 
2. fig. fine, delicate, nafaka nye- 
mbamba. fine grain, nguo nyembamba. 
fine material, gauze. 

embe* \_lnd. ] (-) mango (fruit). Cf. 

emboe (— ) see embwe. 

embwe, emboe (-) resin, gum (of the 

enchini* (-) see injini. 

enda 1. go (in gen.), move, progress. - 
kwa miguu. go on foot. — kwa motokaa. 
go by automobile, drive. — kwa farasi. 
ride (a horse). — nyumbani. go into a 
house. — mbio. run, gallop, tikiti ya 
kwenda na kurudi. round-trip ticket. 
2. go forward, proceed. 3. do, act. — 
chafya. sneeze. — miayo. yawn, in 
con], w. poss. pron.: naenda (njia) 
zangu. I go my own way. imp. sing. 
nenda, enenda; pZ. nendeni. nendeni 
zenu. Go about your business. oppZ. 
endea. go for/with, endea kuni. go to 
collect firewood, appl.-refl. jiendea. 
go by oneself, take a walk for pleasure. 
double appl. endelea. go forward, move 
ahead; make progress; continue, habari 
inaendelea. The story will be continued. 
double appl.-caus. endeleza. develop; 
spell (words), intr. endeka. njia 
haiendeki. The street is impassable. 
intu-caus. endekeza. fit, adapt, adjust; 
pay attention; spoil (a child). 

usimwendekeze maneno yake. Pay no 
attention to his words, caus. endesha, 
enza. set in motion, start; steer, con- 
duct, lead (a meeting); manage, operate 
(a business); carry out (a plan). 
endesha (rare enza) gari (motakaa). 
drive a wagon (an automobile), endesha 
eropleni. pilot an airplane. Cf. endapo, 
endeleo, enenzi, huenda, kiendeleo, 
kujiendesha, mwenda, mwendeleo, 
mwendeiezi, mwendesha, mweiiucsiioji, 
mwendo, mwenenzi, mwenzi, uendelezo, 
uendeshaji, wenzo. 

endapo conj. in case, in the event that... 
Cf. enda. 

endelea double appl. of enda. 

endeleo, endelezo (ma-, us. pi.) 1. (act of) 
advancing, proceeding. 2. increase, 
growth, expansion, development. 

3. improvement, enhancement, progress. 

4. rare success. Cf. enda. 

endeleza double appl.-caus. of enda. 
endesha caus. of enda. 

enea spread, expand; become known, caus. 
eneza. spread, expand (something); make 
known; compare, eneza habari. spread 
news, advertise, caus. -ass. enezana. 
Cf. eneo, enezi, chenezo, maenezo, 
mwenea, mweneza, mwenezi. 

enenda imper. see enda. 

enenza see *enza. 



enenzi (ma-) (usually maenenzi) gait, 
pace, maenenzi ya pole pole (haraka). 
slow (rapid) gait. Cf. enda. 

eneo, cheneo, kieneo (ma-) 1. expansion, 
area, range, extent; (fig.) sphere of in- 
fluence, zone. - la nchi hii. the extent 
of this country. - la kushilia kwa 
majeshi. military occupation zone. 
2.: -a eneo. adj. square (as a measure 

of arpn). inotii •»„ „ t 

__ „„„„ inn., iuui oijuare 

inches. Cf. enea. 
eneza caus. of enea. 

enezi (ma-) extension, distribution. Cf. 

ienga split, slit, cut up (e.g., manioc). 

2 enga spoil, pamper, red. (int.) engaenga. 
overwhelm someone with affection. 

engua remove foam/cream. — siagi katika 
maziwa. separate the cream from the 

enhee! see ehee! 

enjili* (-) see injili. 

enjine* (-) rare see injini. 

-enu poss. pron. 2nd pers. pi. your. 

nyumba yenu. your house, nyumba zenu. 
your houses. 

-enye, -enyi possessing, having, contain- 
ing, used in conj. w. other parts of 

speech to form adjectives. — gi za . dark. 
- maji. moist, watery. - wa tu wengi. 
thickly populated. - kutawala. govern- 
ing, ruling. Cf. kienyeji, kimwenye, 
mwenye, mwenyeji. 

:nyewe adj. -self (emphasizing identity). 
mtu mwenyewe. the man himself, mimi 
mwenyewe. I myself, my very self. 
sehemu inayojitawala wenyewe. autono- 
mous region (i.e., self-governing, which 
governs itself). 

*enyi see -enye. 

2 enyi! interj. ( < ee ninyi) exclamation 
referring to 2nd pers. pi. Hey, you there! 

enza, enenza, eza measure, survey; 

enza caus. of enda. 

enzi*. aenzi, ezi 1. (-) power; rule, 
dominion, sovereignty, kiti cha -. 
throne, katika - ya... during the reign 
of... 2. invest with power; install, 
inaugurate (as ruler); exalt, glorify. 

epa turn aside, get out of the way; go 
round, make a detour; deviate, diverge; 
reflect; avoid, evade; (fig. J ma ke ex- 
cuses, wriggle out of something; shirk 
(something), make oneself scarce, caus. 
epesha, efya. inv. epua. put out of the 
way, clear away, remove, epua chungu 
motoni. take a pot off the fire, inv.-intr. 
epuka. same senses as epa. inv. -ass. 
epukana. pass by each other, avoid 




each other; be at variance, disagree. 
inv.-caus. epusha. keep at a distance, 
reject, nimeepushwa. I am kept from 
(doing something), -siyoepukika. un- 
avoidable, inevitable. 

epesi adj. 1. light (in weight), kiatu 
chepesi. slipper. 2. quick, fast, swift; 
(fig) energetic; hasty, impatient. 3. un- 
important, of no consequence, not 

eproni* LEngl.J (— ) apron. 

epua inv. of epa. 

epuka inv.-intr. of epa. 

epusha inv.-caus. of epa. 

erevu adj. clever, shrewd, talented, 
capable, ingenious; crafty, sly. Cf. 
erevuka, mwerevu, werevu. 

erevuka be shrewd, intelligent, enlightened. 
caus. erevusha. make wise, open 
someone's eyes, enlighten. Cf. erevu. 

erevusha caus. of erevuka. 

eria* LEngl.J (-) area. 

erieli* LEngl.J (-) elec. aerial, 

eropleni* {.Engl. J (-) airplane, endesha 
— . pilot an airplane, njia ya —. air- 

esha* (-) see isha. 

esi* (— ) rare see hesi. 
espesheli* LEngl.J adv. especially. 

*eti conj. as if. 

^eti! see ati! 

-etu poss. pron. 1st pers. pi. our. kitabu 
chetu. our book, vitabu vyetu. our books. 

eua 1. cleanse, purify, fig., re I. purify by 
prayer or magic. 2. med. disinfect, appl. 

eupe adj. 1. white, light (in color); light 
bright, transparent, clean, clear. 2. fig. 
open, free, nchi nyeupe. open land (with- 
out trees), moyo mvveupe. an open/ 
honest character. 

eusi, ausi adj. 1. black, dark (in color). 
2. fig. dark, gloomy. 

evvaa*, eewaa, eewala interj. of assent or 
approval: yes, 

ewe! interj. ( < ee wewe) Hey there! 

ewedeka see weweseka. 

eza see *enza. 

ezeka 1. cover. — nyumba. cover a roof 
(with grass, straw). 2. fig. beat, thrash. 
Cf. ezeko, ezua, mwezekaji, mwezeko. 

ezeko (ma-) 1. (act of) covering a roof, 
thatching. 2. material for roof covering. 
Cf. ezeka. 


'A* (-) 

ezua uncover; remove roofing (grass, 
straw). Cf. ezeka. 

fa 1. die, perish. — njaa (baridi). die of 
hunger (cold), be very hungry (cold). 
— kucheka. die laughing, split one's 
sides. — maji. drown. 2. lose 
strength, suffer loss of..., come to an 
end. — macho, become blind, lose one's 
eyesight, saa imekufa. The clock has 
stopped, desturi hizi zimekufa. These 
practices are no longer observed, appl. 
fia. amefia wapi? Where did he die? 
double appl. filia. pass. fiwa. amefiwa 
na mtotowake. His child has died. 
caus. fisha. refl.-caus. jif isha. commit 



suicide. Cf. fu, kifa, kifo, kifu, 
ma fa, mafu, mfisha, mfiwa, mfu, ufu. 

faa be good, be of use; fit, suit, be 
suitable/appropriate; be sufficient/ 
adequate; help, haifai. It is useless/ 
unsuitable /inappropriate /improper. 
appl. falia. ass. faana. be useful to/ 
help each other. Cf. fana, fanana, 
fanya, kifaa, kifano, mafaa, mfano, 
mfanya, mfanyaji, mfanyizaji, 
ufananaji, ufanyaji. 

fadhaa*, fazaa, fatha ( — ) difficulty, 
excitement, confusion, shikwa na 
(patwa na) — . be involved in diffi- 
culties, be thrown into confusion. Cf. 

fadhaika* be confused/terrified, caus. 
fadhaisha. Cf. fadhaa. 

fadhili* 1. show kindness/favor; lay under 
an obligation, put in one's debt. appl. 
fadh ilia. intr. fadhilika. be well-disposed, 
show good will. 2. (— ) kindness, favor, 
amiability; preference, privilege; grati- 
tude, prov. — ya punda (ni) mashuzi 
The donkey's gratitude is stench. Cf. 
afadhali, mfadhili, tafadhali, ufadhili. 

fafanisha contrast, compare; explain. Cf. 

fafanua recognize, understand, see clearly. 
appl. fafanulia. make clear to someone. 
caus. fafanusha. explain, make clear. 
intr. fafanuka. be recognizable, clear, 
plain. Cf. fafanusi, mfafanusi, ufafa- 
nuzi; also fafanisha. 

fafanusha caus. of fafanua. 

fafanusi (— ) theory. Cf. fafanua. 

fagia sweep, brush, remove (dirt), appl. 
fagilia. caus. (int.) fagiza. pass. 
fagiwa. Cf. fagio, mfagiaji, mfagio, 


fagio (ma-), kifagio (vi-) broom, brush. 
Cf. fagia. 

fagiza caus. (int.) of fagia. 

fahali* (— , ma-) 1. bull. prov. mafahali 
wawili hawakai zizi moja. Two bulls 
cannot live in the same herd (farmyard). 
2. adj., fig. manly, brave, strong. 

fahamivu*, fahamifu adj. 1. intelligent, 
quick, acute. 2. understood, implied, 
sharti — . implied condition.. Cf. fahamu. 

fahamu* 1. know, be acquainted with, 
understand, fahamu ! Pay attention! 
kutofahamu. misunderstand, appl. 
fahamia. intr. fahamika. be understood/ 
understandable; remember, caus. faha- 
misha. inform, remind. 2. (— ) (also 
ufahami sing.) understanding, intelli- 
gence; consciousness; memory, recol- 
lection, potea — . lose consciousness. 
Cf. fahamivu, ufahamikiano, ufahamivu. 

faharasa*, fahirisi (-) list, index, catalog, 
table of contents. 

fahuvva* see fauwa. 

faida*, fayida (— ) gain, earnings, profit; 
(coll.) interest (on a loan), mkopo bila 
ya — . interest-free loan. — ghafi. gross 
profits. — safi. net profits. — ya hesa. 
dividend. Cf. faidi. 

faidi* profit/benefit from something; bear 
interest; prosper, thrive, appl. faidia. 
biashara imemfaidia. He made a profit 
on the business. Cf. faida. 

faili* {.Engl. J (ma-) file (of papers). 

fainali* LEngl.J {—) sport final (round 
or match). 

faini* LEngl. J (-) fine, penalty, toza — . 
charge/exact a fine, lipa — . pay a fine. 

faiti*, fawiti hinder, check; delay, detain; 
keep someone waiting, intr. faitika. be 
delayed, be prevented (from going some- 

faja* (— ) rare stable. (= ^zizi.) 

fahari*, fakhari 1 boast, brag, show off, fajaa* adv., rare suddenly, unexpectedly, 
plume oneself. appZ. faharia. caus. 

faharisha, fahari. reft, jifaharisha. 
boast, pride oneself. 2. (-) dignity, 
glory, magnificence, pomp, ostentation, 
pride, arrogance, fanya — . give one- 
self airs, be haughty/arrogant. 3. adj. 
kwa — . splendid, magnificent; proud, 
pompous, ostentatious. 


i* (— ) see faharasa. 

fakaika*, fakefu adv., rare much more, 
much less; not to speak of. Cf. fauka. 



fakiri*, fukara 1. (-) beggar, poor person. 
2. adj. poor. Cf. fukarika, ufukara. 



Falada*, Faladi sing., arch. Mombasa. 

falaki* (— ) astronomy, astrology, piga — . 
prophesy, tell fortunes; cast a horo- 

falani* (— ) see fulani. 

fali* ( — ) omen, augury; fate, chance. 

f_l ;.!* i \ r 1 •. • I 1 1 1 > \ 

'»"" \ — ) laiin icmiurcu a game; Lag;, 

falka*, faluka (— ) naut. hold (of a ship). 

falme pi. of ufalme. 

falsafa* (— ) rare philosophy. (~ liekima.) 

faluda* (— ) porridge made of corn (maize). 

faluka* (— ) see falka. 

fana prosper, succeed, ass. fanana, q.v. 
caus. fanya, q.v. Cf. faa. 

fanaka* (— ) prosperity, success, benefit. 
Cf. fanikia, fanikio. 

fanana be similar, resemble, caus. 

fananisha. compare, contrast. Cf. faa, 

faneli*, fanel \_Engl. J ( — ) rare funnel 
(of a ship), chimney. 

fanguru* L?J (— ) clamp, vise. 

fani* adj. worthy, valuable; favorable, 

fania see fanya. 

fanicha* {.Engl. ] (-) furniture. 

fanidi* choose, select (by comparing). 

fanikia* succeed in something, attain (a 
goal), pass, fanikiwa. be successful. 
Cf. fanaka, fanikio, mafanikio, ufanikivu. 

fanikio" (ma-) success. Cf. fanaka, 

fanikiwa* see fanikia. 

fanusi* (— ) lantern, lamp; headlight, 

fanya, fania make, do, perform, produce. 

— shainba. prepare a field (for planting). 

— amani. make peace. — biashara. carry 
on trade. — dawa. give medical treat- 
ment. — kazi. work. — kelele. be noisy. 

— mali. accumulate wealth, make a profit. 

— matata. cause trouble. — shauri. ad- 
vise, negotiate, discuss. — serikali. 
form a government, appl. fanyia. appl.- 
refl. jifanyia. do something without 
purpose/unsystematically. intr. fanyika. 
be done, take place; be feasible, practi- 
cable, caus. fanyiza, fanza. repair, put 

in order; complete, perfect, ass. fanyana. 
act together/jointly, cooperate, refl. 
jifanya. pretend, pose, feign, pass. 
fanywa. Cf. fa, fana. 

fanza caus. of fanya. 

fara*, farafara, furifuri adj. /adv. brimful. 
jaa — . be full to the brim. Cf. fori, fura. 

farad hi 



faradhi*, faridha (— ) 1. immutability. 
2. obligation, necessity, kula ni — ya 
kila mtu. Every human being must eat. 

farafara* see fara. 

faragha* (rare feraga) 1. {— ) seclusion, 
privacy; secrecy, secret, nilisema naye 
kwa — . I have spoken with him privately. 
coll. amekwenda — . He has gone to the 
toilet. 2. adv. personally, privately, 

faragua* boast, brag. 

faraja* (— ) rest, comfort, consolation, 
relief, support, pata — . get relief/rest. 
coll. amepatikana na — . He is dead. 
Cf. fariji, mfariji. 

faraji* see fariji. 

Ifaraka* (— ) wool-comb, weaver's comb. 
Cf. fariki. 

"faraka* (— ) division, sect. Cf. fariki. 

ifaraka* see fariki. 

farakana* ass. of fariki. 

farakano* (ma-) 1. separation, division, 
split, faction, sect. — la dini. reli- 
gious sect. — la chama. splitting up of 
a party. 2. segregation. Cf. fariki. 

Maranga* (ma-) franc (unit of currency). 

^faranga* tPort. J (ma-) {also dimin. 
kifaranga, vi-) young bird, nestling, 
chick. ( = kinda, mtoto.) 

farangi* (— ) med., rare syphilis. 
( = kaswende.) 

Faransa* 1. adj. French. 2. sing. France 
( = Ufaransa). Cf. Mfaransa, Kifaransa. 

farasi* (— ) 1. horse, enda kwa ~. ride. 
panda — . mount a horse, shuka juu ya 
— . dismount. 2. frame, framework, 
support. — ya baisikeli. frame of a 
bicycle. 3. knight (chess). Cf. ki- 

farasila* (— ) see frasila. 

faridha* (— ) see faradhi. 

fariji*, faraji comfort, console, relieve, 
help. appl. farijia. intr. farijika. Cf. 

fariki*, faraka rare separate from, be 
divorced from. fig. — dunia. die. appl. 
farikia. caus. farikisha. ass. farakana, 

farikiana. be separated from each other. 

1 2 

Cf. faraka, faraka, farakano, mfariki, 


farikiana* ass. of fariki. 

Farisayo* (ma-) Bibl. Pharisee. 

farisi* adj. experienced, skilful, expert, 
capable. Cf. ufarisi. 




faritha* rare pay (for). 

faru ( — ) [augment, of kifaru) 1. (large) 
rhinoceros. 2. fig., mil. tank, armored 

faruma*, foroma \_P ort. J (— ) form /last foi 
blocking caps (after washing). 

farumi*, farumu, furumi ( — ) naut. ballast. 
Cf. iurumiza. 

farumu* (— ) see farumi. 

fasaha*, fasihi adj. pure, correct (style); 
faultless, lucid, lugha yake — sana. 
His language is very correct. Cf. 

faseha* (— ) rare cleanliness, purity. 
Cf. fasaha. 

fashini* iPers. ?J (— ) naut. rudder- 

fasihi* see fasaha. 

exposition, interpretation; translation. 
Cf. mfasiri, tafsiri. 

fata see fyata. 

fataki* ( — ) 1. mil. percussion cap. 
2. fireworks. 3. elec. fuse. 

fatha* ( — ) see fadhaa. 

fathah' 1 ' adv. exceiientiy. 

fatiha* (— ) 'Opener' = first sura of the 

fatiisha* be curious, inquisitive; search, 
spy on. Cf. tafiti, tafuta. 

fauka*, foko: — ya. rare more than. Cf. 

faulu* 1. succeed, be successful, reach 
one's goal, bila kufaulu. unsuccess- 
fully. 2. naut. get past, get round (a 
point, etc.), weather (a storm). 3. (— ) 
success ( = ufaulu). 

fasiki* (— ) immoral/dissolute person. 
Cf. ufasiki. 

Masili* (— ) 1. shoot, sprout. 2. fig. off- 
spring, descendant, hana asili wala — . 
He has no family connections. 

■^fasili* cut, tailor (clothes). 

fasiri* 1. explain, interpret; translate 
(languages), appl. fasiria. caus. 
fasirisha. 2. (— ) explanation, 

fauwa!*, fahuwa ! interj., rare good! all 
right! it doesn't matter. 

fawiti* see faiti. 

fayida* (— ) see faida. 

fazaa* ( — ) see fadhaa. 

Februari* LEngLJ (—) February. 

fedeha* (— ) see fedheha. 




fedha* (— ) silver; money, currency, coin. 
-a — . (made of) silver. — taslimu 
(mkononi tayari). ready money, cash, 
mambo ya — . financial matters. — za 
mkopo. loan, credit, waziri wa (mambo 
ya) — . minister of finance, prov. — 
fedheha. Money does not make happi- 

fedhaluka*, fethaluka (— ) 1. min. carne- 
iian. 2. marijani ya — . red coral. 

fedheha*, fedeha (— ) shame, disgrace, 
insult, scandal. Cf. fedhehi. 

fedhehi* put someone to shame, disgrace, 
dishonor. Cf. fedheha. 

fedhuli* (ma-) see fidhuli. 

fedhulika* see fidhulika. 

fefe (— ) fefe (variety of perennial grass, 
often used for thatching roofs). 

feguli* (ma-) see fidhuli. 

feka* see fyeka. 

felefele, ferefere (— ) felefele (inferior 
kind of millet). 

felegi* (-) see feleji. 

ifeleji*. felegi iPers.l (-) steel (of 
good quality). 

2feleji* (ma-) see fereji. 

feleti* free, discharge, absolve, release 
(from an obligation or promise). 

*feli* LEngl.J rare fail, be unsuccessful. 
alifeli mtihani wake. He failed the ex- 
amination. Cf. anguka (sub angua). 

^feli* 1. surprise, catch, discover, detect, 
alimfeli mumewa na bibi mwingine. She 
caught her husband with another woman. 
alimfeli alipokuwa anaoga. He surprised 
him while he was bathing. 2. (— ) mis- 
deed, mishap. 

fenesi*, finesi Llnd.J (ma-) 1. jackfruit; 
durian, breadfruit. Cf. mfenesi. 
2. proper name (fern.) (chiefly in 

feraga (— ) rare see faragha. 

ferdausi* LPers.J (— ) rel. paradise. 

ferefere (— ) see felefele. 

fereji*, feleji (ma-) channel, canal; ditch, 
sewer; pipe. Cf. mfereji. 

feruzi* (— ) 1. turquoise. 2. masc. pr. n. 

fesheni* LEngl.A (—) fashion, style; 

(modern) manners, way of life, hii ni — 
ya sasa. This is the latest fashion. 

feta* see fetwa. 

fetwa*, feta 1. pass judgment, make a legal 
decision. 2. {— ) (legal) decision, judg- 
ment, verdict. 



feuli* (— ) naut. (ship's) hold. 
fezuli* (ma-) see fidhuli. 
fezulika* see fidhulika. 
fi* prep, in, on, with, by. 
Ifia (— ) fia (kind of snake). 
^fia appl. of fa. 
fianda see fyanda. 



ficha (dial, fita) hide, conceal; put 
aside; keep secret, refl. jificha. 
conceal oneself, hide, jificha mvua. 
seek shelter from the rain. stat. 
fichama. be hidden/concealed, inv. 
fichua. 1. uncover, reveal, take out. 
2. pay someone for something. Cf. 
ficho, fichuo, kifichoficho, maficho, 

insolent, shameless; rude, unmannerly, 
boorish; provoking, defiant. Cf. 
fidhulika, mfidhuli, ufidhuli. 

^fidhulika*, fedhulika, fezulika. boast, 
talk big; be arrogant. Cf. fidhuli. 

2 fidhulika* see fidhuli 2. 

fidi* redeem, ransom; pay a ransom, put up 
bail, post bond. appl. fidia. fidia mtu. 
to ransom someone, pass, fidiwa. Cf. 
fidia, ufidio. 

fidia* (— ) (also kifidio, vi-) 1. ransom , 
fine, reparation; bail, bond. 2. rel. re- 
demption. Cf. fidi. 

fidia* lEngl.l (-) fiddle, violin. 

fido (— ) wand, sapling, switch. 

fidua, fudua 1. uncover, take out, turn 
inside out. 2. expose the glans (of the 
penis); wash after circumcision. 

ficho (ma-) (us. maficho or kificho, vi-) fieka see fyeka. 

concealment, screen, hiding-place, kaa 
mafichoni. remain in hiding. Cf. ficha. fieko (ma-) see fyeko. 

fichua inv. of ficha. 

fichuo (ma-) 1. discovery, revelation. 
2. present given by bridegroom to 
bride. Cf. ficha. 

fidhuli*, fedhuli, fezuli, feguli, fudhali. 

1. (ma-) impudent/insolent person. 

2. {also fidhulika) adj. impudent, 

fifia disappear, die away; wilt, wither; 
fade (of colors), appl. fifilia. pass, fi- 
fiwa. caus. fifisha, fifiliza. cause to 
disappear; (fig.) pretend not to hear or 
understand, feign forgetfulness. Cf. 

figa (ma-) (usually mafiga) cooking-stone 
(one of three, supporting a pot), prov. 




mafiga mawili hayaivishi chungu. You 

can't cook with only two cooking-stones. 

figili* (— , ma-) (kind of) radish. Cf. 

figo (ma-) anat. kidney. (- buki, nso.) 

figu* L ? J ( — ) quarrel, dispute. 

figuta rare work a bellows. Cf. vukuta. 

figuto (ma-) rare heat, sweat. Cf. fukuto. 

fihi*, fii (— ) discord, dispute, dissension, 
difference of opinion. 

fika arrive, get to..., reach. — mjini. 

arrive in a city, amesafiri kufika Tanga. 
He traveled to Tanga. appl. fikia. 
reach someone, intr. fifika. be acces- 
sible; (fig.) be hospitable, caus. fiki- 
sha. cause to reach, lead to, escort. 
double appl. -caus. fikiliza, fikilisha. 
cause to reach someone, send to, bring 
upon. ass. fikana. appl.-ass. fikiana. 
arrive/meet at the same place, double 
appl.-ass. fikiliana. come to the same 
result/conclusion, agree. Cf. kifiko, 
kufika, mfiko. 

fikara* (-) see fikira. 

fikicha break into small pieces, crumble; 
rub. — macho, rub the eyes. intr. fiki- 
chita. be friable/brittle. 

fikira*, fikara, fikra (-) thought, idea; 
sudden idea, theory, brainstorm; re- 
flection, yuko katika - zake. He is 

deep in thought, kwa (katika) — yake. 
in his opinion. 

fikiri* (also tafakari) think, reflect, con- 
sider; meditate, ponder; examine, appl. 

fikra* (— ) see fikira. 

filam* (— ) see film. 

filifili* (— ) angle iron, carpenter's square. 

Ifilimbi (— ) ornith. hornbill. 

^filimbi, firimbi (ma-) (kind of) flute, 

filisi*, firisi 1. go bankrupt, declare bank- 
ruptcy. 2. make the highest bid (at an 
auction). 3. win all the money (in gam- 
bling), appl. filisia. intr. filisika. 
mwenye kufilisika. bankrupt (person). 
caus. filisisha. pass, filisiwa. be 
overcome/obsessed by a particular 
desire/ambition, moyo wake ulifisiliwa 
na tamaa kubwa ya kutumikia Mwenyezi 
Mungu. He was overcome by the desire 
to serve God. Cf. mfilisi, mfilisika, 
muflisi, ufilisi. 

film*, filmu, filam [Engl.] (-) film, 

movie, tia — katika kamera. put film in 
a camera, safisha — . develop a film. 

filmu* (— ) see film. 

filosofia* [Engl.] (-) philosophy. 
(= hekima, falsafa.) 



fimbi ( — ) ornith. crowned hornbill. 
( = kwembe.) 

fimbo (— ) stick, cane, piga — . beat some- 
one with a stick. 

finesi* (ma-) see fenesi. 

"finga protect by magic (field, house), 
caus. fingiza. prevent, forbid. Cf. 

finginyika (also vinginyika, vivinyuka) 

writhe, wriggle; coil, twist, wind. 

fingirika, vingirika turn, roll (along), turn 
somersaults, appl. fingirikia. caus. 
fingirisha. turn/roll something. 
fingirisha chuma cha pua. roll steel. 
Cf. ufingirishaji. 

fingo (ma-) charm, spell (as a protection 
against evil). Cf. finga. 

finika see funika. 

finya pinch, nip, tweak; press, squeeze. 
kiatu kinamfinya. His shoes are too 
tight, fig. — uso. scowl, red. (int. J 
finyafinya. crumble, break into small 
pieces, ass. finyana. be drawn/pinched/ 
wrinkled (the face), dur. finyaa. 
shrivel, become thin/emaciated, lose 
weight. Cf. finyo, mfinyo. 

finyanga knead clay, make pottery, appl. 
finyangia. caus. finyangiza. Cf. 
mfinyanzi, ufinyanzi. 

finyo (ma-) (usually mafinyo) 1. fold, 
wrinkle, mafinyo ya uso. wrinkles on 
the face. 2. narrowness, coll. njia ya 
— . narrow street, Cf. finya. 

fio (— ) arch, rein(s). 

fioa see fyoa. 

fira ( — ) cobra. 

^fira* practice sodomy/pederasty. Cf. 

firaha*, firaka, firari (— ) anat. penis. 

firangi* (— ) rare, med. measles. ( = surua.) 

firari* (— ) see firaha. 

firashi* (— ) bedspread, quilt. 

firidi* rare have a pleasant smell, be 

firigisi* (— ) crop, craw, gizzard (of birds). 

firimbi (ma-) see filimbi. 

firisi* see filisi. 

fisadi* (ma-), mfisadi (wa-) corrupter, 

seducer, immoral person, libertine. Cf. 
fisidi, ufisadi. 

fisha caus. of fa. 

fisi (— ) (common) hyena. Cf. kifisifisi. 




fisidi* destroy, ruin, corrupt; (fig.) 
seduce; violate, rape. Cf. fisadi, 

fisifisi* (— ) see fusfus. 

fita see ficha. 

fitina*, fitna 1. {— ) discord, strife; 

intrigue; rebellion, mutiny, revolt, fanya 
(leta, tia) — . make trouble, cause dis- 
sension, agitate. 2. (ma-) mischief- 
maker, agitator. Cf. fitini, ufitina. 

fitini* agitate; slander; cause trouble, do 
damage. oppZ. fitinia. appl.-ass. 
fitiniana. caus. fitinisha. Cf. fitina, 
mfitini, ufitina. 

fitiri* (— ) see futari. 

fitna* (— ) see fitina. 

fito pi. of ufito. 

fiwa pass, of fa. 

fiwi (— ) lima bean. Cf. mfiwi. 

fizi pi. of ufizi. 

flana* (— ) see fulana. 

flotile* (-) see furutile. 

foadi* (ma-) see fowadi. 

fofofo adv. completely, totally, abso- 
lutely, kufa — . be dead as a doornail. 
lala — . sleep very soundly. 

foka overflow, run over (of liquids), fig. 
bubble over, gush (in speaking), appl. 
fokea. Cf. mfoko. 

foko* see fauka. 

fola* (— ) a gift given by a person who holds 
a baby for the first time (both to wish the 
infant good luck and to indicate that the 
person holding the child has no ill-feel- 
ings toward it). 

fomu* Y.Engl.1 (— ) form, pattern; (printed) 
form, blank, questionnaire, jaza — . fill 
out a form/questionnaire. 

fora* 1. defeat someone (in a game), win, 
be successful. 2. (— ) victory; (sport) 
goal, katika mashindano timu yetu 
imetia — . Our team won in the contest, 
piga — . win out, top the list. 

fordha* (— ) see forodha. 

fori* adv. (also, rare fulifuli) abundantly, 
in great quantities. Cf. fara. 

forodha*, fordha, furdha (— ) customhouse. 
loc. forodhani. ship's cargo, reloading 

foroma* [.Port.l (-) see faruma. 

foromali* (-) naut. yard, spar. 

foronya* {.Port. J (— ) pillowcase. 

forosadi*, forsadi (-) mulberry. Cf. 




forota* snore. Cf. korota. koroma. fuasa caus. of fuata. 

forsadi* (— ) see forosadi. 

foto* {.Engl. ] (-) photo(graph). 

fotoa* \_Engl. J: — foto. take a photo- 

fowadi*, foadi tEngl. J (ma-) sport for- 

,.,„..j. /_..-/ i „»..,. _i. 

frasila*, farasila (— ) unit of weight (about 
16 kg, 35 lb.) 

fremu* LEngl.J (— ) frame (of a bicycle, 

fu adj. dead. Waislamu hawali nyamafu. 
Moslems do not eat the meat of dead 
animals. Cf. fa, kifu, mafu, mfu, ufu. 

'fua 1. strike, beat, hammer. — chuma 
(fedha). hammer iron (silver). — nazi. 
break open a coconut. — nguo. wash 
( = pound) laundry, appl. fulia. caus. 
fulisha. caus. & int. fuliza. fig. keep 
on, continue doing something, pass. 
fuliwa, fuawa. 2. (—, ma-) washtub. 
Cf. fuawe, fuliza, fuo, kifuo, mfua, 
mfulizo, mfululizo, mfuo, ufuaji. 

^fua (ma-) see mafua. 

3fua (— , ma-) wooden bowl. 

fuama, fulama, furama lie prone, caus. & 
int. fuamisha, fuamiza. put down flat. 

fuata 1. follow, succeed, pursue; accompany; 
obey, comply with. — sheria. obey the 
law. 2. imitate, copy. — mfano. take as an 
example, caus. fuatisha, fuatiza, fuasa. 
copy, trace, ass. fuatana. accompany 
one another, go together (in a crowd); be 
a (natural) result of, ensue, namba zina- 
zofuatana. numbers in sequence. Cf. 
kifnas: ir.afsatar.c n-.f-jaoi n-.f-jatsr.c 
ufuasi, ufuataji, ufuatano. 

fuatano (ma-) see mafuatano. 

fuawe (--, ma-) anvil. Cf. fua. 


aa see 


fudhali* (ma-) see fidhuli. 

fudifudi, fulifuli, kifudifudi, kifulifuli adv. 
on the face, face down, upside down, 
lala — . lie face down. Cf. fudikiza. 

fudikiza turn over, turn upside down/ 
inside out, turn face downwards (e.g., 
playing cards). Cf. fudifudi. 

fudua see fidua. 

fufua 1. wake up, revive, renew. — des- 
turi. revive (old) customs. — deni. ask 
for payment of a forgotten debt. 
2. - mtu. rel. bring someone back from the 
dead. intr. fufuka (katika wafu). rise 
from the dead, be resurrected/revived. 
Cf. mfufuaji, ufufuko. 




fufuliza see fuliza. 

fufurika rare boil over, overflow. 

fufutende adj. lukewarm, tepid. 

fuga keep in captivity; tame (animals J; 
raise, breed (livestock). — ng'ombe 
(mbuzi).- keep/raise cattle (goats). 
fig. protect, intr. fugika. farasi huyu 
hafugiki. This horse is not tameable. 
Cf. fugo, mfuga, mfugo, ufugaji. 

fugo (ma-) breeding (of animals); breaking 
in, training; domestication. Cf. fuga. 

fuja confuse, bring into confusion, make a 
mess of something; overturn, turn upside 
down; waste, squander. Cf. fujo, 
m fuja ji. 

fujo (— , ma-) disorder, confusion, unrest; 
noise, tumult, fanya (tia) — . throw into 
disorder, red. fujofujo. extreme dis- 
order, total confusion. Cf. fuja. 

Ifuka, vuka smoke, give off smoke/fumes/ 
vapor, jiko iinafuka moshi. The stove 
is smoking, appl. fukia. caus. fukiza, 
fukisha. smoke (something), fumigate, 
burn incense. Cf. fukizo, fukuto, fusho, 
kifukizo, kifuku, mfukuto, mvuke, ufu- 
kizo, ufukuto. 

2fuka (— ) fuka (oatmeal porridge with 
pepper and cardamom). 




fukarika* become impoverished, be ruined. 
Cf. fakiri. 

fukia dig in, fill up (with earth). — kaburi. 
fill in a grave, appl. fukilia. caus. 
fukiza, fukisha. inv. fukua. dig out, dig 
up. — mizizi. dig up roots, fig. rummage 


through, ransack. Cf. "fuko, fukuo, 

fukizo, vnti^n (ma-) vapor, steam, fumes, 
smoke; something used for fumigation, 
incense, etc. Cf. fuka. 

fuko (ma-) 1. augment, of mfuko. 2. rare 

^fuko (ma-) 1. hole, pit, ditch, trench, 
excavation. 2. dam, embankment; mole, 
pier. 3. zool. mole. Cf. fukia. 

fukombe (— ) see furukombe. 

fukua inv. of fukia. 

fukuo (ma-) cavity, excavation. Cf. fukia. 

fukuta see vukuta. 

fukuto, vukuto (ma-) 1. vapor, exhalation, 
(smell of) perspiration. 2. heat, tem- 
perature. 3. stuffiness, closeness (of a 
room). Cf. fuka. 

fukuza drive out, drive/chase away; reject, 
expel, banish; discharge (from a job). 
— katika nchi. expel/banish/exile from 
a country. Cf. fukuzano, mfukuzi. 




fukuzano (ma-) {us. mafukuzano) expul- 
sion, banishment; persecution, molesta- 
tion. Cf. fukuza. 



fulana*, flana \_Engl.J (— ) 1. sweater, 
cardigan. 2. undershirt, vest. 
3. flannel. 

fulani* {rare, falani) 1. (— ) so-and-so, 
what's-his-name. — amefika. «hiii.'B- 
his-name has arrived. 2. adj. such and 
such, some or other, any, a given... 
bidhaa — . such and such goods, namba 
— . a given number. 

^fulifuli see fudifudi. 

fulifuli* adv., rare 


fuliza, fululiza, fuuza, fuuliza, fufuliza 

{caus. & intr. of fua) do something un- 
interruptedly/continuously, mvua ime- 
fuliza siku tano. It rained continuously 
for five days. 

assemblies). Cf. fumukano, mfuma, 
mfumi, *mfumo, mfumua. 

^fuma pierce, penetrate. Cf. fume, fumo. 

fumania 1. surprise, appear unexpectedly, 
take by surprise, catch unawares. 2. 
discover someone in a wrongful act 
(e.g., adultery), intr. fumanika. caus. 

fumba 1. bring together, close. — macho 
(kinywa). close the eyes (the mouth). 
2. disguise, mystify, make a secret of. 
— maneno. speak mysteriously (in rid- 
dles), refl. jifumba. be wrapped up in 
oneself, live in a world of one's own. 
stat. fumbama. be in a state of confusion, 
fumbama akili. lose one's senses, not be 
in one's right mind. cont. fumbata. em- 
brace, grasp, seize, clutch, inv. fumbua. 
open. coll. kufumba na kufumbua (macho), 
in a moment, fig. reveal, disclose; ex- 
plore, inv. -intr. fumbuka. reveal oneself, 
appear. Cf. fumbo, m fumba, mfumbua, 
ufumbuzi; also vumbua. 

fululiza see fuliza. 

fulusi* (-) 1. fulusi (kind of fish). 2. coll. 
money, cash. • 

fuma weave, knit, crochet, embroider; 
plait, braid; sew together, inv. fumua. 
loosen, untie, unravel, undo, unroll. 
fig. 1. release, fumua vita, start war. 
2. uncover, reveal, inv. -appl. fumulia. 
inv. -intr. fumuka. inv. -intr. -ass. fumu- 
kana. separate, scatter, disperse (after 

^fumba ( — ) bag made of matting, mkeka wa 
— . 1. woven sleeping bag. 2. shroud. 
Cf. kifumba, kifumbu. 

fumba (ma-) heap, lump. 

Mumbi (ma-) stream, brook; drain, gutter; 
ditch. — la (kupandia) mpunga. furrow for 
planting rice. 

fumbi (— ) see 





*fumbo (ma-) 1. mystery; puzzle, riddle; 
problem. 2. mysterious/veiled language, 
hidden/obscure meaning; hint, allusion. 
sema kwa — . use veiled language, speak 
in riddles (hints, allusions), mwandiko 
wa — . code, cipher. 3. dial.: jina la — . 
pseudonym. Cf. fumba. 

^fumbo (ma-) fumbo (title of a chief). Cf. 


fumbua inv. of fumba. 

2funda learn, caus. fundisha, funza. 
teach, instruct, educate, caus. -ass. 
funzana. teach each other, study to- 
gether, refl. (ku)jifundisha, jifunza. 
teach oneself, learn, study. Cf. fundi, 
funzo, kifundi, mafundisho, mfundis- 
haji, mkufunzi, mwanafunzi, uanafunzi, 

3 fnnJ a (ma-) mouthful, sv/allov/. - yz 

maji. a mouthful of water, piga mafunda. 
to take large bites of food. 

fume (ma-) person wounded (by a spear). 
Cf. fuma. 

Mumi (— ) fumi (kind of fish). 

2 fumi (-) 

see vumi. 

fumo (ma-) 1. rare spear. 2. fumo (title of 
a chief). Cf. fuma, fumbo. 

fumua inv. of fuma. 

fumukano (ma-) (us. mafumukano) separa- 
tion, dispersal, breaking up (of a meet- 
ing, etc.); spreading, diffusion. Cf. 


funa see vuna. 

Munda pound, pulverize (grain); break up, 
crush (by pounding), red. fundafunda 
(w. int.-dur. force) pound thoroughly, 
keep on pounding. -<■ unga. to mix 
several kinds of meal or flour. Cf. funde. 

^funda rare tie in a knot. ( = fundika.) 

fundarere (— ) fundarere (kind of snake). 

funde (ma-) something pounded; powder. 
Cf. 1 funda. 

fundi, funzi (— ) craftsman, skilled worker; 
expert, master (of something); instructor. 
yeye ni — kwa kucheza mpira. He is a 
master at football-playing. — cherehani. 
tailor. — wa cherehani. sewing-machine 


repairman. Cf. funda. 

fundika tie a knot, draw tight, tie up. Cf. 
funda, fundo, fundua, kifundo, mfundo. 

fundisha caus. of funda. 

fundisho (ma-) see mafundisho. 

fundo (ma-) 1. knot; thickening, swelling. 
— la uzi. knot in thread. — la mti. knot 
in wood (a tree). — la ua. bud. — la 
mguu. ankle. 2. bundle. — la nguo. 




bundle of clothes. 3. fig. difficulty, 
complication, confusion. — la moyo. 
bad humor, grudge. Cf. funda, fundika. 

fundua untie, loosen. — chupa. open/un- 
cork a bottle, fig. overcome difficulties. 
Cf. funda, fundika. 

*funga 1. tie (on, up). — (kwa) kamba. tie 
with a cord or string. 2. fasten, secure; 
close, shut, lock. -»■ mlango. shut/lock 
a door. — barua. seal up a letter. — 
choo. med. be constipated. — (piga) 
breki. put on the brake. — maneno. 
clench the teeth. 3. imprison. — gere- 
zani. put in jail. 4. conclude. — mapa- 
tano ya biashara. make a business deal, 
conclude a contract. 5. decide on. — 
safari (vita), decide on/begin a journey 
(war), make preparations, funga virago 
vyake. pack one's bags, close out one's 
affairs. 6. sport win. 7. elec: — stimu. 
turn off. 8. fast. refl. jifunga. 1. de- 
vote oneself to, give special attention 
to. 2. become involved in a difficult 
situation, intr. fungika. be closeable. 
ass. fungana. ass. -caus. funganya. pack 
up, get ready for a trip. stat. fungama. 
be tight/firm/dense, stat.-ass. funga- 
mana. be intertwined, be impenetrable 
(forest), siasa ya fungamana. policy of 
alignment, inv. fungua. 1. untie, un- 
fasten, loosen. 2. open, fungua mlango. 
open a door. 3. open, start, inaugurate. 
fungua mkutano. open/begin a meeting. 
fungua kinywa. eat breakfast. 4. free, 
liberate, release (from prison), appl. 
fungulia. caus. funguza. inv. -refl. ji- 
fungua. free oneself, be opened; give 

birth, amejifungua mtoto wa kike. She 
has given birth to a girl. Cf. fungasha, 
fungo, kifunga, kifungo, kifungua, ki- 
funguo, mafungia, mafungulia, m funga, 
mfungizo, mfungo, mfungua, mfunguo, 
mfungwa, ufunguaji, ufunguo. 

■^funga pi. of ufunga. 

fungasa see fungasha. 

fungasha, fungasa {caus. of 4"unga) take 
someone (something) in tow, pull along. 

fungate (— ) 1. arch, seven. 2. the first 
seven days after a wedding (when food 
is supplied to the newly-weds by their 
relatives), honeymoon. 

* fungo (— ) Isl. period of fasting. Cf. 

Mfungo (— ) civet cat. 

Mungu (ma-) 1. part, share; piece. — la 
nyama. a piece of meat, gramm.: — la 
maneno. sentence, liter.: verse. 2. hea 
pile; quantity, group; (mil.) small unit, 
company; (sport) league. 3. naut. sand- 
bank, reef. Cf. kifungu. 

^fungu (ma-) bot. cockscomb (Celosia 
argentea and Celosia cristata). 

fungua inv. of funga. 

funguo pi. of ufunguo. 




funika, finika cover, close. — chungu. put 
a lid on a pot. — fumba. get into a sleep- 
ing bag. fig.: conceal, keep secret. — 
maneno. express oneself unclearly, re/7. 
jifunika. cover oneself, caus. funikisha, 
funikiza. bave something covered, fig.: 
maji yameifunikisha nchi. The water has 
flooded the land. Cf. funua, kifuniko, 

funiko (ma-) augment, of kifuniko. 

funo (— ) funo (kind of antelope, common 
duiker; cf. mindi). 

funua 1. open, uncover. — mabawa. spread 
the wings. — kitabu. open a book. 2. 
fig.: reveal, expose, discover. — taksiri. 
discover a crime, appl. funulia. dis- 
close/explain to someone, intr. funuka. 
be open; be obvious/plain. Cf. funika, 
funuo, kifunuo, mafunuo, ufunuo. 

fununu* (— ) rumor, report. 

funuo (-) opening. Cf. funua. 

funutu (-) see tunutu. 

ifunza .(-) chigger; grub, maggot; cater- 
pillar. (= tekenywa.) 

^funza caus. of funda. 
funzi (-) see fundi. 

funzo (ma-; us. pi.) teaching, doctrine; 

instruction, training, mafunzo ya kias- 

kari. military training. Cf. funda. 

Ifuo (ma-) 1. place for washing clothes. 
2. place where a dead body is washed. 
Cf. 1 fua. 

2fuo (ma-) 1. foam, mafuo ya bahari. sea- 
foam. 2. fig. scum, dregs. 

fupa (ma-) augment, of mfupa. 

fupi adj. 1. short, low. mti mfupi. a low 
tree, watu wafupi. short/undersized 
people. 2. brief, terse, concise, maneno 
mafupi. brief/terse words. Cf. fupika, 
kifupi, ufupi, ufupisho. 

fupika be short/low, be brief/abbreviated. 
caus. fupisha, fupiza. make short, ab- 
breviate, abridge, condense. Cf. fupi, 

fura 1. rise/swell up; effervesce. 2. fig. 
become excited, be furious, rage. intr. 
furika. flow over, flood, inundate; boil 
over. caus. furisha. cause a flood. Cf. 
furufuru, mafuriko, ufurufuru. 

furaha* (-) joy, pleasure, gaiety, delight, 
enthusiasm, fanya(ona) — . be happy/ 
delighted, kwa — . with joy /enthusiasm. 
pokea kwa — . greet cordially. Cf. furahi, 
furahivu, mfurahivu, ufurahi. 

furahi* be glad/happy/pleased; enjoy one- 
self, have a good time. appl. furahia. 
intr. furahika. caus. furahisha. please 
someone. Cf. furaha, furahivu, mfura- 
hivu, ufurahi. 



furahifu* adj., rare happy, gay. Cf. 
furaha, furahi. 

furama see fuama. 

furdha* (-) see forodha. 

furifuri adj. /adv. see fara. 

furika intr. of fura. 

furiko (ma-) see mafuriko. 

furkani* (-) 1. Isl. Furkani (name 

applied to the Koran). 2. rare Bible. 

fursa* (— ) 1. incident, accident. 2. con- 
venient time, favorable moment, oppor- 
tunity, toa — . give an opportunity. 

furufuru (— ) confusion, disorder. 
Cf. fura. 

furukobe ( — ) see furukombe. 

furukombe, furukobe, fukombe (— ) sea 


furukuta be in constant motion, turn, 

twist, move back and forth restlessly, 
roll, toss, alikamata sawasawa hata 
hakuweza kufurukuta. He was so 
tightly bound that he could not move 
a limb. 

furumi* (— ) see farumi. 

furumiza* rare throw away, Cf. farumi. 

Murungu* (ma-) hot. shaddock, pomelo. 
Cf. mfurungu. 

^furungu* LPers.j (ma-) anklet. 

furusha scare away (birds); scatter, 
disperse (enemies). 

furushi* (ma-) package, parcel, bundle. 

furutile*, flotile [Germ. Flotille?] (-) 
1. shipyard, dockyard. 2. (— la 
kiwanda). workshop. — la kure- 
kibisha. assembly shop. 

Musa 1. knock, hit, strike; beat until 
soft. 2. fall upon, attack. Cf. fusi, 
fusia, ufusio. 

fusa* release, let off air (from tires, 

fusfus*, fusus, fisifisi (— ) incrustation. 

fusha* ( — ) see busha. 

fusho (ma-) something burnt/producing 
smoke (e.g., fumigant, charm). Cf. 

Ifusi (ma-), kifusi (vi-) rubble, debris, 
rubbish. Cf. fusa. 

"fusi* (ma-) rare see fuzi. 

lusia {appl. of fusa) lay the foundation/ 
bed (of a house or street). 



fusus* (-) see fusfus. 
fususi* (— ) precious stone, gem. 

*futa 1. wipe (off), clean (up). — lea- 
rn asi. wipe the nose. 2. fig.: clear 
off, remove, abolish, cancel; steal 
from, intr, futika. be wiped away; 
(fig.) be erased/eradicated (from one's 
memory). Cf. mfuto. 

^futa (ma-) see mafuta. 

^futa (— ) futa (variety of large snake). 

futahi* 1. sing, good luck. 2. v. have 
a lucky escape, caus. futusha. save, 

futari*, fitiri (— ) evening meal after a 
day's fasting. Cf. futuru. 

Muti* [.Engl. J (— ) foot (unit of mea- 
surement, 30 cm.). 

^futi (ma-) knee. (- goti.) 

futika tuck into (the waistcloth, girdle, 
etc.), put into the pocket. Cf. futua. 

futua 1. take out (of the pocket, a bundle, 
etc.); undo, open up. 2. fig. be ex- 
posed/revealed/brought to light, intr. 
futuka. be revealed/exposed; stick 
out (of the pocket, etc.); (fig.) be 
annoyed/angry, intr.-appl. futukia. 
be angry with someone. Cf. futika. 

Ifuturi* (— ) span (unit of measure, 
22.5 cm.). 

^futuri* (— ) hemorrhoids. 

futuru* eat the first meal after fasting. 
Cf. futari. 

futusha* rare save, rescue, come to the 
aid of. Cf. futahi. 

Ifuu, fuvu (ma-) 1. (empty) shell. — la 
yai. eggshell. 2. (— la kichwa) 
cranium, skull. 3. cuttlefish bone. 
Cf. kifuu, ufuu. 

2fuu (— ) kind of small berry. Cf. mfufu. 

fuuliza see fuliza. 

fuuza see fuliza. 

fuvu (ma-) see fuu. 

fuwaa, fubaa be retarded (in growth), be 

fuya rare spoil, ruin; waste, squander 
(money, property). Cf. fuja. 

fuzi*, fusi (ma-) anat. shoulder, shoulder 

fuzu* be successful, win (in gambling), 
pass (an examination). 

fyanda, fianda crush, squash; hurt, in- 




fyata, fiata, fata press, squeeze (between 
the legs). fig. : be discreet in one's 
speech, have one's tongue under con- 
trol, inv. fyatua. loosen one's grip, 
release, fyatua mota. start an engine. 
fyatua mtego. release a trap, fyatua 
mkiki (shuti). sport score a goal, 
fyatua bunduki. release the trigger, 
discharge a gun. inv.-appl. fyatulia. 
caus. fyatusha. Cf. fyatuko, fyusa, 

fyatua inv. of fyata. 

fyatuko (ma-), mfyatuko (mi-) (act of) 
releasing, opening. Cf. fyata. 

fyeka, fieka, feka, fyekua clear (land), 
reclaim, make arable; (fig.) clear away, 
eliminate. — mwitu. clear a forest. 
appl. fyekea. caus. fyekesha. Cf. 
fyeko, mafyeko, mfyeka. 

fyekua see fyeka. 

fyeruka become irritated/angry. 

fyoa, fioa 1. cut (only of grain). 2. fig. 
be subtle, ingenious, keen. 3. use 
abusive/insolent language, caus. 
fyoza. treat with contempt, deride. 
Cf. fyozi, mfyozaji, ufyozi. 

fyonda see fyonza. 

fyonya, sonya make a hissing sound (as 
a sign of contempt.) Cf. msono. 

fyonza, fyonda suck. Cf. mfyonza. 

fyozi adj., dial, derisive, scornful, con- 
temptuous. Cf. fyoa. 

fyusa set a trap (for animals). Cf. fyata, 

fyeko, fieko (ma-; us. pi.) clearing, rec- fyuzi* [Engl.l (-) elec. fus 

lamation (of land). Cf. fyeka. 

gaagaa, galagala, garagara 1. turn, toss, 
roll. 2. fig. be idle, lazy; stretch one- 
self, Cf. mgaagaa. 

gabi (-) rare roller, pulley, block(-and- 
tackle). (= kapi.) 

Igadi* (ma-) prop, support, stay, brace; 
pillar. Cf. gudi, gadimu. 

gadi* [Engl."] (ma-) 1. guard, watch; 
protection. 2. watchman. 

} gadi* (-) lump of clay. 




gadimu* support, prop up (with posts, 
braces). Cf. gadi. 

gadiwana* VEngl.l (—) rare, mil. 
guard of honor. 

gae, gai (ma-) 1. potsherd, splinter (of 

glass, pottery). 2, fig. nyumba ya 

vigae. a house roofed with tiles. 
Cf. kigae. 

gafi* see ghafi. 

gaga (ma-) crust, coating; (med.) scurf, 
scab; tartar (on the teeth). Cf. ki- 
gaga, ugaga. 

gaga (— ) gaga (a spell cast on a house 
to keep wild animals away). 

gaga turn, roll, toss (from one side to 
the other). 

gagamiza penetrate, push in(forcibly); 
press/roll together. 

gai (ma-) see gae. 

Igaidi* LEngl.J (ma-) guide. 

^gaidi, mgaidi (ma-) 1. robber, thief. 
2. mil. guerrilla. Cf. ugaidi. 

gala (ma-) gala (kind of wild cat). 

galagala see gaagaa. 

galani* (-) see galoni. 

galawa (— ) see ngalawa. 

gale (ma-) see ugale. 

galili (ma-) armor, shell (tortoise, 
turtle, crab). 

galme*, kalme ( — ) small sail of a dhow. 
mlingoti wa — . mast for this sail. 

galoni"*, galani izngl.j \ — > gauon 
(liquid measure, 4.54 I). 

Igamba (us. refl.: jigamba) boast, show 
off. - kwa nguo mpya. show off new 

^gamba (ma-) scale, shell, armor. — la 
kobe. tortoise-shell, magamba ya 
samaki. fish scales, fig.: - la ki- 
tabu. cover/jacket of a book. 
Cf. amba, chamba. 

gambia (-) rare dagger. (= jambia.) 

1 gambusi, kambusi (-) gambusi (musical 
instrument similar to a banjo). 

2 gambusi, kambusi (-) gambusi (kind of 

gamdra* (-) naut. hatch(way). 

gamti* \_Ind.~\ (-) gamti (inferior kind 
of unbleached cotton cloth). 


a* (-, ma-) see kana. 




ganda 1. thicken, congeal, coagulate 
(blood, milk); (fig.) freeze, be frozen, 
maziwa ya kuganda. curdled milk. 
2. stick fast, hold tight, clasp, stat. 
gandama. be congealed; be stuck to- 
gether; be sticky, gandama na, stick 
to something, stat.-appl. gandamia. 
adhere, stick to; rely on something/ 
someone; (fig.) be faithful/devoted. 
stat.-caus. gandamiza. press heavily 
mi, tiu»ii, stac-ass. gandamana. 
harden, thicken; freeze (solid), inv. 
gandua. loosen, pull off, separate; es- 
cape {from a danger), gandua stempu. 
pull off a stamp (from an envelope), 
inv.-appl. gandulia. inv.-intr. ga- 
nduka, gandulika. 3. (ma-) rind, husk, 
shell, crust. — la mkata. bread crust. 
— la limau. lemon rind. — la yai. 

eggshell. Cf. gandalo, gando, 
mganda, mgando, ugandamano, 


gandalo (ma-) leg-fetter (made of wood), 
stocks. Cf. ganda. 

gandama stat. of ganda. 

gandamana stat. -ass. of Uganda. 

gandamia stat.-appl. of ganda. 

gandamiza stat.-caus. of ganda. 

gando (ma-) claw, pincers (of a crab, 
etc.) Cf. ganda. 

Mgando (ma-) see ganjo. 

gandua inv. of Uganda. 

gane (— ) gane (sleeping place for un- 
married boys or girls). 

ganga bind up, splice; mend, repair; 
(fig.) bandage. — kidonda. bandage 
a wound, treat (medically), cure. inv. 
gangua. untie, remove (a bandage); 
free from (a charm, taboo, etc.). 

mganga, mgango, uganga. 

gange (ma-) min. chalk stone, (soft) 

gango (ma-) 1. clamp, brace; hoop. 
— la pipa. barrel-hoop. 2. med. 
bandage, sling, splint. Cf. ganga. 

gangua inv. of ganga. 

gani interr. (invariable) what kind of? 
sababu — ? for what reason? why? 
wakati — ? at what time? when? 
habari gani? What's the news? 
mahali — ? where? in what place? 

ganja (ma-) see kiganja. 

ganjo (ma-) 1. abandoned village. 
2. fig. ruin, impoverishment. 

gano ( — ) rare sinew, tendon, nerve. 
(- kano, mkano.) 

ganza {red. ganzaganza) hesitate, 
falter, stammer, fig. be clumsy, 
awkward, caus. ganzisha. med. 
give a local anesthetic. 




ganzi, chanzi (— ) numbness. — la meno. 
numbness of the teeth (produced by an 
anesthetic), mguu wangu umekufa — . 
My foot is asleep, fig. stupefaction, 
narcosis, med. sindano ya — . local 

gauni* L Engl. J (ma-) (woman's) gown, 
dress, vaa — la kisasa. wear modern 

gavana* [.Engl. J (ma-) rare governor. 
( = balozi.) 

gao (ma-) 1. palm (of the hand). 

2. handful. — moja la unga. a handful 
of flour. 

gao (ma-) augment, of ngao. 

garafuu* (— ) see karafuu. 

garagara see gaagaa, 

gari* Llnd.j (ma-) in gen. vehicle, 
wagon, car. — la farasi. horse-drawn 
wagon. — la miguu. arch, bicycle. 

— la moshi. locomotive. — la mizigo 
(abiria). freight (passenger) car. 
chumba cha — . compartment (of a rail- 
road carriage), tikiti ya — . railway 
ticket, mkubwa wa magari. driver, 
engineer. — la kulimia. rare tractor. 

— la maji. watering-machine. — la 
mtoto. baby-carriage, perambulator. 
enda kwa — . go by train/car. ende- 
sha — . drive (a car). Cf. kijigari. 

gashi (ma-) coll. woman. 

gati* Llnd.j (— , ma-) naut. landing 
stage, pier, dock. 

gaugau, geugeu (— ) gaugau (kind of 

gawa divide, distribute, pass/hand out, 

— chakula. pass out/serve food. 

— karata. deal cards. — nusu kwa 
nusu. divide in equal pans, halve. 
ass. gawana. ass.-caus. gawanya. 
divide up, share, ass.-caus.-intr. 
gawanyika. be divided up. Cf. gawio, 
gawo, kigawanye, kigawanyo, mgao, 
mgawaji, mgawanya, mgawanyiko, 
mgawanyo, ugawaji, ugawanyaji. 

gawanya ass.-caus. of gawa. 

gawio (ma-) 1. division, distribution, 
apportionment. 2. math, divisor, 
Cf. gawa. 

gawo (ma-) part, share, portion. 
Cf. gawa. 

gayagaya (ma-) gayagaya (kind of mat). 

gazeti* LEngl.l (ma-) newspaper, 
magazine, periodical. — la jimbo. 
provincial/local newspaper, coll.: 
usinipige magazeti. Don't talk such 

gea throw; leave behind, abandon, 
give up. 

gebali* (ma-) see jabali. 




gefyagefya see gofyagofya. 

gego, chego, cheyo (ma-) anat. molar 
(tooth), wa na — . have a toothache. 

gelada* (— ) see jalada. 

geli (— ) geli (children's game similar 
to tipcat). 

geli (— ) large knife. 

gema cut, slit, tap (the bark of trees, to 
obtain resin). — mpira (tembo). tap 
rubber (palm-wine), prov.: mgema 
akisifiwa tembo hulitia maji. If the 
palm-wine tapper is praised for his 
wine, he dilutes it with water. Cf. 
mgema, mgemo, ugema, ugemo. 

*genge (ma-) (steep) slope, declivity, 
cliff, crag, escarpment; edge, brink. 

^genge* I Engl. J (— ) gang (of workers), 
group, troop. 

^genge (ma-) coral. 

geni adj. strange, foreign; unusual, 

extraordinary, sema maneno ya kigeni. 
speak in a remarkable/unusual way. 
jambo — . a remarkable affair. Cf. 
kigeni, mgeni, ugeni. 

gensi* (— ) see jinsi. 

gereji* I Engl. J (— ) garage, repair shop. 

gereza*, greza L Port. J (— ) fort, prison, 
tia (funga, peleka) gerezani. imprison. 
toa (fungua, ondoa) gerezani. release 
from prison, bawabu (mngojezi) wa — . 
(prison) guard. 

gesa rare turn (on a lathe). Cf. kereza. 

geshi* (— ) rare see jeshi. 

geso (— ) rare latne. <_//. gesa. 

geua rare change, avoid, appl. geulia. 
caus. geuza. change, alter; inter- 
change, exchange; change position, 
turn around; (fig., elec.) transform 
(current), intr. geuka. be changeable/ 
interchangeable, be transformed; (fig.) 
treat with scorn. Cf. geugeu, geuzi, 
kigeugeu, mageuzi, m geuzo, ugeuzi. 

^geugeu adj. changeable, fickle, un- 
certain. Cf. geua. 

geugeu (— ) see gaugau. 
geuko (ma-) see mageuko. 
geuza caus. of geua. 

geuzi 1. (ma-) (us. mageuzi) change, 
alteration, transformation. 2. adj. 
changeable, fickle, inconstant, un- 
certain. Cf. geua. 

Ugeuzi pi. of ugeuzi. 

geuzo (ma-) see mgeuzo. 




geza* LPers.J try on (an article of cloth- 
ing). Cf. kigezo. 

ghadhabika*, ghadhibika be angry, irri- 
tated, caus. ghadhabisha. anger, ir- 
ritate, provoke, exasperate. Cf. 

ghadhabu* (— ) anger, vexation, irrita- 
tion, ona (ingia) — . be annoyed, lose 
one's temDer. ineivva (patwa. shikwa) 
na — . be vexed, irritated. Cf. 

ghadhia* (— ) unrest, disorder, tumult, 

ghadhibika* see ghadhabika. 

ghafala* (-) see ghafula. 

ghafalika* see ghafilika. 

ghafi*, gafi 1. sing, gross weight. 
2. short weight. 3. adj., fig. {also 
ghafighafi) inferior (in quality); in- 
significant, worthless. 

ghafilika*, ghafalika be forgetful, 

absentminded; be surprised, amazed. 
caus. ghafilisha. divert; neglect; 
astonish. Cf. ghafula. 

ghafilisha* caus. of ghafilika. 

ghafula*, ghafala 1. (-) suddenness, 
abruptness, (unexpected) occurrence, 
kwa — . sudden, abrupt, unexpected. 
maradhi ya — . med. apoplexy. 

kifo cha — . a sudden death. 2. adv. 
suddenly, unexpectedly. Cf. ghafi- 
lika, mghafala, taghafali. 

ghaibu* (— ) absence; lack, deficiency; 
distance, remoteness, somakwa — . 
recite from memory. Cf. ghibu, 

ghaidhi*, ghaidi (-) 1. (sudden fit of) 
aneer. 2. exertion, (strong) effort, 

ghaidi* (— ) see ghaidhi. 

ghairi* 1. consider, change one's mind, 

do something unexpected, appl. 
ghairia. caus. ghairisha. 2. (— ) 
change, surprise, tia — . surprise, 
disappoint. 3. prep, ghairi ya — . 
without; except, exclusive of, apart 
from. Cf. baghairi. 

ghala* (-, ma-) 1. storage place, 
storeroom. — chini ya nyumba. cel- 
lar, basement. — ya bidhaa. ware- 
house, stock(room). weka ghalani. 
put in storage, store away. 2. hot.: 
— ya mbegu. seed-lobe, cotyledon. 

ghalati* (-) lie, falsehood; fault, 
mistake, transgression, 

ghali* adj. scarce, rare; costly, ex- 
pensive. Cf. ghalika. 

ghalibu* see ghilibu. 




ghalika* be scarce, be in short supply; 
be expensive; rise in price, caus. 
ghalisha. raise the price. Cf. ghali. 

ghalisha* caus. of ghalika. 

ghamma* be unusual/rare. 

ghamu*, ghammu (— ) sadness, sorrow, 
grief, melancholy, tia — . grieve. 
ingiwa na — . be caused grief/distress. 

ghangi* (— ) ghangi (kind of ship). 

ghani* 1. sing (songs of a serious char- 
acter). Cf. mghani. 2. (ma-) song. 

ghanima* (— ) success, good fortune, 
prosperity, advantage, benefit, pata 
— . derive benefit, make a profit; win 
(in a lottery). 

gharadhi* (— ) 1. rare aim, intention, 
desire (= kusudi, nia.) 2, usual/ 
routine tasks, odds and ends (of 
business , etc.) 

gharama* (— ) expense(s), expenditure; 
payment; amount due, fee, charges, 
costs, fanya (toa) — . spend money, 
go to expense. Cf. gharimu. 

gharikisho* (ma-) flood, inundation. 
Cf. ghariki. 

gharimu* cost, imegharimu paundi 
ishirini. It cost 20 pounds, appl. 
gharimia. spend for/on, pay out 
(money), pay expenses, nimemgharimia 
safari yake. I have paid his travel 
expenses. Cf. gharama. 

Efhashi* ( — ) deceit. (mile- trir\cprv 

ghasi* confuse, complicate; create a 
disturbance, appl. ghasia. caus. 
ghasisha. pass, ghasiwa. Cf. 

ghasia* (— ) confusion, disorder; haste, 
excitement, kwa — . hurried, restless, 
agitated, fanya — . cause/produce 
confusion. Cf. ghasi. 

^ghasia app^. of ghasi. 

ghera* (— ) 1. rare jealousy, distrust. 
2. = ari. 

ghibu* be absent; be lost, disappear. 
Cf. ghaibu. 

gharika* (— ) 1, flood, inundation, mvua 
ya — . heavy rain, cloudburst. 2. fig. 
wreck, ruin, downfall. Cf. ghariki, 
gharikisho, mafuriko. 

ghariki* be flooded/inundated, sink into 
the water, caus. gharikisha. flood, 
inundate. — nchi. flood a country. 
Cf. gharika. 

ghiliba* (— ) deception, cheating, fraud. 
Cf. ghilibu. 

ghilibu*, ghalibu compete; get the better 
of (by underhanded means), come out 
ahead; take advantage of, cheat, de- 
fraud, appl. ghilibia. appl.-ass. 
ghilibiana. pass, ghilibiwa. Cf. 
ghiliba, mghalaba. 




ghofira* (— ) rel. forgiveness, pardon, 
absolution. (- msamaha.) 

ghofiri*, gofiri rel. forgive, pardon, 
absolve, appl. ghofiria. cans. 
ghofirisha. pass, ghofiriwa. 

ghorofa* see orofa. 

ghoshi*, ghushi cheat, deceive; falsify, 

ghoshisha. pass, ghoshiwa. Cf. 

ghosubu* swindle, cheat. 

ghuba*, ghubba (ma-) bay, gulf, inlet. 

ghubari* (ma-) cloud (of rain, vapor, dust). 

ghubba* (ma-) see ghuba. 

ghulamu* (— ) 1. young man. 2. cards 
knave, jack. (- mzungu wa tatu.) 

ghumia* lose consciousness, grow weak; 
(fig.) be disconcerted/frightened; be 
speechless from amazement, caus. 
ghumisha. pass, ghumiwa. 

ghuri* deceive, cheat, mislead; falsify. 
intr. ghurika, ghururika. be conceited/ 
arrogant; be deluded. Cf. ghururi. 

ghurubu* (— ) see magharibi. 

ghururi* (— , ma-) vanity, conceit, pre- 
sumption, arrogance; self-deception. 
Cf. ghuri. 

ghururika* intr. of ghuri. 
ghushi* see ghoshi. 

^ghushi* be sufficient/adequate. 

ghusubu* force, compel, coerce; take by 
force, appl. ghusubia. 

gia* {.Engl. J (— ) gear, mechanism. 
auto. gear, tia — . shift (gears). 

gida pour off, decant (a liquid, leaving 
the sediment). (- chingirisha.) 

gidam* (-) see gidamu. 

gidamu*, gidam (— ) leather strap 
(on sandals). 

gilasi* LEngl.l (-) see glasi. 

gilidi* bind (a book in leather). 
Cf. jalidi. 

giligilani* (— ) hot. coriander seed 
(Coriandrum sativum). Cf. mgiligi- 

gimbi (-) see ugimbi. 

ginsi* (— ) see jinsi. 

gisi* rare suppose, guess, believe. 
Cf. kisi. 

gisikafiri (— ) gisikafiri (kind of lizard). 




gita* [Engl.l (-, ma-) see gitaa. 

gitaa*, gita [Engl.l (-, ma-) guitar. 
piga -. play the guitar. 

giza, kiza, jiza (-, ma-) dark(ness), 
gloom. - la usiku. the dark of night, 
lanya -. become dark, fig.: ignorance. 
prov.: moyo wa mwenzio ni msitu wa 
giza. The heart of another person is a 
dark forest (i.e., an unfathomable 
mystery), -a -. adj. dark (= not 

glasi*, gilasi [Engl.l (-) (drinking) 
glass, wineglass. 

globu* I Engl.l (-) elec. (light) bulb. 

J goba ( — ) dried manioc. 

goba rare end, conclude. 

goboa, koboa break, break off, pluck off. 
— pamba. pick cotton, appl. gobolea. 
intr. goboka. 

gobolea appl. of goboa. 

gobori* [?] (-) mil., arch, muzzle- 
loader. (= koroboi.) 

goda (us. refl. jigoda) make an effort, 
exert oneself, work hard for (one's 
children, parents). 

godoro* llnd.j (ma-) mattress, bolster, 

goe sing. see ugoe. 

gofi ( — ) 1. rind, bark. 2. skin. 

gofia* [?] (-) roller, pulley. 

gofiri* see ghofiri. 

gol'u 1. (ma-) ruin(s). — la nyumba. 
ruins of a house, fig. an emaciated 
person, human wreck. 2. adj. de- 
stroyed, collapsed; thin, emaciated. 
Cf. gofua. 

golua fall down, collapse (buildings). 
fig. become thin, emaciated; weaken, 
debilitate, ugonjwa umemgofua sana. 
The illness has greatly weakened 
him. intr. gofuka. caus. gofusha. 
Cf. gofu. 

gofyagol'ya, gefyagefya drive, impel. 

gogadima ( — ) hot. kind of shrub 
(Capparis corymbosa). 

gogo (ma-) log. Cf. kigogo. 

gogoreka cackle, cluck, chatter. 

gogoroda force, compel. 

gogota 1. strike, tap, beat, hammer 
(metal). 2. pull, drag. — mti. drag 
off a tree. appl. gogotea. caus. 
gogoteza. gogoteza maneno. speak 
imperfectly/haltingly (with apoor pro- 
nunciation), red. (int.) gotagota. 




gotagota maneno. use a mixture of 
words from different dialects. 3. (— ) 
zool. woodpecker. ( = kigogota.) Cf. 

gogoteza caus. of gogota. 

goigoi 1. (— ) laggard, lazy person. 

2. adj. inactive, idle, lazy, indolent. 
Cf. ugoigoi. 

goka rare gag, retch, choke (in vomiting). 
(~ kokomoka, tapika.) 

goma hawataki kufanya kazi kabla ya 
kuongezwa mshahara. The people are 
on strike; they won't work until they 
receive a pay increase. Cf. mgomaji, 
mgomo, ugomaji. 

-goma see 


3goma (ma-) see ngoma. 

Igomba (n-.a-) fiber of the banana leal. 
Cf. mgomba, ugomba. 

i i \ l- l i—l A: 1 2„ om U a o-oma 1. quarrel, squabble, 

goko (ma-) anat. shinbone. (- x muundi.J gomua, guma 4 , i 

wrangle; oppose, contradict; refuse. 

igole* \_Pers.~] (ma-) 1. mucus, phlegm, 
saliva. 2. crop, craw (of a bird). 

2 gole* [ind.] (ma-) pellet of opium 

(for smoking). 

golegole, goregore, goligoli ( — ) ornith. 
Tanganyika kakelaar, hoopoe (Phoeni- 
culus purpureus). 

goli* [Engl.] (-) sport goal. 

goligoli (-) see golegole. 

golikipa* [Engl.'] (ma-) sport goal- 

gololi* [Pers.] (-) 1. ball of glass, 
marble (for playing). 2. tech. ball 

Igoma refuse (to do something), stand up 
for one's rights, strike, watu wame- 

2. go on a strike, strike, appl. 
gombea. quarrel, argue (about some- 
thing); stand up for, lay claim to. 
gombea cheo. insist on one's social 
position, claim the privileges due 
one's rank or class, gombea uchaguz 
run for office (in an election), caus. 
gombeza. forbid, tumegombezwa 
tusiende (kwenda). We are forbidden 
to go. caus. intr. gombezeka. be 
reprehensible, ass. gombana. quar- 
rel, fall out, have words (with each 
other). Cf. gomvi, magombano, 
magombezi, mgombea, mgombezi, 
mgomvi, ugomvi. 

gombeza caus. of gomba. 

gombo (ma-) dial, page of a book. 
(= ukurasa.) 

gomboa {dial. - komboa) liberate, 
pass, gombowa. be liberated. 



gome (ma-) 1. bark, rind, peel, ambua - 
la mti (tunda). peel the bark off a tree 
(the rind from a fruit). 2. shell (of a 
crab, etc.). 3. coll. shilling. 

gomea (appl. of igoma) boycott. 

gomvi adj. quarrelsome. Cf. 2 gomba, 
mgomvi, ugomvi. 

9. . 

gomvi pi. of ugomvi. 

gona rare sleep, lie down. appl. gonea 
{also gonia). soothe, appease, pacify. 
caus. gonya, goneza. Cf. kigono, 
mgoni, ngono, nyono, ugoni. 

gonda (-) gonda (kind of small lizard). 

gondi (ma-) claw (of a crab, etc.). 
( = Igando.) 

goneza caus. of gona. 

gonga strike, tap, knock. - mlango. 

knock at a door. appl. gongea. appl.- 
ass. gongeana. gongeana bilauri. 
touch glasses (when drinking together), 
ass. gongana. strike against each 
other, collide (ships, automobiles), 
inv. gongoa. inv.-stat.-appl. gongo- 
mea. hammer, drive (nails). Cf. 

igongo (ma-) stick, club, knocker. 
Cf. gonga. 

gongo (ma-) (amplic. of nigongo) 1. 
height, pinnacle, top. - la mlima. 

mountaintop. 2. rare hump (on the 
back). 3.: — la mwitu. dense forest, 
heavy undergrowth. 

gongoa inv. of gonga. 

gongomea inv.-stat.-appl. of gongo. 

gongonola (-) woodpecker. (= gogota, 

gong'ota see kong'ota. 

gonia appl. of gona. 

gonjwa 1. adj. ill, sick, unwell. 2. (ma-) 
rare see ugonjwa. Cf. gonjweza, 

gonjweza make ill. refl. jigonjweza. 

feign illness. Cf. gonjwa. 
gonya caus. of gona. 

goo: mtondo (mi-) -. the fourth day from 
today. (- kushinda — .) 

gora* (-) see jora. 

goregore (-) see golegole. 

gorof'a* (-) see orofa. 

goromoe (- ) goromoe (kind of lizard). 

gorong'ondo (ma-) leg (of an animal). 

gorong'ondvva 1. (-) gorongondwa 

(kind of lizard). 2. move in a zigzag, 
twist, crawl. 

joshi* (-) see 1 joshi. 




gota rap, knock. — mlango. knock at a 
door. appl. gotea. caus. gotesha, 
goteza. red. gotagota. rap continu- 
ously, beat a drum. Cf. mgoto; also 

gotagota see gota. 

goti (ma-) anat. knee, piga magoti. 

kneel down, fall to one's knees, kunja 
magoti. draw up the knees, oia va — . 
anat. kneecap. 

govi (ma-), ngovi (— ) anat. foreskin, 
prepuce ( = zunga). mwenye — . un- 
circumcised person. 

goya sing. see ugoe. 

Igozi (ma-) sport (game of) football. 
mcheza — . football player. 

gozi (ma-) pejor. negro, black (used by 
Arabs of Africans). 

gramafoni* L Engl. J (—) gramophone, 
record player, sahani ya — . (phono- 
graph) record. 

gredi* {.Engl.} ( — ) 1. grade, rank, po- 
sition, ana — gani? What kind of a 
position (social, occupational) does 
he have? 2. quality, level, kahawa 
ya — ya chini. coffee of inferior 
quality, mshahara wake ni wa — ya 
juu. His salary is very high. 

guama see gwama. 

guba* (— ) see kuba. 

gubari* (— ) heavy black cloud, dust-cloud. 

gubeli* (— , ma-) naut. prow, bow; figure- 

gubi (ma-) leaf-stem of the coconut palm, 

gubigubi red. of gubika. 

gubika cover, cover over, cover up; wrap 
up. caus. gubisha. inv. gubua. un- 
cover, open; (fig.) discover, reveal, 
bring to light, red. (int.). gubigubi. 
cover oneself from head to foot. 

gubiti* LPers.J (— ) stick of sugar candy. 

gubu* (— ) 1. ill humor, annoyance, 

vexation, anger. 2. forwardness, im- 
portunity, obtrusiveness, pushiness. 
mwenye — . a forward/pushy person, 
nuisance, bore. 

gubua inv. of gubika. 

gude (— ) 1. awl. 2. gude (kind of 
bird, coucal; = dudumizi, tipitipi, 

gudi* (— , ma-) naut. dock, dockyard, 
shipyard. Cf. gadi. 

gudulia* (— , ma-) water-jar. 

greza* (— ) see gereza. 



gugu (ma-) weed; undergrowth, brush, 
thicket, vunja (ng'oa) magugu. clear 
out a thicket, magugu. bush, magugu- 
ni. in the bush, -a -. wild, unculti- 
vated (plants). 

gugumia 1. swallow, gulp. caus. & int. 
gugumiza. 2.: gugumiza maneno. 
stutter, stammer. Cf. gugumizi, 

gugumizi (ma-) person with a speech- 
defect, one who stutters. Cf. gugumia. 

gugumu (— ) body odor; sweat, perspira- 

gugumua (-) (kind of) reed (Phragmites 
communis ). 

guguna 1. gnaw, nibble; bite, chew, 

munch. 2. fig. find fault, nag, pester. 
caus. guguniza. 

gulio (ma-) rare, dial. ( weekly) market. 
( = soko.) 

guma, gumia growl, bark (dog). Cf. gumio. 

gumba adj. 1. alone, solitary, isolated. 
2. childless, sterile, only in certain 
expressions: kidole -. thumb, big 
toe. mtu mgumba. childless/solitary 
man. Cf. mgumba. 

gumbizi (-) dizziness, fainting spell, 
ana — . He is dizzy. 

gumbo (ma-) dial, need, distress; 
shortage (of food supplies); crop 
failure, poor harvest. 

gumbu (-) musical instrument (made of 
a calabash). 

gumegume (-) arch.: bunduki ya -. 

flintlock musket. 

gugurusha, gurugusha 1. pull/drag/haul 
along (on the ground, with a scraping 
or rustling sound). 2. rustle, scrape, 
rasp. appl. gugurushia. 

guguta (-, ma-) corncob (without grains). 
Cf. gunzi. 

guia see gwia. 

gulabi* [ (ma-) litchi (fruit of 
the mgulabi). 

gulegule (-) gulegule (kind of fish; 

gumia see guma. 

gumio (ma-) (also mgumio, mi-) barking, 
yelping (of a dog). Cf. guma. 

gumu adj. 1. hard, firm, strong, tough; 
severe, mkate mgumu. hard bread. 

2. fig. hard, difficult, kazi ngumu. 
hard work, moyo mgumu. hardhearted. 

3. unyielding, obstinate, stubborn. 

4. brave, courageous. Cf. ugumu, 

guna grumble, growl; be cross/irritable. 
fig. protest, find fault, criticize. 
Cf. mguno. 




igunda (ma-) gunda (musical instrument, 

^gunda be short (in stature). Cf. kundaa. 

gundi* L Ind. J ( — ) glue, paste, 
( = sherisi.) 

gundua discover, expose, disclose, hunt 

divulge a secret, appl. gundulia. ap- 
proach stealthily, sneak up on. caus. 
gundulisha, gunduza. intr. gunduka. 
ass. gunduana. 

gunga 1. abstain from, give up (certain 
foods, as tabu); resist a temptation. 
2. med. observe a diet. 3. warn. 
4. coax. 

gungu (— ) gungu (kind of dance) 

Iguni* Llnd.j (ma-) bag made of matting 
(for transporting dates). 

guni* (ma-) carpenter's square. 

guni* (— ) unrhymed/blank verse. 

gunia* Llnd.j (ma-) 1. grain-sack. 
2. sacking, burlap. 

guno (ma-) see mguno. 

gunzi, bunzi (ma-) corncob. Cf. ki- 
gunzi; also guguta. 

gura dial, change one's residence, 
move. ( = liama.) caus. gurisha. 
drive away , expel. 

guru* Llnd.j { — ): sukari — . unrefined 

gurudumu* LPers.J (ma-) wheel. — la 
mbele (nyuma). front (back) wheel. 
jino la — . sprocket. — zenye ndewe. 
lobed wheels. — la mzinga. mil. 
gun carriage. 

gurufa* {.Engl.? J (-) curve, katika 
reli pana — ya hatari. In this section 
there is a dangerous curve. 

gurufu* ( — , ma) rare highway. (- ba- 

guruguru (ma-) large lizard (Gherrosaurus 

^guruguru ( — ) guruguru (kind of fish, 

gurugusha 1. see gugurusha. 2, do 
badly, bungle, spoil. 

gururu* (— ) curdled milk, whey. 

guruta press, flatten, smooth, roll; 
mangle (clothes). Cf. gurulo, 

guruto (ma-) press, mangle. Cf. 


gusa touch, feel, handle, ass. gusana 
fig. get acquainted. Cf. mguso. 

gvvanda (ma-) man's outer garment (knee- 

*guta push, gore, fight (cattle). 

^guta shout, yell, call. appl. gutia. 
call out for (someone). 

eutu 1. (ma-) stump (of a lee, etc.). ana 
mguu (kidole) — . He has lost a leg 
(finger). — la mti. tree-stump. 2. adj. 
blunt, dull; broken off, chopped of. 
kisu kigutu. a dull knife, majani ma- 
gutugutu. stubble. 

gutua 1. do something suddenly; startle, 
frighten. 2. med. set (reduce) a 
broken or dislocated arm or leg. appl. 
gutulia. intr. gutuka. caus. gutusha. 
receive an electric shock; shock, as- 
tound, horrify. Cf. mgulusho. 

gutua see kutua. 

guu (ma-) amp lie. of mguu. tia — . 
cause trouble. 

guya rare seize, grasp, hold fast. 

gwa rare fall. 

gwafua bare the teeth, snarl. 

gwama, guama press, squeeze. 

gwaraza rub, grind. — meno. grind/gnash 
the teeth. 

gwaride* (ma-) mil. 1. parade, review; 
drill exercises. 2. military music, 
band. 3. guard. — la heshima. honor 
guard, cheza (piga) — . play military 
music; drill (to music), nyumba ya — . 

gwaru* L Ind. J ( — ) bean (Cyamopsis 
psoraloides ). Cf. mgvvaru. 

gwase (ma-) see gwasi. 

gwasi, gwase (ma-) warthog. (~ ngiri, 

gwaya tremble, quiver (from fear, cold). 

gvvia, guia 1. catch, seize, hold fast. 
— mnyama mtegoni. catch an animal 
in a trap. 2. fig. surprise, take by- 
surprise, catch unawares, appl. 
gwilia. caus. gwiza. pass, gwiwa. 
gwiwa na giza, be overtaken by dark- 

gwiji adj. & n. ( — ) brave, clever (per- 
son) (chiefly in reference to witch 




*haba* adj. little, slight, insignificant; 
scarce, in short supply, siku — . a few 
days. prov. — na — hujaza kibaba. 
Little by little fills the measure. 
Cf. uhaba. 

^haba*, huba, hubba (— , ma-) love, devo- 
tion, friendship, affection. Cf. hebu, 
muhebi, stahabu. 

hababi* (ma-) a term of respect used in 
addressing persons of high rank: Your 

habali* adj., rare 1. irresponsible. 
2. hot-tempered, irritable. 

habari* ( — ) 1. report, message, informa- 
tion, news, toa — . give a report, pass 
out information. — gani? What's the 
news? How are you? 2. material; 
tradition, history; event. Cf. hubiri, 
m hubiri. 

habedari!* abedari ! bedari ! interj. 
Watch out! Look out! Take care! 
Cf. hadhari. 

Habeshi* (ma-) see Mhabeshi. 

habibu* adj., liter, dear, beloved. 

habithi* ( — ) 1. wickedness, cruelty, 
malice, dishonesty. 2. a malicious/ 
dishonest person. 

habu* see *hebu. 

hadaa* 1. deceive, cheat, trick, appl. 
hadai. intr. hadaika. pass, hadaiwa. 
ass, hadaana. 2. (— ) deception, 
fraud, trickery. 

hadai* appl. of hadaa. 

hadaika* intr. of hadaa. 

hadaiwa* pass, of hadaa. 

hadaya* ( — ) see hedaya. 

haddi* (— ) see hadi. 

hadhara* adv.: — ya... in the presence 
of... — ya watu. in public, mkutano 
hadharani. public/open meeting. 
Cf. hadhiri, *hudhuria, hudhirio. 

hadhari*, hathari {also tahadhari) 1. be 

cautious/watchful, avoid, evade. 
appl. hadharia. refl. (interj.). 
jihadhari! Watch out! Take care! 
2. (— ) caution, discernment, kuwa 
na — . be on one's guard, tia (fanya) 
— , warn. 3. (— ) tenseness, tension. 

— ya hali ya kisasa. the tenseness of 
the present situation. 

hadhi* (— ) 1. respect, honor. 2. title. 

— ya heshima. honorary title. 




hadhiri*, hadhirisha make known, an- 
nounce, publish. Cf. hadhara. 

hadhirisha* see hadhiri. 

hadi*, haddi 1. (— ) boundary, limit; 
rule. 2. (— ): — mfundo. children's 
jumping game. 3. prep. & conj. until, 
as far as, so far as to...; so, then. 
tangu asubuhi — jioni. from morning to 
pvenincr. nilinvnia — aknia. I waited 
until he came. — nitampiga. I will 
even go so far as to beat him. — asu- 
buhi. Well then, until tomorrow. 
4. conj. so as to, so that, in order 
that. Nitafanya akili gani hadi tugawe 
sawasawa? What arrangements shall I 
make so that we may divide equally? 

hadima*, hedima (ma-) service. Cf. ha- 
dimu, huduma. 

hadimika* see adimika. 

hadimu* (ma-) 1. servant. 2. (freed) 
slave. Cf. hadima, huduma, hudumu, 

hadithi* 1. {us. appl. hadithia) tell, re- 
late, report; describe, explain, pass. 
hadithiwa. nimehadithiwa, I was told. 
2. (— ) report, narrative, story, legend; 
myth, ni — tu. It is only a story 
(i.e., something made up). 

hafifisha* 1. reduce, diminish, decrease; 
minimize, disparage; lessen (in value); 
weaken, debilitate, exhaust. 2. fig. 
behave in a careless/frivolous way. 
Cf. hafifu. 

hafifu* {also tahafifu) adj. trivial, 
worthless, insignificant. Cf. hafi- 
fisha, uhafifu. 

hafisi* ( — ) see afisi. 

hafla*, halfa (ma-) ceremony, party, 

hafu* L Engl. J (— ) half, sport half-time. 

hafukasti* [.Engl. ] ( — ) half-caste. 

hafutaimu* LEngl.J (— ) sport half-time. 

hai*, hei adj. living, alive, existent. 
Cf. hayati, hui, uhai. 

haiba*, heiba, heba (ma-, -) 1. beauty, 
charm, grace (of external appearance 
or of character). 2. good reputation/ 

haidhuru* see dhuru. 

haini* 1. betray, divulge (a secret), de- 
ceive. 2. (— ) {also mhaini, wa-) 
traitor, deceiver, informer, deserter, 
renegade. Cf. uhaini. 

haja* (— ) 1. need, desire; necessity. 
sina — nayo. I have no need of that. 
2. request, demand, petition. 3. need 
to relieve oneself, kwenda — . go to 
the toilet. Cf. hitaji, hoja, hoji, 

hajambo sing. see ujambo. 




haji* 1. (— ) pilgrimage (to Mecca). 

enda — . go on the pilgrimage. 2. (ma-) 
pilgrim. Cf. hiji. 

hajiri*, hujuru change one's residence, 
move; emigrate, appl. hajiria. appl.- 
ass. hajiriana. intr. hajirika. live 
far away, be an emigrant, caus. ha- 
jirisha. expel, deport. Cf. mhajiri. 

hajivale (-) (kind of) hawk (Cymnnaeni c / 

polyboroideo typicus). 

haka*, hakali ( — ) payment, price, (en- 
trance) fee; fine (for violating the 
rules of a club, etc.). shika — . pay 
the entrance fee. 

hakali* (-) see haka. 

hakama*, hakma (ma-) rare (law-)court. 
Cf. hukumu, hakimu. 

haki*, hakki (— ) 1. law, legality; 

(legal) claim. — ya kuchagua. right to 
vote, active suffrage. — ya kuchagu- 
liwa. eligibility. 2. justice, love of 
truth, shika (fanya) — . be just/up- 
right, mtu mwenye — . a just/upright/ 
righteous person. 3. (lawful, just) 
right, privilege, claim, nipe — yangu. 
Give me what is coming to me (i.e., 
what is mine by right), takia — . take 
legal action on someone's behalf. 
Cf. stahika, stahiki, ustahiki. 

hakika* 1. (— ) certainty, reality, fact, 
truth, correctness, accuracy, mambo 
haya ni — . These are facts. This is 

the truth of the matter, sina — . I have 
no certainty. 2. adv. undoubtedly, 
of course, for certain, positively. Cf. 
hakiki, hakikisho, uhakikisho. 

hakiki* make sure, prove, ascertain, 
check on, determine the truth, appl. 
hakikia. ask after someone, caus. 
hakikisha. 1. have inquiries made. 
2. (int.) attest, certify, vouch for; 
convince, nnss. { kn )hakikishwa. be 
convinced. Cf. hakika. 

hakikisho* (ma-) proof, evidence; depo- 
sition, testimony. Cf. hakiki. 

hakimu* (ma-) 1. judge. 2. rare leader, 
chief. Cf. hukumu. 

hakiri* rare scorn, despise, treat with 
contempt, deprecate, humiliate, vilify. 
( = dharau, tweza.) appl. hakiria. 
caus. hakirisha. abuse, revile, in- 

hakki* (— ) see haki. 

hakma* (ma-) see hakama. 

hakuna there is/are not. 

halafa*, hilafu (— ) dissension, differ- 
ence, quarrel; rupture, cleavage; op- 
position. Cf. halifu. 

2 halafa*, halfa (-) oath. 

halafu*, hilafu, alafu 1. adv. afterwards, 
later; subsequently, in future. 




(~ baadaye, nyumaye.) 2. conj. and 
then... Cf. "halifu. 

halahala!* inter j. 1. immediately! 

2. Don't forget! ( = upcsi, sasa hivi.) 

halali* 1. (— ) 1st. law, lawfulness, ni 

— yako kula nyama hii. You are per- 
mitted to eat this meat. 2. adj. law- 
ful, permitted. Cf. halalika. 

halalika* be lawful, be permitted, caus. 
halalisha. permit, legalize; declare to 
be lawful. Cf. halali. 

halasa* ( — ) 1. profit (from business). 
2. arch, payment, wages (of seamen). 
Cf. 2(,alisi. 

*halfa* ( — ) see ^halafa. 

halfa* (ma-) see hafla. 

hal;* ( — ) {also uhali, ilhali) 1. condi- 
tion, state (of health). — gani? in 
address. How are you? 2. situation. 

— ya kisasa. the present situation. 

— ya hatari. state of emergency, kwa 
kila — . under all circumstances. 

— ya anga. weather conditions (for 
flight purposes). - ya maisha. standard 
of living. 

halifa*, khalifa ( — ) hist., Isl. succes- 
sor, caliph. Cf. halafu, ^halifu. 

^halifu* 1. act contrary to, disobey, in- 
fringe, violate. — amri (sheria). dis- 
obey an order (the law). — kwa seri- 

kali. oppose/resist the government. 
caus. halifisha. incite (to rebellion). 
2. (ma-) mutineer, rebel, insurgent; 
lawbreaker. 3. adj. disobedient, re- 
bellious, seditious. Cf. ^halafa, 

^halifu* leave, bequeath. Cf. halafu. 

halili* ( — ) beloved/esteemed/distin- 
guished person. 

'halisi* adj. exact, definite; real, 

^halisi* 1. make a profit (from business). 
2. rare receive wages. Cf. halasa. 

halitumwa (— ) halitumwa (variety of 
sweet potato). 

halkumu* (-) anat. carotid artery, jugu- 
lar vein. 

halmaria* (-) see almaria. 

halmashauri*, halm shauri ( — ) council, 
committee, organization. — ya kufanya 
sheria. legislative body. — ya udha- 
mini. trust company. — ya Umoja wa 
Mataifa. United Nations Organization. 

— ya Usalama. Security Council (of 
the United Nations), ya kuwaajiri 
wafanyakazi. committee for public 
services. — kuu. central committee. 

— ya taifa kusimamia mazao. Na- 
tional Agricultural Products Board. 

— Kuu ya serikali ya nchi ya Urusi. 
Supreme Soviet of the USSR. Cf. 




halmshauri* (— ) see halmashauri. 

halua* (— ) kind of candy, Turkish delight. 

halula* (— ) med. abscess, swelling in 
the throat, quinsy. 

haluli* ( — ) laxative, Epsom salts. 

halwaridi*, alwaridi (— ) attar of roses. 
Cf. waridi. 

halzeti* ( — ) (also mafuta ya — ) olive 
oil. Cf. zeituni. 

hama change one's residence; migrate; 
move out, emigrate, appl. hamia. 
emigrate /immigrate (from/to a country), 
cans, hamisha. expel; resettle. Cf. 
hamaji, hame, hamiji, hamio, kihame, 
mahame, mhamiaji, mhamishi, uhamaji, 

hamaji adj. unsettled, homeless, nomad. 
Cf. hama, uhamaji. 

hamaki* 1. act heedlessly (suddenly, un- 
expectedly). 2. (— ) rash/inconsider- 
ate act, burst of temper. 

hamali* (ma-) 1. carrier, porter. 2. load, 
burden, freight, gari la — . cart for 
transporting goods. Cf. himila, himili, 
mhimili, stahimili, stahimilivu, usta- 

hamamu* (— ) public bath. 

hamanika be confused, disconcerted, dis- 
mayed; be irritated/excited. 

hamarawi* (— ) naut. rope for attaching 
a yard. 

hamaya* (— ) see himaya. 

hamdi*, hemdi (— ) see hamdu. 

hamdu*, humdu. himdu, hamdi, hemdi (— ) 
Tel. praise, al — lilahi. Praise be 
to Allah. Cf. himidi. 

hame (ma-) deserted place (village, 
town). (~ kihame, mahame, Mongo.) 
Cf. hama. 

hami* protect, defend; show favor. 
Cf. amia, himaya, mahamia. 

hamia appl. of hama. 

hamidi*, liemidi (— ) see hamdu. 

hamiji (wa-) 1. homeless person, nomad, 
vagrant. 2. rel. pilgrim. Cf. hama, 

hamio (ma-) move, removal, emigration. 
Cf. hama. 

hamira* (— ) yeast, leaven. 

hamisha caus. of hama. 

hamna there is not. Cf. mna. 

hamsa* arch. five. ( = tano.) — mia. 
five hundred. Cf. hamsini, hamsta- 
shara, hamsauishirini. 



hamsauishirini* arch, twenty-five. 
( = ishirini na tano.) 

hamsini* fifty. 

hamstashara* arch, fifteen. (= kumi na 

hamu* (— ) desire, (urgent) wish; anx- 
iety, ona (kuwa na) — . desire, wish/ 
yearn for. 

hamu* be alert/on one's guard, jihamu. 
defend oneself. Cf. u jihamu. 

hamumi* ( — ) hamumi (kind of smoking 

hanamu* 1. ( — ) slope, slant, bevel, edge; 
(math.) diagonal. — ya chombo. naut. 
bow, cutwater. 2. adj. diagonal, 
slanting, oblique. 

handaki* ( — ) trench, ditch, channel; 
(sport) sector. 

hando* L/rc<£.J ( — ) (copper) water-vessel. 

hangaika, angaika be excited/restless; 
be disconcerted/upset; be irresolute; 
be impatient, fig. rock, swing, caus. 
hangaisha. confuse, worry (someone). 
Cf. hangaiko. 

hangaiko (ma-) restlessness, excitement; 
worry; noise, commotion. Cf. hangaika. 

hangwe, hangue (— ) hook, bend. 

hani* comfort, show sympathy; condole. 

hanithi* ( — , ma-) 1. pervert, homo- 
sexual. 2. (sexually) impotent man. 
3. adj. homosexual, perverted; 

hanjari* ( — ) scimitar, dagger. ( = jambia.) 

hanziri* ( — ) rare pig. ( = nguruwe.) 

hanzua* (— ) sword dance. 

hao det. 3rd pers. pi. these/those 

mentioned (already referred to), walu 
— . the people referred to. 

hapa 1. dera. pron. this, mjini — . at 
this town. 2, adv. here, to this 
place, aje — . He should come here. 
toka — mpaka pale, from here to 
there, papa — . at this very place. 

hapana adv. no (lit.: there is no...). 

hapo 1. demon, that (already mentioned). 
mahali — . at the place referred to. 
2. adv. there, to/ from that place. 
ningojee — • ^ait for me there, papo 
— . at that (very) place (previously 
mentioned). — kale, then, in ancient 
times, once upon a time (at the be- 
ginning of stories). 

hara* purge, evacuate; have diarrhea, 
dawa ya kuhara. laxative, caus. 
harisha. 1. produce diarrhea, dawa 
hii inaharisha. This medicine has a 


laxative effect. 2. (intr.) be terribly 
frightened (e.g., when caught in wrong- 
doing). Cf. liarisho. 

hara* (— ) rare (us. loc. harani) dis- 
trict, quarter (of a town). 

harabu* 1. (— , ma-) {also mharabu, wa-) 
destroyer, spoiler, vandal, prov. nazi 
mbovu — ya nzima. A bad coconut 
spoils the good ones. 2. adj. destruc- 
tive, pernicious; violent, brutal. 
Cf. haribu. 

haradali* ( — ) mustard. (- mastadi.) 

harani* (ma-) see haragwe. 

haragwe*, haragi iPers.j (ma-) bean 
(Phasealis communis). Cf. mharagwe. 

haraja* 1. (— ) expense, expenditure, 
outlay, consumption; loss. 2. incur 
expenses, spend money recklessly. 
Cf. hariji. 

haraka* 1. (— ) hurry, haste, speed, ra- 
pidity, excitement, fanya -. hurry up, 
hasten, enda kwa — . go fast, be in a 

hurry, prov. haina baraka. Haste 

brings no blessing. 2, adj. hasty, 
fast, excited, feverish. Cf. harakisha, 

harakisha*, harikisha urge, press, hurry. 
Cf. haraka. 

haram*, ihramu pi. the Pyramids. Cf. 
haramu, harimu. 

haramia* (ma-) robber, bandit, pirate, 
outlaw. Cf. haramu, uharamia. 

haramu* 1. (— ) rel. prohibition, avoid- 
ance (of something unlawful), ni — 
kula nyama ya nguruwe. It is forbidden 
to eat pork, mtoto wa — . an illegiti- 
mate child. 2. adj. undesirable, for- 
bidden, prohibited. Cf. harimu, uha- 
ramu, haramia. 

harara* ( — ) 1. warmth, heat, tempera- 
ture, med. fever, inflammation; 
erythema. 2. fig. zeal, enthusiasm, 
passion, ana — . He is passionate/ 
temperamental. C f. hari, uharara. 

hari*, harri ( — ) 1. heat, fervor. - ja 
jua. heat of the sun. 2. rare sweat. 
toka — . sweat, perspire. Cf. harara. 


see heria. 

haribil'u*, haribivu adj. destructive, 
pernicious; extravagant, wasteful. 
Cf. haribu, uharibifu. 

haribivu* see haribifu. 

haribu* destroy, ruin, damage, fig. de- 
moralize, — mimba. procure abortion. 
appl. haribia. pass, haribiwa. intr. 
haribika. be destroyed, ruined, di- 
lapidated, caus. haribisha. bring 
misfortune, ruin. Cf. harabu, hari- 
bifu, uharibifu. 

hariji* spend, waste, squander (money), 
appl. hari jia. 1. spend money on 
(someone), be generous. 2, donate, 
contribute to. Cf. haraja. 



^harijia* appl. of hariji. 

harijia* ( — ): vvaziri — . foreign minister. 

harikisha* see harakisha. 

harimu* 1. forbid, prohibit, appl. hari- 
mia. caus. harimisha. pronounce un- 
lawful, declare taboo. 2. (ma-) harimu 
(a taboo: person or thing). 3. (ma-) 
[),!,■;,,,„ (p. a ~ ;o U ccd bv a -sister ' - ■ v - 
brother). Cf. haram, haramu, ihramu, 

Hariri* (— ) silk. 

harisha* caus. of Hara. 

harisho (ma-) 1. med. diarrhea. 
2. (strong) laxati ve. C f. Miara. 

harita* ( — ) seeds of the soapberry tree. 
Cf. mharita. 

haro* \_Engl. J (— ) rare harrow. 

harri* ( — ) see hari. 

harul'i* ( — ) see herufi. 

harufu* ( — ) smell (good or bad), aroma, 

harusi* ( — ) see arusi. 

Hasa*, hassa adv. 1. especially, ex- 
actly, just. 2. completely, wholly, 
very much. Cf. husu, hususa, mahsusi. 

^hasa* ( — ) rare castrated man or animal, 
eunuch. Cf. hasi, mhasi. 

hasada* ( — ) hasada (kind of porridge). 

'hasama* ( — ) nose ring. (= kipini.) 

^hasama* (ma-) see hasimu 2. 

''hasama* (ma-) = uhasama, husuma. 

hasanati* ( — ) see hisani. 

hasara*, khasara ( — ) loss, damage, in- 
jury, pata — . lose, lipa — . pay for 
damage incurred, compensate. Cf. 

hasha!* inter;, by no means! impossible! 
of course not! 

hasharati* 1. ( — ) excess, dissipation, 
intemperance; extravagance, waste- 
fulness. 2. (ma-) dissolute person, 
hard drinker; spendthrift. 

hashiki* ( — ) liter, ardor, passion. 

hasho* (ma-), kihasho (vi-) naut. piece 
of wood for repairing a boat, patch, 

hasi* 1. castrate, geld. pass, hasiwa. 
2. fig.: mtu huyu ni — . This man is 
an outcast/outlaw . Cf. ^hasa, 
hasua, maksai, mhasi. ^uhasi. 




hasidi* 1. (ma-) envious/malicious per- 
son; enemy. 2. (— ) envy, ill will. 
3. v. (also husudu) envy, hate, hold 
a grudge. Cf. husuda, husudu, uhasidi. 

hasimu* 1. see husutnu. 2. (ma-) (also 
hasama) opponent, rival; a person with 
whom one is not on speaking terms; 
wrangler, quarrelsome person. Cf. 
husuma, husumu, uhasama. 

hasira* (— ) vexation, anger, pata (wa 
na) — . be vexed/angry. 

hatarisha*, hatirisha imperil, endanger, 
risk, jeopardize, refl. jihatarisha. 
expose oneself to danger. Cf. hatari. 

hathari* see hadhari. 

hati*, hatti (— ) (prepared) document; 
form, blank. — ya maombi. applica- 
tion form. — ya deni. promissory 
note. — ya uwakala. power of attor- 

script. — ya utambulishi. creden- 

hasiri* do harm, damage, wrong, injure. . 
mtu katika ugomvi. injure someone in 
a dispute, appl. hasiria. intr. hasi- 
rika. decay, deteriorate. Cf. hasara. 


ssa" see 


hasua* (— ) anal, testicles. Cf, hasi. 

hata* 1. prep, until, as far as. tangu 
asubuhi — jioni. from early to late. 
2. prep, since. 3. conj. so, so that, 
in order that; even if. tutasoma kitabu 
gani — tujue maneno yenu? What kind 
of a book should we read so that we 
may understand your words? — akija. 
even if he comes. 4. adv. (or — ki- 
dogo, usually after negation) (not ...) 
at all, in the least, maneno haya si 
kweli — . These words are absolutely 

hatamu* ( — ) bridle, rein, 

hatari* (— ) danger, risk, hali ya — . 
state of emergency. Cf. hatarisha. 

*hatia* ( — ) error, transgression, viola- 
tion, crime, guilt, tia hatiani. ac- 
cuse, find guilty, tiwa hatiani. be 
convicted, ana — . He is guilty. 
patikana na hatia. be found guilty. 

^hatia* ( — ) rare gift, gratuity, tip. 
( = bakshishi.) 

hatibu* (ma-) Isl. preacher. Cf. hutubu. 

hatima* 1. (— ) end, conclusion, termi- 
nation. 2. adv. (also hatimaye) 
finally; then, later, afterwards; (conj.) 
after. Cf. hiitima, hitimu. 

hatimaye* see hatima. 

hatimisha* caus. of hitimu. 

hatimu* see hitimu. 

hatirisha* see hatarisha. 

hatta* see hata. 




hatti* (-) see hati. 

hatua* ( — ) 1. step, pace, pima kwa — . 
measure in paces, ni - tu. It is only 
a short distance. 2. fig. progress, 
development; possibility, opportunity. 

haula* see lahaula. 

hawa* ( — ) 1. longing, yearning, desire. 
2. (passionate) love/attraction. — ya 
moyo. deep/fervent love. 3. lust. 
4. (ma-) concubine. 5. pr. n. fern, 
(also Ewa) Eve. 

hawa* (-) see hewa. 

1 hawa dem. pron. pi. these, watu — . 
these people. 

hawaa* (ma-) see havvara. 

hawai* (ma-) rare whore. ( = havvara.) 

hawala* ( — ) check, draft; money order, 
bill of exchange. C f. hawili. 

havvara*, hawaa (ma-) lover, paramour, 
concubine, mistress. Cf. uhavvara. 

hawili* change, exchange, convert; 

transfer (funds). — hawala. refund a 
note, repay a debt. caus. havvilisha. 
jur. convey, make over, Cf. hawala. 

^haya* (-) 1. shame, modesty, bashful- 
ness, timidity, tia (ingiwa na) — , ona 
— . feel shame. 2. subservience, 

humility. 3, esteem, respect, rever- 
ence, awe. Cf. tahayari, tahayuri. 

haya!* inter j. Come on! Now then! 
Get a move on ! 

haya demon, pron. (pi. of hili) these. 

hayati* (-) deceased (person). Cf. hai. 

hayawani* (-) rare 1. animal, beast. 
2. monster. 3. feeble-minded person, 
imbecile, idiot. Cf. uhayawani. 

hayo det. ma- cl. those (mentioned, re- 
ferred to), maneno — . those words 
(which have been mentioned). 

hazama* (-) hazama (ornament, ring, 
etc. worn in the nose). (= kikero, 

hazamu* (ma-) see mahazamu. 

hazina* ( — ) 1. treasure (money, 
jewelry), valuables. 2. treasury, 

heba* (ma-, -) see haiba. 

hebu*, habu love, like; be content/ 
happy. Cf. "haba. muhebi, stahabu. 

hebu!* ebu! hela! inter j. well! come 
now ! 

hedashara* (-) see edashara. 



hedaya*, hidaya, hadaya (-) (valuable) hekimiza* impart knowledge, inform, in- 

■ f struct. Cf. hukumu, hekima. 

hedhi*, hidhi, hethi ( — ) menstruation, 
kuwa na — . menstruate. 

hedikwota* [Engl.'] (— ) headquarters, 
hedima* (ma-) see hadima. 

. . .„ r r. , 1 , N i i 

neaimasta' Lungi.j vma-; ncauma»ic 

principal (of a school). 
hehema see ^hema. 
hei* see hai. 
heiba* (ma-, — ) see haiba. 

heko* 1. inter j. hurrah! bravo! well 
done! 2. sing, compliments, con- 
gratulations. Cf. hekaheka. 

*hela!* see 2|, e l,u. 

^hela* LGerm.J (— ) arch, heller, money. 

hema* (-) tent, piga — . pitch a tent, 
ng'oa — . strike a tent. 

2 hema, hehema be outof breath, pant, 
breathe heavily, gasp. appl. hemea. 
pass, hemewa. fig. be very busy, 
be overworked. 

hekaheka* (-) 1. confusion, unrest, 

noise. 2. fig., sport cheers, cheering. hemaya* (-) see himaya. 
Cf. heko. 

hekalu* (ma-) re/. 1. temple (esp. the 
Temple of J erusalem). 2. pagoda 
(China, India). 

hemdi* (-) see hamdu. 

hemera buy (or go hunting for) food. 

hemidi* (-) see hamdu. 

hekaya*, hikaya (-) 1. tale, story, 

in i it henezi adv. slowly, gradually, 

anecdote. 2. remarkable occurrence, " c " c ' ' B 

wonder, miracle. 

hekemua 1. stretch oneself. 2. rare 
sneeze. ( = chemua.) 

hekima* (-) wisdom, knowledge; phi- 
losophy; (power of) judgment, discern- 
ment, wana— . be wise/shrewd. 
mwenye — . philosopher, well-informed/ 
educated person. Cf. hukumu. 

henza* ( — ) naut. halyard. 

henzarani*, henzerani, henzirani, hinzi- 
rani (— ) 1. cane, rattan, bamboo. 
2„ plaited belt/sash. 

heri* 1. (-) good luck, success, ad- 
vantage, mtu wa — . fortunate/suc- 
cessful person, jaliwa (na) — . have 

good luck, salutation: kiva — ! or kwa 
— ya kuonana! Good-b\e! 2.: —a — . 
adj. fortunate, successful. 3. adv. 
better, rather, prov. — adui row erevu 
kama rafiki mpumbavu. Better a clever 
enemy than a stupid friend. Cf. bu- 
ll e r i , u h e r i . 

heria*, haria U'ort. arrierj 1. naut. take 
in (a sail). 2. lower! (direction to 
crane operators , etc.) 

hcrimu* ( — ) see hiriniu. 

Iierini* I Engl. A ( — ) coll. earring. 
( = "bali, kipuli.) 

hero (ma-) hero (small wooden serving 
dish). Cf. kihero. 

heron. ( — ) flamingo. 

penditures. neno la—, gramm. nu- 
meral, lanya — . work a sum, draw 
up an account, tia katika — . put to 
(someone's) account, —a — . mathe- 

heshima* ( — ) honor, respect, courtesy, 
esteem, wekeana — . treat each other 
with respect, shika kwa — . receive 
someone with courtesv, prov. — 
huuzwa bure. Politeness costs vou 
nothing. C f. heshirnu, mahashumu, 

heshirnu* honor, respect, esteem; be 
polite, appl. heshimia. caus. he- 
shim i s h a . C f. heshima, mahashumu, 
m h e s h i m i vv a , muhashamu. 

h e s i * , hessi, esi ( — ) screw, bolt; peg 
(of a musical instrument). 

herul'i*, harul'i ( — ) latter (of the alpha- 
bet). — za kiarabu. A.rabic letters. 

hesabu* 1. count, calculate; estimate, 
appraise; consider, appl. hesabia. 
settle an account with someone; consider, 
regard as, alihcsabiwa kuwa ana he- 
kima. He was regarded as/had the 
reputation of being a clever man. 
intr. hesabika. be countable /calcu- 
lable. 2. {also hisabu) ( — ) arithme- 
tic, mathematics ( = elimu ya — ); ac- 
count, bill; number, sum; settlement: 
calculation, computation; (bank) ac- 
count, credit; rate. — ya biashara. 
balance of trade. — ya mapato na 
matumizi. balance of income and ex- 

hethi* ( — ) see hedhi. 

heti* LEngl.^ ( — ) hat, cap. 

Iiewa*, haw a ( — ) 1. air, atmosphere; 
climate, weather; sky. punga — . 
take a walk, get a breath of fresh 
air; enjoy a change of air, take a 
trip, utabiri wa — . weather fore- 
casting, meteorology, kujilinda hc- 
wani. air defense. 2. gas. — ya 
kutoa machozi. tear gas. 

hezaya* ( — ) see hizaya. 

Ihiana*, hiyana 1. (— ) treachery, be- 
trayal, deceit. 2. (ma-) betrayer, 




traitor, renegade. 3. adj. faithless, 
disloyal, treacherous, mtu — . a 
treacherous person, mfanya — . pol. 
renegade. Cf. hini, uhiana. 

^hiana* ( — ) rare hardness (of wood ). 

hiari*, hiyari 1. choose, select; prefer. 
2. (also hitiari, ihtiari, ikhtiari) ( — ) 
wish, choice, (free) will, pleasure, 
discretion, judgment. — yako. at your 
discretion, as you see fit. kwa — . at 
one's own discretion, voluntarily. 
kazi ya — . voluntary work. 

hiba* (— ) gift, present, donation; legacy. 

hibia* please/delight (someone). Cf. 


hicho det. ki- cl. that (previously men- 
tioned/referred to), kitabu — . the book 
referred to. 

hidaji* see hitaji. 
*hidaya* ( — ) see hedaya. 
^hidaya* ( — ) see adia. 
^hidaya* adj. beautiful, desirable. 
hidlii* (— ) see hedhi. 
hidi* persuade, convert. 

hidima* adv. quickly, promptly; dili- 
gently, carefully. 

hifadhi* 1. keep, save; put aside, keep 
in reserve; preserve. 2. guard, pro- 
tect; rescue. — hadithi. preserve 
stories/traditions. — maziwa. store 
up milk. appl. hifadhia. intr. hifa- 
dhika. refl. jihifadhi. protect one- 
self. 3. ( — ) guarding, protection. 

hii dem. pron. 1. mi- cl. these, miti 
— , these trees. 2. n- cl. this. 
nyumba — . this house. 

hijabu* ( — ) med. 1, neuralgia. 2. swell 
ing of glands in the neck. 

hiji* Isl. go on the pilgrimage (to Mecca). 
Cf. haji. 

hikaya* (-) see hekaya. 

h i ki dem. pron. ki- cl. this, kitu — . 
this thing. 

hila* (— ) trick, strategem, pretext, sub- 
terfuge, deceit, cunning, kwa — . 
craftily, deceitfully, fanya — . employ 
a trick, -a -. adj. crafty, deceitful. 

^hilafu*' adv. see halafu. 

2 hilafu* (-) see halafa. 

hilali* (— ) crescent. 

hili dem. pron. ji- cl. this, tunda — . 
this fruit. 

^hiliki* ( — ) see eliki. 



^hiliki* be destroyed, be lost; (fig.) die. hina*, hinna ( — ) henna (a red dye used 

pass, hilikiwa. 

hilo det. ji- cl. this (previously men- 
tioned), jina — . the name referred to. 

hima* 1. ( — ) haste, hurry, precipitation. 
2. ( — ) stubbornness, obstinacy; per- 
sistence, perseverance; energy, stami- 
na. 3. adv. hastily, hurriedly, 

•■l.. re i 

himiza, muhimu. 

for staining the nails and hair). Cf. 

*Hindi* adj.: Bara Hindi. India 
(= Uhindi). Cf. 2 hindi, Kihindi, 
Mhindi, ^muhindi, Uhindi. 

^hindi* (ma-) single grain of corn, 

maize, mahindi. corn, maize, unga wa 

mahindi. cornmeal. Cf. Hindi, 


himaya*, hamaya, hemaya ( — ) protection; hini* withhold, keep back; refuse, refl. 

jihini. refrain, abstain; restrain one- 
self, appl. hinia. refl.-caus. ji- 

guardianship, tutelage. Cf. amia.hami. 
himdu* ( — ) see hamdu. 

himia* drive, impel; force, urge. Cf. 

himidi* rel. 1, to praise (God), 2. (— ) 
= hamdu. 

himila* ( — ) 1. load, burden; freight, 
cargo. 2. fig. pregnancy. Cf. hamali 

hinisha. deny oneself, practice self- 
denial/abstinence. C /. J-hiana, 

hinikiza break off, interrupt (a conversa- 
tion); be bored. 

hinna* (— ) see hina. 

hinzirani* (— ) see henzarani. 

himili* 1. bear, endure, hold out. 2. fig. hirimia* intend, decide, 

be pregnant, appl. h im ilia. intr. 
himilika. caus. himilisha. Cf. hamali. hirimu*, herimu ( — ) 1. time of life, age. 

himiza*, himu urge (to haste); speed up, 
drive on. refl. jihimiza. make haste, 
hurry. — mtu kazi. urge someone to 
speed up his work. Cf. hima. 


see himiza. 

2. eth. age-group, huyu — yangu. 

This man belongs to my age-group. 

3. a contemporary. 

hirizi* ( — ) amulet, talisman. 

^hisa* (— ) 1. part, share. 2. math. 
quotient. 3. econ. share of stock. 



^hisa*, hissa (-) forgiveness, pardon. 
hisabu* ( — ) see hesabu 2. 

hisani*, ehsani, ihsani, hasanati (— ) 

kindness, complaisance, favor, bene- 
faction, preference, fanyia — . show 
favor to someone, treat preferentially. 
Cf. mhisani. 

hisi* recognize; feel, perceive, sense. 
Cf. hisiya. 

hisiya* (-) feeling. Cf. hisi. 

hissa* (-) see 2 n , sa< 

historia* [Engl. ] (-) history. - ya 
Afrika. African history. 

hitaji*, hidaji, ihtaji 1. be lacking; want, 
desire; be necessary; need, require. 
yahitaji. It is necessary, appl. hita- 
jia. intr. hitajika. 2. (ma-) (usually 
mahitaji) necessity, need, requirement, 
requisite; request, petition. Cf. haja, 
mhitaji, uhitaji. 

hitiari* (-) see 

ri 2. 

hitilafu*, ihtilafu 1. distinguish, differ- 
entiate; differ, be different, appl. 
hkilafia. appl. -ass. hitilafiana.. be 
different/distinct; disagree, contradict. 
2. (— ) difference; exception, contra- 
diction, discrepancy; fault, defect. 

hitima* (-) Isl. 1. reading from the 
Koran. 2. funeral sermon. 3. feast 

at the conclusion of a funeral service. 
Cf. hatima, hitimu. 

hitimu*, hatimu end, stop; complete, 

finish, conclude (esp. school, courses, 
etc.). mtoto huyu amehitimu. This 
child has finished school, appl. hi- 
timia. caus. hitimisha, hatimisha. 
Cf. hatima. 

vitu — . these things. 2. adv. thus, 
in this way, of this sort; just, ameni- 
ambia — . This is what he told me. 
leo -. just today. - juzi (karibu). 
recently, just now. sasa — (— sasa). 
immediately, directly. 

hivyo 1. det. vi- cl. these/those (men- 
tioned), vitu -. the things mentioned. 
2. adv. thus, in this way. vivyo — . 
just so, in this very way. 

hiyana* (-) see hiana. 

hiyari* (-) see hiari. 

hiyo 1. det. mi- cl. that/those (pre- 
viously mentioned), miti — . those 
trees which were mentioned. 2. det. 
n- cl. this, nyumba — . the house 
referred to. 3. adv. in this way. 
kwa — . therefore. 

hizaya*, hezaya (-) disgrace, dishonor; 
disfavor, misfortune, curse. Cf. 1 hizi. 

Ihizi* {rare stihizai) abuse, insult, dis- 
grace, put to shame; curse, execrate; 



dishonor, debase, appl. hizia. intr. 
hizika. be disgraced/dishonored. 
caus. hizisha. Cf. hizaya. 

hizi dem. pron. n- cl. pi. these. 
nyumba — . these houses, siku — . 
these days. fig. recently, today. 
zizi — . emph. these very... 

hogo* (ma-, — ) see muhogo. 

hohehahe* LPers.J (-) lonely/solitary 
person. Cf. hoi. 

hoho ( — ) 1.: pilipili — . red pepper. 
2. a kind of cake (flavored with red 

hobe!* inter;. Go! Get out! Get started! hoi * ^Pers.J adj. helpless. 

hobela*: adv. somehow or other, 

any old way, hastily and badly. 

hodari* adj. 1. strong, powerful. 2. fin 
stable. 3. active, energetic. 4. dili- 
gent, skilful, capable, mtu — . a ca- 
pable person. C f. uhodari. 

hodhi* (-) 1. water-tank, boiler. 

2. waste land adjoining a cultivated 
field (and claimed by its owner). 

hodi!* inter j. May I come in? (before 
entering a house/room.) piga — . call 
hodi,' ask for admission. 

hoduma* (-) see hiiduma. 

hofia* appl. of hofu. 

hofu* 1. fear, be afraid, appl. hofia. 
be afraid of (someone/something). 
intr. hofika. pass, hofiwa. caus. 
hofisha. frighten/intimidate (some- 
one). 2. ( — ) fear, fright, terror, wa 
na (patwa na, shikwa na) — . be 
afraid, dread, kwa—. from fear. 

hoihoi* LPers.J (— ) noise, shouting. 
— ya karamu. mirth at a feast or 

hoja*, huja (— , ma-) 1. necessity; wish. 

2. affair, matter; reason, motive; evi- 
dence, argument, hapana — ya kugo- 
nibana. There is no reason to quarrel. 
una — ? jur. Do you have a question? 

3. (trumped-up) excuse, evasion. 
usinipe — . Don't make excuses to me! 
Cf. haja. 

hoji*, huji jur. question, examine, in- 
vestigate; argue; compel, press, appl. 
hojia. ass. hojiana. argue, pass. 
hojiwa. red. (int.). hojihoji. keep on 
asking questions, cross-examine. 
Cf. haja. 

hojihoji* red. (int.) of hoji. 

hokumu* see hukumu 1. 

homa* ( — ) med. fever, imenishika or 
nimeshikwa na — . I have a fever/ 
temperature. — ya malaria, an attack 
of malaria, kipimo cha — . fever 




hombwe (— ) hombwe (kind of snail). 

homu* (— ) steady wind. 

homugadi* LEngl.J sing, home guard. 

hondo, hondohondo, horohoro (-) ornith. 
crowned hornbill. ( = kwembe.) 

hondohondo (— ) see hondo. 

honga 1. pay (toll, tribute). 2. congratu- 
late. 3. bribe, corrupt, appl. hongea, 
hongela, hongera. 1. pay for some- 
thing. 2. recover fesp. after child- 
birth). 3. jur. be acquitted/cleared of 
a charge, caus. hongeza. make some- 
one pay, ask for a bribe/blackmail. 
refl. jihongeza. rid oneself of some- 
thing. Cf. hongera, hongo. 

hongera 1. (— ) congratulations; gift, 
present (birthday, holiday). 2. appl. 
of honga. Cf. honga. 

hongo (ma-, — ) exaction, tribute; bribe, 
blackmail. Cf. honga. 

honi* LEngl.J (automobile) horn. 

Ihori* (-) geogr. bay, inlet. 

2 hori* LPers.A* (-) 1. watering trough, 
feed-trough (for animals). 2. a kind 
of canoe. 

horji*, horiji (-) saddlebag. 

horohoro (— ) see hondo. 

horuma* ( — ) see huruma. 

horumia* see hurumia. 

hospitali* LEngl.J {also sipitali) 

(ma-, — ) hospital, clinic. Cf. kiji- 

hosumu* ( — ) see husuma. 

hota treat, give medicine to (against 

sterility or to encourage the growth of 
teeth in infants). C f. hoto. 

hoteli* L Engl, j (-) hotel, restaurant. 

hoto (ma-) medicine against sterility. 
dawa ya — la uzazi. medicine for in- 
ducing pregnancy. Cf. hota. 

hotuba* (-) see hutuba. 

hoza (— ) hoza (medicine for teething 

hozahoza remove, eliminate (doubts, 

hozi* 1. acquire, have, possess. 

mwenye kuhozi. monopolist. 2. ( — ) 
jur. property. 

hozuni* (-) see huzuni. 

hua (-) ornith. wild dove (Streptopelia 

huba* (-) see 2 haba. 

hubba* (-) see 2 haba. 




hubiri* 1. say, tell, report, inform, an- 
nounce. 2. (ma-) communication, re- 
port, message; (rel.) sermon. Cf. ha 
bari, mhubiri. 

hudhud* (— ) ornith. hoopoe. 

hui* be revived, caus. huisha. revive, 
resuscitate, revivify. Cf. hai. 

huja* (— , ma-) see hoja. 

hujambo see ^jambo, ujambo. 

hudhuni* see huzuni. 



hudhuria* be present, attend, participate. hujuma* rare attack. 
— katika mkutano. attend a meeting. 
caus. hudhurisha. summon, convene, 
convoke; invite. Cf. hadhara, hudhu- 

hujuru* see hajiri. 

'hudhuria* risk, venture. 

hudhurio* (ma-) presence, attendance, 
participation. Cf. hadhara, hudhuria. 

hudhurungi* 1. (— ) light-brown cotton 
cloth (for making kanzu) 2. adj. light 
brown, yellow. 

huduma*, hoduma (— ) service, attention, 
assistance, med. — ya kwanza. first 
aid. Cf. hadimu, hudumu. 

hudumia* see hudumu. 

hudumu*, hudumia serve, attend, wait on; 
take care of, nurse. C f. hadimu, hu- 

huduru* gather, assemble. Cf. hadhara. 

huenda adv. possibly, perhaps. — akaja. 
Possibly he will come. Cf. enda. 

huko 1. dem. pron. this (previously 
mentioned), kucheza — . the game re- 
ferred to. shambani — . in the field 
mentioned. 2. adv. there, to that 
place; here, to this place, huko — . in 
that very place. 3. conj. — nyuma. 
while, as when. 

huku 1. dem. pron. this, kucheza — . 
this game, nyumbani — . at his house. 
2. adv. here, to this place, toka — 
mpaka huko. from here to there. 

hukumu*, hokumu 1. judge, dispense 

justice, sentence; decide; rule, govern. 
appl. hukumia. pass judgment on. 
caus. hukumiza, hukumisha. 2. (— ) 
administration of justice, judgment, 
sentence, decision; trial; decree, ordi- 
nance, regulation; jurisdiction, author- 
ity, power. — ya mwisho. rel. last 
judgment, hana — hapa. He has no au- 
thority here. — ya saa kumi. at the 
tenth hour. Cf. hakama, hakimu, 
hekima, hekimiza, mahakma. 




huliwa* (— ) fish-roe, caviar. 

hulka*, huluka (— ) status, natural condi- 
tion, nature, quality, characteristic. 
Cf. huluki, huluku, mahluki. 

hulu* 1. cease, desist. 2. allow, permit. 

huluka* (— ) see hulka. 

huluki* (— ) 1. creation. 2. creature, 
being. Cf. hulka. 

huluku* rel. create. Cf. hulka. 

humdu* ( — ) see hamdu. 

about (e.g., from one political party to 
another). 4. be disobedient. Cf. mhuni, 

huntha* ( — ) rare hermaphrodite. 

huo dem. pron. m- and u- cl. this (pre- 
viously mentioned), mti — . the tree 
mentioned, u pan pa -~. the sword re- 
ferred to. 

huri*, hurri, huria, huru (ma-) free person, 
freedman. Cf. huria, huru, uhuru. 

huria* 1. (— ) freedom (of action, choice). 
2. (ma-) = huri. Cf. huri, uhuru. 

humo 1. dem. pron. in this... (previously hurijia* rare invite (to a celebration), 

mentioned), nyumbani — . in the house 

referred to. 2. adv. here, in this place. hurri* (ma-) see huri. 

mumo —. at/in this very place. 

hurru* see huru. 

huru*, hurru 1. adj. free; liberated, 
emancipated, sisi ni watu — . We are 
free people. 2. (ma-) see huri. Cf. 
huri, uhuru. 

hurulaini*, huruleini (ma-) Isl. houri. 

*humu 1. dem. pron. this, in this... 
nyumbani — . in this house. 2. adv. 
here, in this place, mumu — . in this 
very place. 

^humu* (— ) rare sorrow, grief. 

humuda (— ) help, assistance. — ya kwanza. , . , 

r huruma*, horuma ( — ) sympathy, compassion; 

first aid. -, . . , 

attection, generosity, humanity, wa na 

(patwa na, shikwa na, ona, fanya) — . 
show sympathy, be sympathetic/gen- 
erous. Cf. rehema, hurumia. 

humusi* (-) a fifth. 

hundi* [/raa\] (-) bill, draft, check, 
money order. 

hurumia*, horumia show sympathy toward 
someone, have pity/mercy. Cf. huruma. 

huni* 1. wander around, be idle. 2. do 

wilful damage, commit acts of vandalism/ , .* / \ i 

s ' hurunzi* (— ) see kurunzi 

robbery. 3. be unstable/flighty, change 




husiana/kuhusiana na... according to.., 
Cf. husu. 

husiano* (ma-) relationship. Cf. husu. 

husika* intr. of husu. 

husisha* caus. of husu. 

other, amehusumiana na mwenzangu. 

He has quarreled with my friend. Cf. 
hasimu, husuma. 

husuni* ( — ) fort, fortress, castle. 

husuniano* (ma-) relationship, connection. 
Cf. husu. 

husuru* Suppress. Slinintratp nnnrpsa 

fig., mil. besiege, fig. press, assail 
(with words). 

husu* (and appl. husia) eive someone a 
share, divide up; belong to, be due to. 
alimhusu katika damu. He belonged to 
him (was related to him), fig. concern, 

pertain to, affect: befit, be suitable; be hususa* 1. adj. special, particular. 2. adi 

in accordance with, maneno haya ya- especially, exactly, extremely, fully, 

limhusu kila mtu. These words concerned 
everyone, -intr. husika. cans, husisha. 
ass. husiana. concern each other, be 
pertinent, (ku)husiana na... according 
to... Cf. hasa, hususa, husiano, 
husuniano, kihusiano, kuhusu, mahsiisi, 
u h u s i a n o . 

husuda* (-) envy, ill will, jealousy, 
hostility. Cf. hasidi, husudu. 

husudu*, hasidi be envious, envy. — 

fulani kwa mali yake. envy someone for 
his wealth, appl. husudia. pass, husu- 
diwa. Cf. hasidi, husuda. 

completely. Cf. hasa, husu, mahsusi. 

hutuba*, hotuba (-) 1. Isl. reading from 
the Koran, sermon. 2. recent, speech, 
address. Cf. hutubu. 

hutubu* 1. Isl. read the Koran, preach. 
2. recent make a report, give a speech/ 
lecture, appl. hutubia. speak before..., 
address. Cf. hatibu, hutuba. 

huu dem. pron. m- and u- cl. this, mti 
— . this tree, utawala — . this govern- 

huwa adv. usually, ordinarily, as a rule; 
perhaps, possibly. Cf. *wa. 

husuma*, hosumu, hasama ( — ) enmity, 

antipathy, antagonism, hostility; quarrel, 

dispute, jur. lawsuit, action, ana — na k,,„^ j i .-l- / ■ , 

' ' nuyo dem. pron. m- cl. this (previously 

mwenzake. He is having a quarrel with 
his friend. Cf. hasima, husumu. 

mentioned), mtu -. the person mentioned. 

husumu*, hasimu quarrel, dispute, fig. 
compete, be rivals, appl. husumia. 
appl. -ass. husumiana. quarrel with each 

liiiyu dem. pron. m- cl. this, mtu — . this 



huzuni*, hudhuni, hozuni ( — ) mourning, 
sorrow, grief, kwa — kubwa. in deep 
mourning, wa na — . be worried/dis- 
tressed, ona (shikwa na, pata) — • 
grieve, worry. Cf. huzunia. 

huzunia* grieve, worry; regret, intr. 
huzunika. be sad. caus. huzunisha. 
make sad, sadden. Cf. huzuni. 

iba embezzle, misappropriate, defalcate; 
steal, purloin, appl. ibia. steal from 
someone, rob someone, tumeibiwa. We 
have been robbed, caus. ibisha, ibiza. 
Cf. jizi, kijivi, mwivi, wivi. 

ibada* (— ) 1. rel. reverence, worship; 
liturgy, divine service. 2. cult. — ya 
ubinafsi. personality cult. ( = uabudi- 
waji.) Cf. abudu. 

Ibadhi* (-) Isl. (sect of the) Ibadites. 

ibara* (— ) paragraph, clause. 

ibilisi*, iblisi, bilisi (-) devil, satan. 

iblisi* (-) see ibilisi. 

ibura* (— ) 1. marvel, miracle, (remarkable) 
occurrence. 2. sign, mark, characteristic. 
3. spot, speck, blot. 

idadi* (— ) 1. number, quantity, amount. 
bila — . without number, numberless. 
2. counting, computing. 

idara* (— ) (government) office, department, 
ministry. — ya posta. post-office depart- 
ment. — ya elimu (ukulima). ministry of 
education (agriculture). — ya utibabu wa 
wanyama. veterinary service. 

idhaa* ( — ) program. — ya redio. radio 
program, broadcast. 

idhara* 1. (— ) slander, calumny; shame, 
disgrace, discredit. 2. v. slander, 
cause disgrace. 

idhini* 1. allow, permit; approve, confirm; 
empower, authorize; assent, concur. 
appl. idhinia. intr. idhinika. caus. 
idhinisha. pass, idhiniwa. 2. ( — ) 
permission, approval, confirmation, 
concurrence, authorization, taka — . 
request approval, toa — . give approval/ 

idi*, eidi ( — ) Isl. festival, siku kuu ya 
— . Bairam festival. — ndogo. festival 
at the end of Ramadhan. pa mkono wa 
— . to visit and shake hands on Bairam 




idili* 1. {_) exertion, effort; persever- 
ance; enthusiasm. 2. v. learn good 
conduct; teach someone good manners 

iftari* (_) iftari (a talisman). 

ifu (-, ma-) rare, dial. 1. ashes. 2. re- 
mainder, residue. Cf. jivu. 

ifuifu rare, adj. gray, ash-color. 

ifya be vexed/angry (at someone). 

iga imitate, copy. - maneno ya kigeni. 
imitate a foreign language, hodari wa 
kuiga. imitator, mimic, appl. igia. 
imitate someone, caus. igiza. jina la 
kuigiza. pseudonym. Cf. igizo, mwigaji, 
mwigo, uigaji. 

igizo (ma-) imitation, matendo ya maigizo. 

stage setting. Cf. iga. 

ihramu* (-) 1. Isl. clothing worn on the 
pilgrimage to Mecca. 2. the Pyramids. 
(= haram.) Cf. haramu, harimu. 

ihsani* (-) see hisani. 

ihtaji* see hitaji. 

ihtiari* (-) see hiari 2. 

ihtilafu* see hitilafu. 

ihtinsa* end, conclude (apprenticeship, 

ijapo, ijapokuwa conj. even if, although. 

ijara* (-) 1. payment, rent. 2. pay, wages, 
earnings. Cf. ajiri. 

ljaza* (-) 1. reward. 2. requital, retribu- 
tion, punishment. Cf. jaza. 

I.jumaa*, Eljuma Friday. - kuu. Good 

ika rare put, place. (= weka, ikiza.) 

ikhiari* adv. better. 

ikhtiari* (-) see hiari 2. 

ikibali* sing. see ukubali. 

ikirahi* (-) see kirahi. 

ikirari* (-) jur. plea. Cf. ^iri. 

ikiwa conj. if. 

ikiza lay across, place crossways, spread 
out over, ikiza nyumba boriti. build the 
roof of a house. 

iko loc. be. minazi iko shambani. The 

coconut palms are in the plantation. 
nyumba yake - wapi? Where is his 
house? sukari _? Is there sugar there? 

iktikazi* (-) increase. 

iktisadi* (_) thrift, econo 

my. -a — . 



Ikulu Ikulu (the State House in Dar es 


ilmu* (— ) see elimu. 

ma see wima. 

ikweta*, ekwata LEngl. J (— ) equator. 

ima rare eat up (food intended for others). 
Mia* ( — ) fault, defect, shortcoming; 

shame, disgrace, tia mtu — . to attribute q. 
a failing/fault to someone. 

; ithe 

Mma^ ... ima con]., rare either 
( = *ama.) 

-11a' , ma, eia con], except, apart irom; 
unless; but; otherwise, or else. 

ilakini* see lakini. 

ilani* (— ) announcement, publication, 
(public) statement, declaration, pro- 
clamation. — ya ulimwengu kuhusu 
haki za binadamu. universal declaration 
of human rights. 

ile dem. pron. 1. mi- cl. those, miti — . 
those trees. 2. n- cl. that, kazi — . 
that work. 



ili* conj. (so)that, in order that, (in order) 

iliki* (— ) see eliki. 

ilimu* (-) see elimu. 

ilizi* ( — ) ilizi (charm against lions). 

ilkanun* ( — ) measure, standard. 

ilia* see " ila. 

ima ima adv. see kiwimawima. 

imamia fall upon, attack. 

imamu* (— ) Isl. imam. 

imani* (— ) belief; (religious) faith, creed; 
confidence, honesty, hana — na mwen- 
ziwe. He has no confidence in his friend. 
— ya kithaura. revolutionary spirit. Cf. 
amana, amini. 

imara* 1. {— ) strength, power; (fig.) firm- 
ness, steadfastness; stubbornness, per- 
sistence, perseverance, stamina, endur- 
ance, kipa — . rel. confirmation {lit. that 
which gives strength). 2. adj. strong, 
powerful; (fig.) firm, steadfast, persis- 
tent. Cf. imarika, uimara, uimarisho. 

imarika* be strong/firm, be steadfast/ 

persistent, caus. imarisha. strengthen, 
establish, confirm. Cf. imara. 

imarisha* caus. of imarika. 

imba sing. appl. imbia. appl.-ass. imbiana. 
sing together/ in chorus, caus. imbisha, 
imbiza: 1. lead singing, direct a chorus. 
2. study singing. Cf. mwimba, mwimbi- 
shi, wimbaji, wimbo. 


imla* (-) dictation (in. school). 

imo loc. be. mizizi imo mchangani. The 
roots are in the sand, nguo imo sandu- 
kini. The clothes are in the chest. 

ina*, inna adv. truly, surely, certainly, 

inadi* (-) see inda. 

inama 1. bend, decline, sink, —macho. 
cast down the eyes. 2. bow, bend over; 
crouch, appl. inamia. bow to someone; 
lean/depend on someone, fig. insist on 
something, caus. inamisha. - kichwa. 
lower the head (from shame, embarrass- 
ment). Cf. jinamizi, kiinatnizi, mwina- 
mishi, mwinamo; also inika, inua. 

Mnchi* [Engl.] (-) inch (2.5 cm). 

2 inchi (-) see nchi. 

inda*, inadi (— ) obstinacy; tactlessness, 



inde ( — ) hot. Guinea grass (Panicum 

ingawa, ingawaje conj. although, even if, 

ingi adj. many, numerous, watu wengi. 
many people, wale wengi. majority. 
miaka mingi. many years, matunda mengi. 

much fruit, vitu vingi. many things. 
nyumba nyingi. many houses. Cf. 

1 . . 

ingia 1. come/go in, enter. — nyumba/ 
nyumbani. enter a house. 2. have a 
share in, take part in, join. - safarini. 
start a journey; join an expedition. 

3. get, become. — baridi (kutu). get 
cold (rnstv). _ liofu. beccrr.e / bc afraid. 

4. be imported, appl. ingilia. 1. enter 
with a purpose, go in for..., pry into... 
2. cohabit, have sexual intercourse 
with (pass, ingiliwa, ass. ingiliana). 
stat. ingika. caus. ingiza. cause/ 
permit to enter, effect entry; insert; 
import, appl. -caus. ingiliza. introduce 
someone to (a new job, etc.), break in; 
install (in office); import (merchandise), 
ass. ingiana. caus. -ass. ingizana. Cf. 
kiingilio, maingiano, maingiliano, 
mwingilizi, mwingizaji, uingizaji. 

ingine adj. 1. other, second; different. 

watu wengine. other people, miti mingine. 
other trees, matunda mengine. other 
fruits, vilima vingine. other mountains. 
nyumba nyingine. other houses, ingine 
... ingine. some ... others. 2. some, a 
few. watu wengine. some people. 3. 
next, saba nyingine. next week. Cf, 
kwingineko, pengine, vingine, vinginevyo. 

ingua scare, frighten. 

ini (ma-) 1. anat. liver. 2. heart (as the 
seat of emotions), maneno yale yalim- 
kata -. Those words cut him to the 
quick. (= moyo.) 



inika 1. bend, bend down; lower the head 
(from shame). 2. lower, pull down. — 
tawi. pull down a branch. 3. overturn, 
lay on one side. 4. fig. humble/abase 
oneself, caus. inikisha, inikiza. 
humble/humiliate someone. Cf. kiini- 
kizo; also inama, inua. 

injili*, anjili, enjili (-) rel. gospel, New 
Testament. (,- maandiko ya Agano 

injini* {rare enjine, enchini) [Engl.-i (— ) 
engine, machine, motor. — ya moshi. 
steam engine, 

injinia* [Engl.'] (-) engineer. Cf. 

inkishafi* (-) 1. rel. revelation. 
2. Inkishafi (name of a poem). 

inna* see ina. 

insaidi* [Engl. J (-) sport inside (foot- 
ball). - kuume (vva raiti). inside right. 
— kushoto (wa lefti). inside left. 

insha* (-) 1. essay; theme, composition 
(school). 2. (written) draft, version. 
3. work (of literature or music). 

inshallah!* interj. of assent Yes, certain- 
ly. (If Allah wills it.) 

inspekta* [Engl.] (ma-) inspector. - wa 
polisi. police inspector. 

insurensi* [Engl.] (-) insurance. - ya 
maisha. life insurance. 

inua 1. Taise, lift, elevate. — mizigo. 

raise/pick up a load. — macho, raise the 
eyes. 2. fig. heal, cure, in It. inuka. 
raise oneself, rise; be raised, nchi 
inainuka. The country is a highland. 
intr.-appl. inukia. get better, improve; 
pick up, start to thrive. Cf. kiinua, 
mwinuko; also inama, inika. 

inuka imr. of inua, 

inya see nya. 

inzi (ma-, — ) (common house-) fly. 

iowe* ( — ) see yowe. 

*ipi see pi. 

^ipi (— ) rare fist. ( = ngumi.) 

ipo loc. be. miti ipo shambani. The trees 
are there in the field. 

ipu ( — ) see jipu. 

ipua inv. of epa. 

irabu* (— ) vowel sign (in the Arabic script). 

iriba* ( — ) rare see riba. 

iriwa (— ) (bench-)vise. 

Hsa* rare love, like. 

^Isa* pr. n. masc. Isa (bin Mariamu). Jesus 
(son of Mary) (when spoken of by Moslems). 



isha end, conclude; stop, cease; 

complete, ugomvi umekwisha. The dis- 
pute has been ended, kazi imekwisha 
1'anywa. The work is already done. 
appl. ishia. double appl./int. ishilia. 
double appl. -caus. ishiliza. Cf. kisha, 
mwisho, l maishilio. 

isha*, esha (-) Isl. evening prayer 
w:30 - 6:30). 

ishara*, taashira (-) 1. sign, indication, 
symptom; phenomenon. 2. something 
strange/remarkable. Cf. ashiria. 

ishi*, aishi live, exist; last, remain. — 
milele. last forever, kuishi pamoja kwa 
amani. peaceful coexistence, appl. 
ishia. Cf. aushi, maisha, maishilio. 

ishirini*, asherini twenty. 

isilahi* (-) see suluhu. 

isimu*, ismu (-) 1. name. 2. essence, 
character; person. - ya mtu. everyone, 
each person. 3, gramm., rare subject. 

isipokuwa 1. prep, except, with the 

exception of. 2. conj. if not, unless. 

Islamu* 1. (-) Islam, ingia — . accept 
Islam. 2. (ma-) Moslem, Mohammedan. 
Cf. silimu, Kiislamu, Mwislamu. 

ismu* (-) see isimu. 

Israfil* see Izraili 2. 

Israili* see Izraili. 

istakabadhi* (-) see stakabadhi. 

istiimari* sing, colonialism, imperialism. 

istiska* (-) med. dropsy. 

istiwai* sing., rare equator. (= ikweta.) 

ita call, summon; name, mention; call upon, 
invite, intr. itika. be called; respond to 
a call/summons/invitation, intr.-appl. 
itikia. answer someone, respond to some- 
thing; agree with someone, caus. itisha. 
summon someone, have someone called. 
pass. itwa. anaitwa Saidi. He is called 
Said. His name is Said, kama inavyoitwa. 
so-called. Cf. itikio, itiko, kiitikio, 
mwitaji, mwito. 

itakadi* rel. believe. Cf. itikadi. 

itatubwaga bring a curse upon oneself, 
suffer the bad effects of one's own 
action. Cf. bwaga. 

ithibari* (-) see itibari. 

ithibati* (— ) confirmation, evidence, proof. 

itibari*, ithibari (-) confidence; esteem, 
respect; faith, fidelity. 

itifaki* (-) agreement, concord, harmony. 

itikadi* (-) 1. belief, faith (religion, 

tradition). 2. endurance, perseverance. 
Cf. itakadi. 




itikio (ma-) 1. answer, echo. 2. liter, re- ivu, ivo (-) see jivu. 

frain. 3. consent, acceptance, Cf. ita. 

itiko (ma-) answer. Cf. ita. 

ituri* ( — ) odor, fragrance, perfume. 
( = manukato, marashi.) 

itwa pass, of ita. 

iwapo conj. if, even if; although. 

iza* rare refuse, decline, reject (assis- 
tance); not like, not favor. ( = chukia, 
kanusha, zia.) 

izara* (— ) disgrace, shame, dishonor. 

iva, wiva 1. ripen, become ripe; be cooked/ 

done, embe zinaiva. The mangoes are 

T,, . Izraili*, Israili 1. Israel. 2. {also 

ripening, nyama lmeiva. Ine meat is 

done. 2. be ready /prepared, coll. mambo * srafil ) the an S el of death ° 

yote yameiva. Everything is prepared/ 

ready. Cf. bivu. 

ja {dial, cha) 1. come, arrive. — mbio. 

come running. 2. occur, happen, turn out. 
nitakuja kusafiri. It will turn out that I 
will have to go on a trip. appl. jia. intr. 
jika. be accessible/passable, njia hii 
haijiki. This road is impassable. Cf. 
jio, kijakazi, kijio, kinjia, mja, mjakazi, 

.. .. 9 

miio, njia, ^njaji, ujia, ujio. 

fig. saa imejaza. The clock is wound up. 
cans. -ass. jazana. push, crowd (one 
another). Cf. 2 jazi, kijaa, ujalivu, 


2jaa (— ) rubbish-heap, dunghill. Cf. jalala. 

3j aa * (_) r are north. (- kaskazi, kibla.) 

Vjaa 1. be/become full, mtungi umejaa jaahiri* (ma-) see jahili. 

maji. The jug is full of water, maji ya 

kujaa. flood. 2. fig. be abundant/plen- jaali* 1. be powerful. 2. favor, 
tiful; have plenty of something, be abun- 
dantly supplied, amejaa ujanja. He has jaamati* (-) 1. mosque. 2. meeting-place, 
very great skill, appl. jalia. caus. jaza. Cf. jamii. 

fill (up, out), jaza hati. fill out a form. 




jabali*, jibali, gebali (ma-) 1. mountain, jafi* (_) jafi ( kind of ; nsect) . 

mountain range; rock, crag, cliff. 2. fig. 

prominent/exceptional person, mtuhuyu jafu(-) weir-basket (for crabs). 
~ sana. This is a fearless person. 3. 

fig. raised embroidery on the back of a ; ae i* [En P l 1 ( ) ;„„ I 

l d S' Lzngi. j { — ) jug. — (a ma|i. water- 
kanzu. . . 

jug. — la maziwa. milk-can. — la maua. 

jabari* (— ) 1. almighty, omnipotent fa 

title of Allah). 2. proud, fearless person. jaha*(-) 1. dignity, honor, fame, glory. 

3. martyr (to a cause). Cf. jabali. 
jaddi* (-) see 4 jadi, 5 jadi. 

jadi* (-) 1. ancestor, forebear. 2. family 
tree, genealogy. (= nasaba, asili, ukoo, 
kabila.) watu hawa hawana — nasi. The 
people are not related to us. 

jadi* 1. wish , desire (strongly); demand. 
2. (ma-) {usually majadi) desire; effort, 
exertion; persistence. 3. adv. very 
much; exorbitantly. 

3 jadi*, chadi (-) astr. Capricorn. 

4 jadi*, jaddi (-) rare hunger, famine. 
( = njaa.) 

5 jadi*, jaddi (-) kafir corn. 

9. g 00 ,I 1-ck, success. /_ u - ' r 
ukuu, usitawi, heshima.) mtu aliyeshu- 
shivva — . a person who has been granted 
good fortune, fig. kilango cha -. the 
gate of paradise, nyota ya — . astr. 
comet, ameona nyota ya -. He has a 
happy/successful future before him. 
pa — . show honor (to someone); raise in 
rank, promote; appoint (to a responsible 

jahabu* 1. shore up ( a ship for repairs). 
2. (ma-) naut. brace, stay; slipway. 
Cf. majahabu. 

jahanum*, jahinu, jehannum, jehena (-) 

rel. hell. 

jahazi* (-, ma-) sailing ship (in gen.). 
jahi* (-) geogr. North Pole. 

jadili* discuss, argue, debate, appl. 
jadilia. ass, jadiliana. prove/demon- 
strate something to each other. Cf. 

jahili*, jaahiri rare 1. (ma-) rough, in- 
sensitive person. 2. adj. cruel; ignorant, 
uncivilized. (= katili, jinga, pumbavu.) 
Cf. ujahili. 

jadiliano* (ma-) {usually majadiliano) dis- jahina* adj. bold, brave, courageous, 
cussion, argument, debate, shirikiana 
-. take part in a debate. Cf. jadili. jahinu* (-) see jahanum. 

l a l a 



jaja (— ) jaja (perennial plant, Aneilema 

jajaga rare wash (cloth, by rubbing be- 
tween the hands). 

Ijaji* {.Engl.'] (ma-) judge. Cf. Vijaji. 

2iaii (ma-) XPP. Vai. 

jajua make sour. 

jalada*, jelada, gelada (-) bookbinding, 
cover< _ ya karatasi. cardboard, paste- 
board; case/folder (for documents). Cf. 
1 jalidi. 

jalala (-) rubbish-heap, dump. Cf. jaa. 

jalali* (-) almighty, omnipotent (title of 

jali* 1. honor, respect. 2. pay attention 
to, observe, regard, bila kujali. in- 

Ijalia* grant, empower, enable; lend sup- 
port, pass, jaliwa. tutasafiri tukijaliwa. 
We will make the trip if we are able (if it 
is granted to us). Cf. majaliwa. 

2jalia appl. of jaa. 

Ijalidi*, jelidi 1. bind (a book). 2. beat, 
whip. Cf. jalada, mjelidi. 

2jalidi* (-) (black) frost, killing frost. 
Cf. sakitu. 

jaliko (ma-) see ^waliko. 

jaluba*, jaruba (-), kijaluba (vi-) metal 
box (usually for betel). 

jamaa* (-) 1. family, relatives, mtu wa -. 
a member of the family, a relative; (fig.) 
companion, comrade, inter], jamani 
twendeni. Let us go, friends. 2. company, 
gathering, meeting; coopcialiuu. 
Cf. jamii, ujamaa. 

jamadari* (ma-) see jemadari. 

jamala* (-) 1. courtesy, manners, propriety, 
decorum, hana jamaa wala — . He has 
neither breeding (lit. family,) nor manners. 
2. kindness, complaisance. Cf. tajamala, 

jamanda*, chamanda (-) (round) covered 
basket. Cf. kijamanda. 

jamba 1. break wind loudly. 2. (ma-) 
(intestinal) wind. 

jambazi* (ma-) 1. tramp, beggar. 2. rogue, 
cheat, sharper. 

jambeni* (— ) crosscut saw (two-handed). 

jambia*, jamvia (-) dagger (curved, broad- 
bladed). Cf. shembea. 

1 jambo (mambo) 1. matter, affair, condition, 
circumstance, katika mambo ya sasa. 
under the present circumstances/condi- 
tions. - gumu. difficult matter. 2. fact, 
actual state of affairs, hili ni - wazi. 




This is an obvious fact. 3. general for- 
mula of greeting, jambo! Good Day, 
Hello (to a single person), jamboni! (to 
several persons), hujambo? How are 
you? jambo or sijambo. Good, thank 
you. Cf. ujambo. 

2 jambo (-) (fishing-)bait. 

jamhlia rnre rlea n ~l„« 

jamda (-) cumin, caraway. Cf. kisibiti. 

jamdani* {Pers.] (-) (white) brocade, 

jamei* unnatural sexual relations. 

jamhuri* (_) 1. republic. - ya Sudan, the 
Republic of the Sudan. - ya Muungano, 
- ya Waarabu. United Arab Republic, 
tangaza - (or nchi kuwa -). proclaim a 
republic. 2. accumulation, gathering, 
assembly. - ya watu. a gathering of 
people, crowd; (comm.) People's Re- 

jamia* (-) see jamii 3. 

jamii* 1. gather, collect, assemble. 

2. (also ass. jamiiana) copulate, have 
sexual intercourse, caus. jamiisha. 

3. {also jamia) (-) mass, group, body; 
company, community; number, sum; to- 
tality. — ya manowari. navy. — ya 
ndege. air force. - ya mizinga. battery. 
4. gramm. substantive. — ya dini. reli- 
gious community. - ya mali. sum (total) 
of money. 5. adv. in mass, together. 

wote -. all together. Cf. jaamati, jamaa, 
jumuiya, ujamaa. 

jamvi* (_) (plaited floor-)matting. 
jamvia* (-) see jambia. 

ijana (ma-) 1. large/healthy child. 2. young 
person, young man/woman (= kijana). 
d. larva of insects, majana ya nyuki. 
bees in the larval stage. Cf. mwana. 

jana 1. (_) time past/previous, siku ya 

-. the previous day. wiki (ya) -. last 

week. 2. adv. yesterday, tumefika -. 

We arrived yesterday. 

janaa* (-) see janaha. 

janaba* (rare chanaba) (-) Isl. (ritual) 
impurity, pollution, uncleanliness (after 
sexual intercourse). 

janaha*, janaa (-) shame, dishonor, dis- 
grace. (= aibu, haya, fedheha.) 

janda (ma-) rare leaf, foliage. 

jandala (-) leaving, leftover (after a 

jandaru* Qnd.l (-) see chandalua. 

jando (ma-) 1. (rite of) initiation/circum- 
cision. 2. secret place where initiation 
rites are performed. 

janga 1. (ma-) torment, pain, annoyance; 
failure, patwa na -. be beset by pain/ 



failure. 2, v. grumble, complain; blame, 
accuse. Cf. mjango. 

2janga adj. see changa. 

jangwa (ma-) desert, wilderness, desolate 
place. ( = nyika, pori, pululu, wangwa.) 

jani (usually majani) (ma-) 1. leaf, grass; 
leaves, foliage, bush, ingia majauiiii. 
go into the bush. 2. adj. green, majani 
mabichi. dark green. 

janibu* (— ) side; district, region; direction. 

janika see anika. 

janikiwiti (rare chanikiwiti) adj. green, 

janja 1. (ma-) [augment, of mjanja) thief, 
swindler, rogue. — na janjuzi. a great 
rogue outwitted by a still more artful 
rogue. 2. adj. clever, crafty, cunning, 
artful, deceitful. Cf. mjanja, ujanja. 

janjuzi see janja. 

janna* (-) rare paradise. (= peponi, 

jano (— ) footstool. 

jansi (-) med. cramp, spasm, convulsion. 

Januari* [Engl.] (-) January. 

japo conj. although, even if. — hakuja... 
although he did not come... Cf. ijapo. 

jarabati*, mjarabati, mjaribati adj. tried, 
tested, attested, certified. Cf. jaribu. 

jaraka* (— ) rare see jeraha. 

jarari* (— ) naut. halyard. 

jaribio*, jaribu (ma-) {usually majaribio) 
attempt, trial, test, experiment; effort. 

— va maWnmlinra va atom, atomic test. 
Cf. jaribu. 

jaribosi* (ma-) tinfoil. 

jaribu*, jeribu 1. try out, test; taste (foods), 
appl. jaribia. intr. jaribika. caus. jari- 
bisha. 2. (ma-) see jaribio. Cf. jara- 
bati, jaribio, majaribu, mjaribu. 

jarida*, jerida (ma-) rare newspaper. (= gazeti.) 

— la serikali. official gazette. 

jarifa* (ma-) dragnet (for fishing). 

jaruba* (— ) see jaluba. 

jasho* (ma-) 1. heat, temperature. 2. sweat, 
perspiration, fanya (toa) — . sweat, per- 
spire, kazi ya — . heavy physical labor. 
jitia — . work up a sweat. 

Ijasi* (ma-) rare jasi (ear-ornament, a 
round silver disc). ( = kipali, kipini.) 

2jasi* (ma-) white limestone (used on the 
fingers when plaiting mats and as a face- 

jasiri*, jusiri 1. be reckless, foolhardy; be 
bold, brave, appl. jasiria. intr. jasirika. 




caus. jasirisha. 2. (ma-) see mjasiri. 
3. adj. brave, courageous, Cf. mjasiri, 

jasisi* 1. find, locate. 2. rare investi- 
gate, go into thoroughly, pursue (a sub- 
ject); shadow, spy on (someone). 
( = mpelelezi, mdoya, haini, saiiti.) 
appl. jasisia. caus. jasisisha. Cf. 
mjasusi, ujasusi. 

jasmini* (-) see yasmini. 

jasusi* (ma-) see mjasusi. 

jauri* (-) see jeuri. 

jawabu* (ma-) 1. answer, math, product. 
2. matter, affair. — liwe lote. be it (the 
matter) as it may. Cf. jibu, majibizano. 

*jaza caus. of jaa. 

^jaza* 1. reward, give a present to; main- 
tain, support. 2. punish. Cf. jazi, jazua. 

*jazi* 1. reward, requite; compensate, 
indemnify, appl. jazia. caus. jazisha. 
2. (ma-) reward, compensation; gift. 
Cf. 2 jaza. 

jazi, jazo (ma-) enlargement, increase, 
augmentation, increment; abundance, 
profusion; excess, surplus. Cf. jaa. 

jazo (ma-) see ^jazi. 

jazua*, jezwa, jizya (-) indemnification, 
compensation; reward; gift, present. 
Cf. jaza. 

e interr. how? what? nifanyeje? What 
shall I do? 

ebu* [Ind.] (ma-) woman's ornament (of 
gold or silver, worn under the chin). 

edhamu* (-) see jethamu. 

edwali* (-) list, table, plan, schedule. 

efua* rare abhor, feel repugnance/ 

efule* (-) roughness, brutality, violence, 
coercion; tyranny, despotism. 

ehannum* (-) see jahanum. 

ehena* (— ) see jahanum. 

eki* [Engl.] (-) 1. jack, kutia -. jack 
up (e.g., an automobile, for repairs). 
2. coll. money, nipige (tie) — . Lend me 
some money. 

jela* [Engl.] (-) 1. jail. 2. jailer. 

jelada* (-) see jalada. 

j el id i* see jalidi. 

jem* [Engl.] (-) jam, marmalade. 

jemadari*, jamauari [ind., Pers.] (ma-) 

commander, general. — mkuu. commander 

jembe (ma-) 1. agric. hoe, mattock, spade, 
plow. — la meno. harrow. — (Jlaya. 
plow, piga -. hoe, plow. 2.: majembe. 



.l' a 

naut., av. screw, propeller (- rafardha). 
Cf. '-clu-mbe. kijembe, wembe. 

jenabu* (-) jenabu (title of address in 
Arabic letters). 

jeneral* [£ng/.] (ma-) general. 

jeneza* { — > uiei. 

jenga build, construct, erect, appl. jengea. 
intr. jengeka. caus. jengesha. inv. 
jengua. cut down, tear down, destroy, 
sisi kazi yetu kujenga, sio kujengua. 
It is our task to build up, not to destroy. 
inv. -appl. jengulia. inv. -intr. jenguka. 
inv.-caus. jengusha. Cf. jengo, jenzi, 
mjengo, mjenzi, ujenzi. 

jengelele, chengelele (ma-) {also ujenge- 
l e ] ei _) anal. 1. small intestine. 2. 
(vulg.) penis. 

jengo (ma-) (usually majengo) 1. building, 
construction, toa (andika) -. draw a 
plan for a building. 2. building material. 
3. scaffolding, enclosure, shed. Cf. 

jengua inv. of jenga. 

jenzi (ma-) (usually majenzi; also ujenzi) 
style/method of building. Cf. jenga. 

jera* (ma-) rare see j« 


jeraha* (rare jera, jeraka) (ma-) 1. mark, 
marking. 2. wound, injury; ulcer, sore. 

(= kidonda.) pata -. be wounded. Cf. 
jeruhi, majeruhi. 

jeraka* (ma-) rare see jeraha. 

jeribu* see jaribu. 

jerida* (ma-) see jarida. 

'eruhi* ™"™nd injure, nass. jeruhiwa. 
Cf. jeraha, majeruhi. 

jeshi* (rare geshi, cheshi) (ma-) 1. mil. 
army. - la ukombozi la umma. People's 
Liberation Army, fanya (kusanya) — . 
muster/levy an army, majeshi. armed 
forces, majeshi ya kanuni. regular army/ 
troops. 2. mass, crowd, host. Cf. 

jeta* LlndJ (-) loafer, lazybones. 

jetea, nyetea 1. rely on, count on (someone, 
something). 2. be arrogant/overbearing. 
refl. jijetea. be self-assured/conceited. 

jethamu*, jedhamu, chethamu (-) med. 
1. leprosy. 2. elephantiasis. 

jeuri* (rare (ore) L (-) (also ujeuri) injustice, 
brutality, oppression, mwenye -. tyrant, 
oppressor, fanya (leta, toa) -. act unjustly/ 
arbitrarily /tyrannically. 2. adj. unjust, 
arbitrary, violent, tyrannical. 

jezi* [Engl.~\ (-) jersey, knitted jacket. 

jczwa* (-) see jazua. 

jia appl. of ja. 




jibali* (ma-) see jabali. 

jibene* ( — ) see jibini. 

jibini*, jibene (dial, chibene) ( — ) cheese. 
( = chizi.) 

jibio* (ma-) see jibu 2. 

jibiza caus. of jibu. 

jibodoa praise oneself, boast. 

■'■jibu* 1. answer, reply, respond, appl. 
jibia. answer someone, intr. jibika. 
swali hili halijibika. This question is 
not answerable, caus. jibiza, jibisha. 
2. (ma-) (also jibio; usually majibu & 
majibio) answer, response, pata (pokea) 
— . receive an answer, kupa (toa) — . 
give an answer. Cf. javvabu, majibi- 

2jibu* LEngl.J (-) naut. jib. 

jibwa a-) large dog. Cf. mbwa. 

jicho (macho) eye. I'umba (fumbua) macho. 
open (close) the eyes, angaza — . fix the 
eye on, look fixedly at. pepesa — . wink, 
blink, kaa macho, be/keep awake, ana 
(yu) macho. He is awake, tazama kwa 
macho, observe, inspect, macho kwa 
macho, eye to eye, face to face. fig. — 
la maji. spring (of water). — la ua. 
(opening) bud. rel. Jicho la Mungu. 
God Almighty. Cf. kijicho, kimacho. 

jidai* refl. of dai. 

idamka dial, get up (very early in the 

ifia (ma-) see ji fya. 

iiu (ma-) see jivu. 

ifundisha refl. -caus. of funda. 

ifya, j ifia (mafya) cooking-stone. (Three 
of these stones form the cooking place). 

igamba boast, show off. Cf. amba. 

igonjweza see gonjweza. 

iguzo ( — ) 1. pillar, post (in house con- 
struction). 2. 'fig. support, comfort. 
Cf. nguzo. 

jihadhari* refl. (inter].) of hadhari. 

jihii'adhi* refl. of hifadhi. 

jihongeza caus. -re fl. of honga. 

jijetea refl. of jetea. 

jiji (ma-) rare big town/city. Cf. mji, 

Ijika make an effort ; press, strain (in 
giving birth). Cf. mjiko. 

^-jika intr. of ja. 

jikalia refl. -appl. of kaa. 

jikalifu* refl. of kalifu. 



jikania refl.-appl. of kana. 

j ike (ma-) female animal, farasi — . mare. 
Cf. ke. 

jikimbiza refl.-caus. of kimbia. 

jiko (meko) fireplace, cooking-place, 
stove, kazi ya kijungu — . a job which 
affords a bare subsistence. — or loc. 
jikoni. kitchen. — la umeme. electric 
cooker; dynamo (on a bicycle), mkaa 
jikoni. stay-at-home. 

jikohoza refl.-caus. of kohoa. 

jikunjua refl.-inv. of kunja. 

jikweza refl.-caus. of kwea. 

jilio (ma-) 1. (us. pi.) arrival, occurrence, 
approach. 2. (majilio, usually rel.) ad- 
vent. Cf. ja. 

jilisi* sit down. Cf. majilisi. 

jiliwa*, jiriwa {rare chiriwa) ( — ) vise. 

Ijimbi (ma-) cock, rooster. ( = jogoo.) 
— lavvika. The cock crows. 

ijimbi (— ) 1. taro root (Colocasia anti- 
quorum). Cf. myugwa, mayugwa. 
2. (also mjimbi, vi-) fern, bracken 
(P teridium aquilinum). 

Ijimbo (ma-) 1. (inhabited) territory, dis- 
trict, province. 2. rel. diocese. 

^jimbo (ma-) medicine made from tamarind 
leaves (used for washing new-born babies). 

jina (ma-) name, proper name; appellation, 
designation; (gramm.) substantive, noun. 
— lako nani? What is your name? — la 
kupanga (dhihaka, utani). nickname. — 
la fumbo. pseudonym. Cf. kijina. 

jinai* ( — ) crime, delict, kesi ya — . criminal 

jinaki* think well of oneself, be proud, 
boast. Cf. nakawa. 

jinamisi ( — ) jinamisi (kind of fish). 

jinamizi (ma-) (also ujinamizi) 1. twist, 
bend, curve. 2. bow, (act of) bending 
over/bowing. 3. humility, self-abase- 
ment. 4. nightmare. — limenilemea. I 
had nightmares. Cf. inama. 

jinga adj. & adv. stupid, ignorant, foolish. 
C f. kijinga, mjinga, ujinga. 

jingi (ma-) quantity, (great) number. 

2jingi (ma-) one of the uprights of a frame 
for rope-making (supporting a cross- 
board, bao la — ). 

jingizi see zingizi. 

jini* (ma-) spirit (chiefly in children' s 
stories: beneficent, but sometimes 
frightening). (~ zimwi, not shetani.) 
Cf. ujini. 



jino (meno) 1. tooth. - l a m bele. front 
tooth, incisor. - la nyuma. molar, meno 
ya juu. upper teeth, meno ya cliini. 
lower teeth, ng'oa - (or, in the case of 
a child, ota -;. pull a tooth, toa meno. 
show/bare the teeth, umwa na -. have 
a toothache, meno ya msumeno. saw- 
teeth, -a meno meno. notched, serrated, 
crenelated. 2. something toothlike: 
prong (of a fork, etc.), cog. 3. strand (of 
rope, etc.); plug, twist (of tobacco). - 
zima la tumbako. plug of pressed tobac- 
co. Cf. kimenomeno, msumeno. 

jinsi*, ginsi (-) 1„ kind, sort; class, 

quality. 2. manner, procedure, method. 
— gani? in what way? how? 

jinywa (ma-) (augment, of kinywa) big 
mouth (as a term of opprobrium). Cf. 

na kwetu. This country is close to ours. 
3. adv. near, close by. shamba -. an 
adjacent field, tunakaa -. We live near 
each other. Cf. majirani, ujirani. 

iri* 1. start, set in; happen, occur. 2. flow 
(of water); pass, elapse (of time); (fig.) 
circulate (of money), caus. jirisha. 
carry out, execute (laws, etc.). 


see jiliwa. 

jisima* (ma-) rare form, figure, (external) 

jisu (ma-) (augment, of kisu) large knife. 

jitahidi*, jitihadi 1. exert oneself, try 
hard, take pains, caus. ji tahid isha. 
2. (ma-) see jitihadi. 

jiti (ma-) (augment. o/"l m ti) large tree, 
tree trunk; (large) piece of wood. 

jio (ma-) 1. rare approach, arrival. 2. fig 
evening, usually loc. jioni. (in the) 
evening, jioni leo. this evening. Cf. ja. jitihadi*, jitahidi, jitihada (ma-) (also 

u jitahidi) exertion, effort, industry, 

jiografia* [Engl.] (-) geography. 

jioni (loc. of jio) (in the) evening. 

jipu (ma-) med. abscess, tumor, boil. 
tumbua — . lance a boil. 

jira (-) caraway, cumin. Cf. kisibiti. 

zeal. Cf. jitahidi, juhudi 

jitimai* (-) sorrow, grief, sadness, 
melancholy, affliction, kuwa na -. 

jito, juto (ma-) (augment, of l mlo) (large, 
broad) river, lake. 

itu (ma-) (augment, of mtu) giant. 

jirani* (-, ma-) 1. neighbor, prov. heri - 
karibu kuliko ndugu mbali. A neighbor 
nearby is better than a relative far away. jituka be frightened/startled/confused- be 
2. ne.ghborhood, vicinity. „ c hi hii ni - anxious/uneasy. Cf. shtua (?). 




jivi (ma-) see j i z i . 

.jivi (ma-) wild hog. 

jivu, jifu (ma-) ash(es). jivujivu, -a kijivu. 
adj. ash-colored, ashen, gray. 

jivujivu adj. see jivu. 

jivuna be proud; put on airs, boast. Cf. 

jiwe (mawe) 1. stone, nyumba ya mawe. 
stone house, mchongaji wa mawe. 
stonemason. — la thamani. precious 
stone. — la msingi. cornerstone, fig., 
interj. mawe! Nonsense! 2. {us. pi.: 
mawe ya mizani) weights (of scales). 
Cf. kiwe, mbwe. 

jiza (— , ma-) see g> za - 

jizi, jivi (ma-) {augment, of mwivi, mwizi) 
a well-known/habitual thief. Cf. iba. 

jizla* (— ) jizla (unit of weight: 166 kg). 

jizya* (— ) see jazua. 

jodari* (— ) jodari (kind of dried fish). 

jogoo (ma-) cock, rooster. — la kwanza. 
first cock-crow (2:00 A.M.). — la pili. 
second cock-crow (4:00 A.M.). Cf. 
kijogoo, ujogoo. 

johari* (— ) jewel, precious stone; valu- 
able thing, fig. — ya mtu. valuable 
human quality. 

joho* ( — ) 1. woolen cloth. 2. a kind of 
Arab cloak. 

joka, choka (ma-) {amplic. of nyoka) large 

joko (ma-) potter's kiln. Cf. oka. 

jongea move, come near, approach, appl. 
jongelea. caus. jongeza. 

jongo (ma-) 1. amplic. of mgongo. 

2. (strong, heavy) seam (in sewing). 

3.: ugonjwa wa — . med. gout, rheumatism. 

jongomeo ( — ) myth, hereafter, life to come. 

jongoo (ma-) millipede. — la pwani. 
beche-de-mer, large sea slug (~ babaje, 

■'jongoo: — halipandi mtungi. coll. impo- 
tent man. 

jora* Llnd.J { — ) 1. cotton, calico. 2. 
piece of calico about 30 yards long. 

jore (— ) jore (kind of bird, Eurystomus 



see jeuri. 

.joshi*, goshi (— ) naut. weather/wind- 
ward side. 

^joshi adv. (ride) at a gallop, alimpanda 
farasi — . He rode the horse at a gallop. 




joshi ( ma .) {augment, o/moshi) thick/ 
copious smoke. 

josho, chosho (,na-) 1. place for washing/ 
bathing. 2. place for washing corpses. 
Cf. osha. 

joto (ma-) {augment, of Imoto) 1. (in- 
tense) heat. 2. ne d. inflammation, high 
""'" I ,lma -• ta ke the temperature fo/ 
a person). Cf. ujotojoto. 

joya (ma-) j oy a (coconut with spongy 
shell), kama -. spongy, porous. 

Jozi*(- ma-) 1. pair. _ va viatu# a 
pair of shoes. 2. things belonging to- 
gether (in a set, etc.). - ya karata. a 
deck of playing cards. 

.I'ozi* (-) (kernel of a) nut, almond, 
walnut. Cf. lozi. 


caus. julisha ( rare juza)> let know 
announce, inform. Cf. juvi, kijuvi, 
mjuvi, mjuzi, ujuvi, ujuzi. 

uba* (_) chisel. 

juba* (-, ma-) linen shirt/coat. 

-juba- adj., rare fearless, brave. 

juburu* 1. force, compel. 2. encourage. 

jugumu* talk contemptuously /derisively/ 

.!»Swe* [Engl.l (-) sport tug-of-war. 

juha* (ma-) rare stupid person, fool. 
(- mjinga, mpumbavu, baradhuli.) 


.jozi (ma-) 



jua (ma-) 1. sun, sunshine. - kucha. 
sunrise. - kuchwa. sunset. - kichwani. 
midday, noon ('sun on the head'). - 
kali, hot sun. 2. clear, sunny weather. 

juhudi* (-) effort, exertion, zeal. 
-. comm. activist. Cf. jitihadi 

iukumu* Llnd.l (-) insurance, guarantee, 
warranty; responsiblity ; role, task. 

'pa -. insure (commercial goods). 


chukua -. bear the responsibility, 

guarantee, jichukulia -. take/assume 


ukwaa*, jukwari (ma-) 1. scaffold(in f 
platform. 2. gallows, scaffold. 3. 

-jua know, be acquainted with; recognize; 
grasp, understand, -jambo. know a 
thing, know about something. _ kuandi- 
ka. know how to write, kwa kujua. inten 
tionally, on purpose, appl. juia, j„| ia , 
intr. julika. intr.-ass. julikana. be 
known/recognizable/understandable. JU ' ai * ^ En ^ (-) July 

jukwari* (ma-) see jukwaa. 


juma* (ma-) l.-week. — moja. a week. 
— nzitna. the entire week. 2, (usually 
jumaa, ijumaa) Friday. 3. pr. n. masc. 

Jumamosi Saturday, 

Jumanne Tuesday. 

Jumapili Sunday. 

Jumatano Wednesday. 

Jumatatu Monday. 

ya majivu. Ash 

Society for the Study of Swahili. 2. al- 
liance. — ya madola. commonwealth; 
United Nations. Cf. jamii. 

jungu, kungu (ma-) {augment, of chungu) 
large cooking pot. 

Juni* [.Engl.J (-) June. 

jura (ma-) 1. {amplic. of chura) large frog. 
2. rare stupid person, fool. ( = mjinga, 
mpumbavu, baradhuli.) 

jurawa (— ) ornith. (species of) sparrow. 

jumba (ma-) {augment, of nyumba) (large) jusin see jasiri 

house, mansion, palace. — la kufanyia 
majiribio. laboratory, experimental 
station. — la ukumbusho. National 

juta* regret, deplore; be ashamed/dejected. 
Cf. juto. 

jumbe (ma-) village elder, headman, chief. 
Cf. kijumbe, mjumbe, ujumbe. 

jumla* 1. (— ) final result, math, sum 
(total), fig. — ya maneno ni. in brief 
('the result of the words is.,,'), kwa — . 
in general, 2, adv. all together, as a 
whole. Cf. jumlisha, ujumla. 

jumlisha* 1. put together, count up, 
2. math, add, plus. pass, jumlishwa, 
Cf. jumla. 

jumu*, nujumu (— ) luck, fate, chance. 

jumuiya*, jumuia (-) 1. society, associa- 
tion. — ya michezo. sports/athletic 
association. — ya taaluma ya Kiswahili. 

juto* (ma-) {usually majuto) regret, pangs 
of conscience, contrition, ona (fanya) 
majuto. have regrets, feel pangs of con- 
science, shikwa (patwa) na — . be over- 
come by regret/pangs of conscience. 
Cf. juta. 

^juto (ma-) see j i t o . 

juu 1. {— ) top, upper part; sky, — ya 
nyumba, the top of the house, — yako. 
You are responsible. It is your business. 
2, adv. up, above, panda — . go upstairs. 
— kwa — . at the top, uppermost, weka — . 
overestimate, red. juujuu. 1. adv. (high) 
up, aloft. 2, proud, arrogant. 3, shallow, 
superficial; perplexed, Cf. kijuujuu, 
u juu. 



i«vi curious, inquisitive, impudent. Cf. juzijuzi adt 

'jua, kijuvi, mjuvi, ujuvi. 

i»ya* ( ma .) rare fishing net (made of 

coconut fiber). 

juzi ( ma -) day before yesterday, , angu 
majuzi yale. for some time, mwaka 
(vva) -. year before last. - |,ivi. not 
long ago, recently. 

see m a j u z i . 

juzu* be permissible/admissible; be suit- 
able/proper, inajuzu kwenda. It 
missible to go. 

is per- 

fuzuu* ( ma .) partj section, paragraph; 
chapter (of the Koran). 


consec. pan.: akaenda. (and) he went. 

kaa 1. be; live, stay, dwell, settle; wait. 
-mjini. live in town. 2. exist; continue, 
last, endure, remain. mitungi hii imekaa 
sana. These earthenware pots have last- 
ed for a long time, i[a kaa siku nyi„ g i. 
It will continue for many days. 3. sit. 
- kitako. sit down, be seated, appl. 
kalia. intr. kalika. caus. kalisha. 
settle someone, make someone a resi- 
dent, pass, kaliwa. nchi hii imekaliwa 
na watu. This country is settled, refl.- 
appl. jikalia. be idle/inactive, intr.-ass. 
kalikana. be habitable, nyumba hizi 
hazikaliki. These houses are uninhabit- 
able. 4. red.: kaakaa. wait a while 
(before doing something), be dilatory. 
Cf. kaza (?), kikalio, kikao, makao, 
makazi, I m kaa, mkalio, ukaaji, ukao, 

~kaa (-) crab. 

• } kaa ( ma -) {usually makaa): makaa ya 
>nawe. coal, makaa ya miti. charcoal. 
- la moto. glowing embers, choma 
makaa. burn charcoal. 

Kaaba* Kaaba (in Mecca). 

kaakaa, kaka (ma-) anat. palate. 

-kaakaa see 'kaa 4. 

^aanga, karanga fry, roast, bake, stew. 

- nyama. roast meat, mayai ya kuka anga. 
fried eggs. caus. (rare) kaanza, kanza; 
usually kaanza moto. warm at a fire, 
warm up. Cf. kaango, kanzo, kikanza, 

"kaanga, kanga (ma-) branch bearing fruit. 




kaango, kango (ma-) cooking pot, frying 
pan. Cf. kaanga. 

kaanza caus. of kaanga. 

kaanzo (ma-) see kanzo. 

kaba* 1. press, squeeze, nguo hit ina- 
mkaba. This garment is too tight for him. 

r- _ I l l _ ..1 _ _ *»l . n 1 N. 

;i fi . — iuuu. uiuac, iiiiumc;. *,. v — ,. 

hana — ya ulimi. He talks too much. 

''kaba* (— ) 1. lining of kanzu. 2. collar. 

kabadhi* see kabidhi. 

kabaila*, kabaili 1. (ma-) important person, 
person in high position or much respect- 
ed. 2. hist, one born of free parents, 
nobleman. Cf. kikabaila, ukabaila. 

kabaili* (— ) see kabaila. 

kabaka* [Lug. J 1. kabaka (title of the 
king of Buganda). 2. (humorous or 
ironical) one who behaves as if he were 
a king. 

kabari*, kabali (— ) wedge (of wood or 
iron), kaza kwa — . to wedge tightly. 

kabati* [.Engl.] (— , ma-) cupboard, 

kabe* [Engl.] (-) elec. cable. 

kabeji* (— ) see kabichi. 

kabibu* adj. narrow. 

kabichi*, kabeji [Engl. A (— ) cabbage, 

kabidhi*, kabadhi 1. seize; accept, receive; 
lay hand on something. — mali. keep, 
save. 2. (in a caus. sense) hand over, 
deliver. — fedha (mali) warithi. leave 
money (property) to heirs, appl. kabidhia. 
intr. kabidhika. caus. kabidhisha. 

3. {— ) care, attention; guardianship. 

4. adj. economical, thrifty, frugal, fig. 
greedy, avaricious; penurious, stingy, 
miserly. Cf. mkabidhi, stakabadhi, 
takabadhi, ukabidhu. 

kabila* (— , ma-) tribe (a smaller division 
than taifa, but larger than ufungu, jamaa). 
Cf. kikabila, ukabila. 

kabili* 1. go and stand before/face some- 
one; approach; be directed toward. — 
uso kwa uso. stand face to face with 
someone, naut. kuikabili bahari ile. 
shape a course for that sea. appl. kabi- 
lia. appl. -ass. kabiliana. go and face 
each other, have relations with each 
other, intr. kabilika. caus. kabilisha. 
— mtu. introduce someone. 2. adj. 
honest, upright. Cf. kabla, kibla, 

2 kabili* (-) see kabiri. 

kabiri*, kabili (— ) flute player. 

kabisa* adv. 1. completely, totally, mji 
huu umeharibika — . This city is totally 
destroyed, nyuma — . right at the end, 
far to the rear. 2. very, extremely. 




kwenda mbio -. run very fast. 3. abso- 
lutely, definitely, lazima - aende. He 
definitely has to go. (= kamwe, hasa, 

kabla*, kabula 1. conj. before. - hajaja 
(bado). before he will come. 2.: - ya . 
prep, before, ago. _ ya siku nyingine. 
several days ago. Cf. kabili. 

kabsa* (-) see kamsa. 

kabula* see kabla. 

2. fig. a person who conceals his true 
motives/acts on false pretenses (who 
claims to need something which he 
really does not need, etc.), hypocrite, 
deceiver, fraud. Hassan ni kabwela 
usisadiki yote asemayo. Hassan is a 
deceiver; don't believe anything he tells 
you. Nchi yetu imepoteza viongozi, 
sasa twatawaliwa na makabwela. Our 

rnnntrv K a o !„„► I l 

icis ana is 

now run by frauds and hypocrites. 
kabwiri (-) kabwiri (kind of anchovy). 

erior quality. 

kabuli* [ind.] (-) a dish prepared with kachala*, kachara adj. old, worn-out; of 
rice and curry. inferior aualitv. 

2 kabuli* see kubali. 
3 kabuli* (-) S ee ukubali. 


ara* see kachala. 
kachumbari* (-) [/„</.] p i c kle(s). 
kada* [Engl.] (-) COTOm . cadre# 

kadamisha*, kadimisha precede, send 
ahead/in advance. Cf. kadamu. 

kaburi* (ma-) grave, mound, loc. maka- 
burini. burial-place, cemetery, prov. 
kama hujui kufa tazatna -. Even though 
you don't know what dying means, keep 
an eye out for a grave. - kubwa. tomb , . 

mausoleum. kadamnasi* adv. in public, publicly (U u 

before the people; cf. kadamu). 

kaburu* lAfr.l (ma-) ( l.Boor(s); , , * . 

Government of South Africa: (m mm ) adv., rare before (= mb ele). 

Government of South Africa; (comm.) 
imperialist, colonialist. 2. (in gen.) 
European settler/farmer in Africa. 

kabwela (ma-) 1. (unfair, arbitrary) use of 
force/power, hakimu wa korti amenipa 
kabwela kubwa ya nguvu kushinda mas- 
taka yangu. The magistrate fined me 
heavily for nothing, for he has the power. 

2. (ma-) (also mkadamu, mtakadamu, 
wa-) rare foreman, supervisor. Cf. 
kadamisha, kadamnasi, ^idamu, 

kadha* adj. & adv. so and so many, 
several (an indefinite number). - wa 
-. so and so many, and many more, and 
so on, etcetera, miaka - wa - 




kajayeye (— ) kajayeye (kind of manioc). 

kajekaje (— ) naut. (thin) rope (for fasten- 
ing sails to the yards). 

kajia (vi-) see kinjia. 

Ikaka (— ) elder brother, brother (in, gen.). 

'-kaka, (rare) kaha (ma-) shell (of an egg), 
rind (of fruit), husk (of grain). 

^kaka (ma-) dial., med. circulation. 
"*kaka (ma-) see kaakaa. 
^kaka (ma-) rare leech. (= ruba.) 
kakaka (— ) kakaka (variety of vegetable). 

kakakaka adv. hastily, precipitately, 

headlong, head over heels. Cf. kikaka. 

kakakuona (— ) kakakuona (animal resem- 
bling an armadillo; it is believed that 
burning its scales will ward off wild 

kakamavu adj. sly, cunning, crafty, 
deceitful. Cf. kakamia, mkakamavu, 

kakamia strive after something, work hard, 
exert/strain oneself, inv. kakamua = 
kakamia. inv.-intr. (w. intr. force). 
kakamuka, kakamka. make great exer- 
tions, take great pains; groan, moan. Cf. 
kakamavu, kakamizi, mkakamavu, uka- 

kakamizi adj. stubborn, obstinate, un- 
yielding, inflexible, uncompromising. 
Cf. kakamia. 

kakamka inv.-intr. of kakamia. 

kakamua inv. of kakamia. 

*kakara* (— ) struggle, combat, hand-to- 
hand fighting, scuffle. Cf. kikiri, 

^kakara (— ) kakara (variety of vegetable). 

kakasi (— ) see ukakasi. 

kakata feel pain, be in pain. 

kakatua break, break off; tear off (with 
the teeth), appl. kakatulia. intr. 

kakawana 1. be strong/powerful/muscular. 
2. (ma-) athlete. 

ikaki* [Pers.] (-) kaki (kind of cloth). 

2kaki* LPers.J (— ) kaki (kind of pastry 
made of rice-flour and sugar). 

kakindu (— ) kakindu (variety of plant, 
Striga pubiflora)* 

*kala (— ) large mongoose. 

2kala*, kola [Engl.l (-) collar. 
( = ukosi.) 

^kala* ( — ) rare, liter, word. 




kalab* (-) rabies, hydrophobia. Cf. kelb. 

kalafati*, kalfati 1. naut. caulk, appl. 
kalafatia. pass, kalafatiwa. 2. (— ) 
caulking material. 

kalakonje (-) kalakonje (kind of wild cat). 

kalala, karara (ma-) woody covering of the 
flower-stem of the coconut (used as fire- 

kalala (ma-): - la nyuki. honeycomb; 
(fig.) grill, gridwork (something resem- 
bling a honeycomb). 

kalambezi (— ) kalambezi (kind of mackerel). 

kalamka, karamka be alert/intelligent/quick- 
witted, inter j. — ! Watch out! Look 
sharp! appl. kalamkia. outwit/get the 
belter of someone, cheat, cans, kalamsha. 
enliven, revive, cheer up. appl. -pass. 
kulamkivva. he cheated. 

kalamu* (-) 1. pen, penholder. 2.: - ya lisasi 
(mate), pencil, chonga — . sharpen a 
pencil. — ya vvino. (fountain-)pen. 

kalamzi adj. quick-witted, witty, sharp- 
tongued. Cf. kalamka. 

kalanga (— , ma-) see karanga. 

kalasha* (— ) small elephant-tusk. 

kalasia*, karasia L Ind. J (— ) small metal 

kale 1, (— ) the past, past ages, antiquity. 
watu wa — . ancestors, prov. mavi ya — 
hayanuki. The filth of ancient times does 
not smell. 2, adv. earlier, formerly. 
hapo — . long ago, once upon a time. 
zamani za — . in ancient times, tangu — . 
long since, long ago. — na — . a very 
long time ago. Cf. kikale, mkale. 

kalenda* I Engl. J (— ) calendar, coll. 
— iKo mbaii. 1 here s a long time to go 
until payday. 

kalfati* see kalafati. 

kali adj. 1. sharp, kisu kikali. a sharp knife. 
2. sharp, hot, sour, strong (of foods, etc.). 
siki ni — . The vinegar is sour, tembo — . 
strong palm-wine. 3. strong, scorching, 
intense, jua — . a scorching sun. 4. fig. 
violent, cruel, wild, vehement, severe. 
simba ni nyama mkali. The lion is a wild 
animal/a beast of prey, hukumu — . a 
severe verdict. 5. distressing, urgent, 
swali — . sore point/subject, urgent 
matter. Cf. makali, ukali, and also 
karipia, karipio. 

kalia appl. of kaa. 

kalibu* (— ) 1. mold, form, matrix (for cast- 
ing metal, concrete, etc.). 2. heating 
pot, furnace. 

kalifu*, kilifu {usually refl. jikalifu) force/ 
drive oneself; torment oneself. Cf. taka- 
lifu, ukalifu, utakalifu. 

kalika intr. of kaa. 




imepita. so and so many years have 
passed. ( = vivi hivi, vivyo hivyo.) 

kadhabu*, kedhabu ( — ) rare liar. 
( = mwongo,) Cf. kadhibisha. 

kadhalika*, dhalika, bidhalika adv. like- 
wise, similarly; at the same time; again, 
na — {abbrr.: n k). and so forth, etc. 

kadhi*, kadi (ma-) rare judge. (- hakimu, 

kadhia* ( — ) rare matter, affair; occur- 
rence, event. 

measure, calculation; amount; extent; 
(arith.) numerator. — gani. K'hat amount? 
How much? pima — . take a measurement. 
— ya miaka kumi. in the course of ten 
years. 3. (also — ya) adv. & conj. to 
the extent that, in accordance with; 
about, on the average. — upendavyo. as 
much as you please, lipa (toa) — ya 
shilingi ishirini. pay on the average 20 
shillings. Cf. kadirifu, makadirio, 

kadirifu* adj., rare moderate, temperate; 
abstemious, continent; careful, anxious. 
Cf. kadiri, ukadirifu. 

kadhibisha* deny, reject, refute. Cf. 

kadi* (ma-) see kadhi. 

^kadi* LEngl.J ( — ) 1. card. — ya kuta- 
mbulisho. identification card. 2. invita- 

kadimisha* see kadamisha. 

kadinali*, kardinali [.Engl. J (ma-) 1. re I. 
cardinal. 2. math, cardinal (number). 
namba ya kikadinali. cardinal number. 

kadirio* (ma-) see makadirio. 

kadogo 1. adj. (dial. emph. of kidogo) ex- 
tremely small, tiny; (fig.) insignificant. 
2. adv. to a very slight extent. 

kafala* (— ) rare security, bail. 

kafara* (ma-) 1. animal sacrifice, expiatory 
offering; atonement, penalty, toa (fanya) 
— . make a sacrifice, rare: chinja — . 
slaughter a sacrificial animal. 2. amulet, 

kaffi (ma-) see kafi. 

kafi, kaffi (ma-) naut. paddle, oar. piga 
— . to paddle, row. 

kadiri* 1. reckon, calculate, estimate, 
assess. — kiasi. estimate/establish 
the value of something, fig. judge, 
appraise, consider, form an opinion of ka f ila * (_) rare carav a n . (= safari, 

something. — maneno. weigh words. msafara.) 

appl. kadiria. appraise/consider some- 
thing, intr. kadirika. be limited/ kafini* rare cover, wrap. - (kwa) sanda. 

leasurable. caus. kadirisha. 2. (— ) 

vrap (a corpse) in a shroud. 




kafiri* (ma-) Is I. unbeliever, non-Mosler 
atheist. Cf. kufuru, makufuru, ukafiri. 

kaftani* (-) caftan (outer garment of 

kafu see kavu. 

kafua rare thresh (grain). (= pura, piga.! 

kafnri* (_) rflmnhor. 

*kaga dial, protect, ward o.ff evil (by 

magic). - sh-amba. protect a field by 

magic. Cf. kago, ukago. 

kaga ( — ) med. swelling, tumor. 

kaharabu* [Pers.l (-) amber. 

kahawa* (-) coffee. — ya tangawizi. a 

ginger beverage. C f. kahawia, mkahawa. 

kahawia* adj. coffee-colored. Cf. kahawa. 

kahini*, kuhani (ma-) 1. Bibl. priest, 
prophet. 2. rare: soothsayer. 

^anuiii* v — / iure law. Cf. kahini. 

kai* L. ? J 1. hand over, deliver, surrender. 
( = angukia, miguuni, shika miguu.) 

2. rare be timid. 

^kaida* (-) see kawaida. 

kago 1. protect someone or something by kaida* Kaida (the second month after 

magic. 2. (-) (Hal.) protective magic. Ramadhan). 

— la simba. charm against lions. Cf. 

kaga, ukago. 

2 kago* [Engl.^ (-) naut. 1. cargo. 
2. dock. 

kagua inspect, superintend; examine, 
check. — skuli. inspect a school. — 
askari. review troops. — hesabu. check 
accounts, appl. kagulia. intr. kaguka. 
appl. -caus. kagulika. C f. mkagua, 
mkaguo, mkaguzi, ukaguzi. 

kaha (ma-) rare pod, shell. — la ye 
eggshell. (= "kaka.) 

kahaba* (ma-) (and mkahaba, wa-) prosti 
tute. Cf. ukahaba. 

kaidi* 1. be intractable/obstinate /dis- 
obedient; contradict; offer resistance. 
appl. kaidia. caus. kaidisha. incite 
someone to disobedience; dare some- 
one to contradict. 2. adj. intractable, 
disobedient, obstinate, mtoto mkaidi. 
disobedient child. Cf. mkaidi, ukaidi. 

kaimia* force oneself to do something. 

ikaimu* (ma-) 1. representative, substi- 
tute, deputy. — wa president, vice- 
president. 2. manager, agent, legal 
adviser, kuwa — wa shughuli. act as 
legal adviser in a matter. Cf. makamu, 

kaimu* (ma-) exorcist, necromancer. 




kalikana intr.-ass. of *kaa. 

kalima* (— ) arch. word. Cf. mkalimani, 
mkalimu. ukalimani. 

kalipia see karipia. 

kalisha caus. of kaa. 

kaliwa pass, of kaa. 

kalme* (— ) see galme. 

kaltiveta* v. Engl. J (— ) agric. cultivator. 

kalua* \_lnd.? A (ma-) Kalua (name of a sect 
of Indian fishermen), 

kama* {rare kana) con}. & adv. 1. if. 

— ukitaka. if you wish. — ningemwambia 
angefanya. If I told him, he would do it. 

2. as, like; about, approximately, lia — 
mtoto. scream like a child. — upendavyo. 
as you like. — hivi. like this; for example. 

— maji. watery, fluid. — nini (rare ka- 
mani). extraordinarily (lit.: like what). 
anakimbia — nini. He ran extraordinarily- 
fast. — shilingi kumi. about ten shillings. 

3. than (in comparisons), bora dhahabu — 
ledha. do Id is more valuable than silver. 

4. [also ya — ) that (conj.). tumeona — 
aliondoka. We have seen that he went 
away. 5. whether, walimwambia (kama) 
aje. They called to him (and asked) 
whether he was coming, kama ... kama. 
whether ... or. 

2kama press, press out; milk. appl. kamia. 
squeeze someone dry (i.e., extort some- 

thing from him), fig. extort, demand in- 
sistently, threaten, appl. -ass. kamiana. 
intr. kamika. caus. kamisha, kamiza. 
inv. kamua. press (out), squeeze, crush. 
kamua maluta. extract oil. kamua maziwa. 
milk, kamua nguo. wring out clothes. 
inv. -appl. kamulia. inv.-intr. kamulika. 
inv.-caus. kamulisha. inv.-pass. kamu- 
livva. Cf. kamio, kikamulio, ukamio. 


2 kamani* LPers.A 1 (-) watch spring, 

kamari* (— ) game of chance (in gen.: any 
game played for money), cheza — . play 
for money, gamble. 

kamasi (ma-) {usually makamasi) 1. mucus 
discharge from the nose, futa — . blow 
one's nose, vqta -. breathe heavily, 
pant. 2. cold in the head, sniffles. 
siwezi — . I have a cold in the head, 
toa (penga) — . blow one's nose. 

kamata 1. seize, grasp; catch, detain. 

— kwamtego. catch in a trap. — mwizi. 
catch a thief, appl. kamatia. intr. 
kamatika. be seizable/tangible, palp- 
able, hewa haikamatiki. Air is not palp- 
able. 2. sing, influenza, pneumonia, 

Ikamba* (-) rope, cord, twine, string. 

— ya nazi. rope made of coconut fibers. 

— ya ulayiti. rope of European manu- 
facture, funga (piga) -. tie/lace up. 
suka (sokota) -. make rope, sport: 
mvutano vva -. tug-of-war. fig.: mvutano 




wa — ya siasa. political wire-pulling. 
Cf. ukambaa. 

kamba (-), mkamba (mi-) lobster, crayfish, 
crab, shrimp, meno ya — . crab's claws. 

— wapwani (bahari). land (sea) crab. 

— mdogo. shrimp, prawn. 

''kamba (ma-): — ya asali. honeycomb. 

kambaa* (ma-) 1, rope (braided with strips 
of leaves). 2. whip. (~ ukambaa.) Cf. 

kambare (— , ma-) (kind of) catfish, barbel, 

kambi* U'.ngl.A (— ) 1. camp, camping-place. 
piga (panga) — , pitch camp, vunja — . 
break camp. 2. recent, pol. camp, bloc, 

— ya (ki)soshialisti. socialist camp/bloc. 

kambo (— ) relationship bv remarriage, step- 
relationship, mtoto vva — . stepchild, 
baba (mama) wa — . stepfather (stepmother). 
kikambo. adj. & adv. typical of a step- 
parent, in the way a stepparent typically 

kambuka 1. drv up, wither. 2. fig. lose 
strength, become weak, 

kambusi (— ) see 'gambusi, gambusi. 

kame adj. desolate, waste, empty, unculti- 
vated, uninhabited. Cf. ukame. 

kamera* {.Engl. A (— ) camera, kazi ya — . 

kamia appl. of kama. 

kamili* 1. end, complete, perfect, appl. 
kamilia. intr. kamilika. be whole/com- 
plete/perfect. caus. kamilisha. 2. {also 
kamilifu) adj. complete, perfect, whole, 
intact. Cf. lakamali, ukamilifu. 

kamilifu* see kamili 2. 

kamio (ma-) {usually makamio) rare 

1, threat, demand. 2. reproach, repri- 
mand; criticism. Cf. -kama. 

kamisheni* LEngl.A (— ) see komisheni. 

kamiti* (— ) see komiti. 

kamo (— ) arch, sieve. ( = chekecheke, 

kainpuni*, kumpuni (rare kompania) L Engl. A 
(—, ma-) 1, (business) company, firm. 
— ya biashara. business company. — ya 
kuchimba barabara. street railway com- 
pany, 2. mil. company. 

kamsa*, kabsa (— ) 1. alarm, danger signal. 
piga — . sound an alarm. 2. mil. rev- 

kamua inv. of ^kama. 

kamus* (-) see kamusi. 

kamusi*, kamus (-) 1. dictionary, glos- 
sary. 2. encyclopedia. 




kamwe adv. (at the end of neg. sentences) 
not at all, by no means, absolutely not, 
never, sitaki — . I definitely do not want 

*kana deny, reject, repudiate, refuse to re- 
cognize. — deni. repudiate a debt. — ra- 
fiki. disown a friend, appl. kania. 
appl.-refl. jikania. justify oneself, caus. 
kanya. reprove, censure; refuse, inv.- 
caus. kanusha. dare someone to disagree; 
fin an int. sense) deny, refute. Cf. ^kano, 
mkana, mkanya, mkanyo. 

^kana*, gana [.Port.? J (— , ma-) naut. tiller. 


ana" see 


Kanani* Palestine. 

kanchiri* (— ) cloth worn by women to sup- 
port the breasts, (recent) brassiere 
( = sidiria.) 

*kanda (— , ma-) {also kikandi, vi-) grain- 
sack (made of matting). 

■^kanda pi. of ukanda. 

^kanda knead, press. — unga (udongo) 
knead dough (clay), fig. massage. — 
mwili. massage the body. appZ. kandia. 
intr. kandika, usually used transitively: 
plaster a bouse with clay, stat.-int. ka- 
ndamiza. impress, compress, exert pres- 
sure; oppress, stat. -caus. kandamisha. 
Cf. kandiko, mkandaji, mkandamizo, 
^mkando, ukandamizwaji. 

kandamiza stat.-int. of kanda. 

kandanda (— ) rare 1. football game. 
2. football. 

kandarinya*, kanderinya \_Port. J (— ) arch. 
teakettle. ( = birika, buli.) 

*kande (— ) 1. dial, supply of food, pro- 
visions. 2. rare industry. 

^kande (— ) kande (a special dish prepared 
for New Year's Day LNairuzij in which 
seven kinds of grain are included). 

kanderinya* (-) see kandarinya. 

kandika intr. of ''kanda. 

kandiko (ma-) rare clay coating (on the 
walls of a house). Cf. '-"kanda. 

kandili* (ma-) lantern, lamp. 

kando 1. (-) (also ukando) side, corner, 
edge. — ya mto. bank of a river. — 
zote. on all sides. 2. {also — ya) adv. 
sideways, along, aside; by, next to. 
simama — . stand aside. — ya nyumba. 
at the side of the house, red. kando- 
kando {or kandokando ya): — ya mto. 
along the river. 

kandokando see kando. 

^kanga (— ) ornith. (common) guinea fowl 
(Numida mitrata). 




kanga (-) cotton cloth (with designs in 
several colors) worn by women. 

3 kanga (ma-) see kaanga. 

kang'a see kanganya. 

kangaga (ma-) 1. (species of) reed, flag. 
2. (species of) fern. 

Ikangaja (ma-) kangaja (small mandarin 
orange). Cf. mkangaja. 

2 kangaja (-) kangaja (kind of fish). 

^kangaja (— ) kangaja (variety of tall grass 
growing usually in stagnant water). 

kanganya, kang'a confuse, surprise; intrigue. 

kangara (— ) beer made from corn-husks and 
sweetened with honey. 

kang'ata 1. feel pain. 2. (— ) rheumatic 

kango (ma-) see kaango. 

kani* (— ) 1. strength, energy, penda kwa — . 
to love passionately. 2. vexation, anger. 

kaniki* (— ) 1.0 dark blue) cotton cloth. 
2. kaniki (article of women's clothing). 

kanisa* (— , ma-) 1. (Christian) church, 
chapel. 2. rare mosque. 

kanji (— ) starch, starch-flour. ( = ^wanga.) 

kanju* Llnd. J (ma-) fruit of the cashew tree 
Cf. mkanju. 

*kano (ma-) augment, of mkano. 

kano, karo (ma-) rare 1. refusal, denial, 
disavowal. 2. sudden fit of anger. 
Cf. *kana. 

kanseli* L Germ. Kanzlei?J (— ) chancery 
(of an embassy), consulate. 

kantara* (— ) rare bridge. ( = daraja.) 

kantini* LEngl.j (— ) canteen, bar. 

kanu (ma-) 1. wild cat. 2. marten, weasel. 

kanuni* (— ) rule, regulation, precept; (es- 
sential) condition, principle; theory. 

— za barabarani. traffic regulations, 
majeshi ya — . regular army /troops. 

— tano za kuishi pamoja kwa amani. the 
five principles of peaceful coexistence, 
hana — ya kuja. He doesn't come as a 
rule, sina — . I am not certain. — ya 
sheria. lawbook, —a — . unalterable, 
irrevocable, necessary. 

kanusha inv.-caus. of kana. 

kanwa (vi-) see kinywa. 

kanya caus. of *kana. 

kanyaga 1. step/tread/stamp on, trample 
down, Cf. kanyagio. 2. copulate (of 
a male bird). 



kanyagio (ma-) (bicycle) pedal. Cf. kanyaga. 

kanyo (ma-) see mkanyo. 

kanza cans, of kaanga. 

kanzi* (— ) (hidden) treasure, valuable. 

kanzo, kaanzo (ma-) heating, warming (up). 
( = akiba, hazina, dafina.) Cf. kaanga. 

kanzu* (— ) kanzu (long, white outer garment, 
the old traditional costume of Swahili men). 
— ya mfuto. simple kanzu. — ya darizi. 
embroidered kanzu. 

ksi<> (ma-) (usually makao) dwelling, resi- 
dence. Cf. kaa. 

^kapa (— ) sleeveless shirt. Cf. kwapa? 

^kapa adv.: enda — . lose fin a card-game), 
coll. amekvvenda — . He owns nothing. 

kapani* LPers. j (-) (kind of) scales, 

kapatula (— ) see ^kapulula, ^kaputula. 

kapela, kapera (ma-) unmarried man. 
( = mvulana, mseja.) 

kapera (ma-) see kapela. 

Ikapi (ma-) chaff, husks, makapi ya mpunga. 

rice husks. 

kapilari* LEngl.j (— ) 1. p/iy. capillary 
action. 2. anat. capillary (vessel). 

kapile (— ) any kind of cooked food sold in 
the market. 

kapteni*, kepteni \_Engl. J (ma-) naut. & 
sport captain. — wa manowari. captain 
of a warship. 

kaptura (— ) see kaputula. 

kapu (ma-) augment, of kikapu. 

kapungu (-) kapungu (1. kind of eagle. 
2. variety of shark). 

kaputa (-) kaputa (kind of dance performed 
in exorcising spirits). 

kaputi* [Germ.? J adj.: nusu -. stunned, 

^kaputula, kaptura, kapatula (—)( short) 
trousers, shorts. 

2 kaputula, kapatula (-) med. grippe, 

ikara* (ma-) splinter, shaving. 

2 kara* (ma-) Isl. reading from the Koran. 

karabai* (— ) 1. lamp (burning gasoline, 
kerosine). 2. recent electric light bulb. 

karabu* see karibu. 

^kapi (-, ma-) pulley. 




karadha* (-) loan, credit (without interest). 
omba — . raise a loan, pa — . give a loan. 
Cf. karidlii. 

karafuu*, karofuu, garat'uu (-) clove(s). 
Cf. mkarafuu. 

karagosi* (— ) see karangosi. 

karnha*; iWirahi (-) aversion, dictastc, anti- 
pathy, abhorrence, rejection, disfavor. 
Cf. kirahi, kirihi, makuruhi. 

karai (ma-) 1. (metal) washbasin. 2. cook- 
ing pot. — la kukaanga. frying pan. 

karakana*, karkana LPers.] (-) workshop, 

karakoli*, karakoni (— ) see korokoroni. 

karama* (— ) 1. honor, respect, esteem, 
favor, ana — . He enjoys respect. 2. worth, 
value, importance, weight, maneno yake 
yana karama. His words have importance/ 
carry weight. Cf. ^kirimu, karimu. 

■^karama* see karimu. 

karamka see kalamka. 

karamu* (— ) party, festival, festivity, cele- 
bration; feast, banquet. I'anya — . give a 
feast, enda karamuni. go to a festival, 
— ya kiserikali, state banquet, Cf. ki- 
rimu, karimu. 

*karanga, kalanga (— , ma-) 1. peanut, 
groundnut (usually when roasted). 

2.: — mwitu. a perennial herb (Desmodium 

^karanga see ^kaanga. 

karangosi*, karagosi iTurk.J (— ) puppet. 

karani*, kerani (ma-) clerk, secretary, 
office-worker, bookkeeper. ( = katibu, 
mwandishi.) — vva kodi. tax-official. 
Cf. ukarani. 

karantini* l Engl. J (— ) med. quarantine. 

karara (ma-) see ikalala. 

karasa (— ) mongoose, ichneumon (Herpestes 

karasia* (— ) see kalasia. 

karata* l Port. J (— ) playing card, gawa — . 
deal cards, cheza— . play cards. 

karatasi*, kartasi (— ) paper, list, kipande 
cha — . a piece of paper. — ya kukaushia 
wino. blotting paper. — ya kunakilisha. 
tracing paper, carbon paper. — ya shashi. 
tissue paper. Cf. kikaratasi. 

kardinali* (ma-) see kadinali. 

karela* Llnd.J (— ) karela (an annual plant, 
Momordica morgos e / charantia). 

karema be sterile/barren. 

Kariakoo* \_Port.j Kariakoo (center of Dar es 



karibia*, kurubia come closer, approach; be 
near. ass. karibiana. meet. caus. kari- 
bisha. bring closer, approximate; invite, 
make welcome, karibisha chakula. offer 
food, karibisha kiti. invite someone to sit 
down. pass, karibiwa. Cf. karibisho, 
karibu, mkaribishaji. 

karibisho* (ma-) welcome. Cf. karibia. 

karibu* {rare karabu) 1. (— ) (close) rela- 
tive, watu hawa ni ndugu zangu wa — . 
These people are my close relatives. 
2. also — ya LnaJ) adv. near, in the 
vicinity. — yangu. near me. tunakaa — ya 
(na) mji huu. We live near the city. 
3.: hivi — (karibuni). recently, not long 
ago; soon. 4. karibu! interj. (plur. 
karibuni!) Come in! Welcome! fin response 
to the query Hodi?). karibu kitini! Please 
be seated, Cf. karibia. 

karidhi*, kiridhi rare 1. lend (money). 

2. borrow (money), appl. karidhia. pass. 
karidhiwa. Cf. karadha. 

karii* (ma-) (recognized) expert/authority on 
poetry /literature, literary critic, alitoa 
vyeti na tuzo kwa washindi wa mashairi, 
naye akiwa — wa washairi. He awarded 
the prizes to the winners of the poetry 
contest, for he is an authority on poetry. 

karimu*, kerimu, kirimu, karama adj. gener- 
ous, magnanimous; hospitable. Cf. ki- 
rimu, mkarimu, ukarimu. 

karipia, kalipia scold/reproach/reprimand 
someone; be vexed with/angry at someone. 
pass, karipiwa. Cf. kali. 

karipio (ma-) scolding, rebuke, reprimand. 
Cf. kali, karipia. 

kariri* say again, repeat; recite. appl. 

kariria. caus. karirisha. pass, kaririwa. 
Cf. WiWariri. 

karkana* {.Pers.1 {-) see karakana. 

karne*, karini, karni (— ) century. — ya sasa. 
the present century, modern times. 

karni* (— ) see karne. 

Ikaro* (— ) pay, remuneration, fee (usually 
in kind); recompense, reward. 

2 karo* (— ) see ^kano. 
karofuu* (-) see karafuu. 
karoti* [£reg/.] (-) carrot. 
kartasi* (-) see karatasi. 

ikasa*, kassa [Pers.?] (-) kassa (sea- 

2 kasa* adv. less (than), shorter (than). 
saa sita- robo. 11:45 o'clock {lit.: sixth 
hour less a quarter). 

karini* (-) see karne. 

■'kasa see kaza. 



kasabu* (-) cloth of gold, brocade. 

kasama* (-) see 'mkasama. 

kasama* (_) kasama (an oath). 

kasarobo* see 2 kasa. 

kasha* [Port.l ( ma -) box, chest, case. 
_ lo r„JU„ _. i 

— .^ u ..„. onunguux, sale, 

kashabi* [Pers.l rare crush, squeeze out, 
press (sugarcane). 

kashabu* (-) 1. wooden rod (on a loom). 
2. hollow bead (of gold, silver, or glass). 

kashata* (-) kashata (a confection made of 
burnt sugar and grated coconut). 

kashida* (-) shawl, scarf, neckerchief. 

kashifa* (-) 1. unveiling, exposure. 2. slan- 
der, libel; false statements about a person, 
or secret facts the revelation of which is 
injurious to him. (= aibisha, chongea, 
singizia). Cf. kashifu, ukashifu. 

kashifu* unveil, reveal, expose; slander, of- 
fend, insult; throw suspicion on someone. 
appl. kashifia. intr. kashifika. pass. 
kashifiwa. Cf. kashifa. 

kasi* (— ) 1. intensity, energy, exertion, ef- 
fort. 2. hurry, haste, speed, tia (piga) -. 
make an effort, exert oneself. 3. adv. 
quickly, speedily; energetically, vigorously. 
enda (kwa) -. run very fast. red. (int.). 
kasikasi. adj. distorted. 

kasi (-, ma-) calabash (for storing milk or 

kasia (ma-) naut. oar. piga (vuta) ma- 
kasia. row. — la nyuma. steering-oar, 

kasia (ma-) kasia (species of antelope, 

kasiba* (-) pipe, tube. - ya bunduki. mil. 
rifle-barrel, fig. mdomo kama -. small, 
round mouth (evidence of female beauty). 

kasida* (-) see kusudi 2. 

kasidi* see kusudi. 

kasikasi red. (int.) of *kasi. 

kasiki* (ma-) 1. robe, gown (of a clergy- 
man). 2. rel. chalice, communion-cup. 

kasiki* (— , ma-) large earthenware jug 
(for storing water). 

kasimile* (— ) coconut oil. 

kasimu* rare divide (up). (= gawa, gawa- 
nya.) Cf. mkasama. 

kasirani* (— ) anger, annoyance, vexation. 
Cf. x kasiri. 

kasiri* {usually caus. kasirisha) irritate, 
vex, annoy; make angry, infuriate, appl. 
kasiria. intr. kasirika. be annoyed/irri- 
tated/angry, intr.-appl. kasirikia. be 
annoyed with/angry at someone, pass. 
kasiriwa. Cf. kasirani. 




■^kasiri* (— ) rare end. (- mwisho, hatima.) 

kasirisha* caus. of kasiri. 

kasisi* (ma-) priest. (= padre.) Cf. ukasisi. 

kaskazi* (— ) 1. north wind, northeasterly 
wind. 2. north, kaskazini. in a northerly 
direction. 3. time of the northeast mon- 
soon hot spasnn of thp vpar (TWprriKpT- 

kasoro* 1. (— ) fault, defect, gari hii ina — . 
This car has something wrong with it. 
2. adv. less, except, but. nimepata vitabu 
vyote — vitabu vitatu. I have received all 
the books but three. Cf. kasa. 

kasri* (— ) palace. 

kassa* (— ) see kasa. 

kassi* (— ) twined thread, tia (piga) — . 
twist, twine. 

kastabini*, kustabini, kustabani, kustubani 

(-) thimble. 

kasuku (-) parrot. (= dura.) 

kasumba* Llnd.J {—) opium. (= afyuni.) 

kaswende (— ) med. syphilis. 

Ikata* 1. cut (off). — kwa kisu. cut with a 
knife. — nguo. cut out a garment. 2. chop, 
fell. — mti. chop down/fell a tree. 
— kuni. chop firewood. 3. cut up, divide 

up; reduce, abbreviate; {math.) subtract. 
4. buy, purchase, order, fig. — njia. 
shorten/block a road. — mshahara. re- 
duce/cut wages. — kiu (njaa). appease 
thirst (hunger), — shauri. decide, con- 
clude. — hukutnu (maneno). make a de- 
cision. — tamaa. lose hope. — shauri. 
frustrate a plan. red. (int.). katakata. 
cut into small pieces, appl. katia. appl.- 
ass. katiana. settle accounts (with each 
other), strike a balance, intr. katika. 
ukuni huu haukatiki. This wood cannot be 
cut. caus. katiza. 1. interrupt, katiza 
maneno. interrupt a conversation, break 
in. 2. do away with, end. Cf. ^kataa, 
kato, mkata, mkataji, mkate, mkato, mka- 
tizo, ukata. 

^kata (— , ma-) dipper, ladle (made of a 
coconut shell or of wood). 

^kata (— , ma-) pad (made of grass) serving 
as a rest for loads carried on the head. 

^kata* (— , ma-) see 2k ataa# 

Ikataa* 1. refuse, decline, reject (some- 
thing); refuse to do something, appl. 
katalia. nimemkatalia. I have refused 
him/turned him down. intr. katalika. 
pass, kataliwa. caus. kataza. forbid, 
prohibit; prevent, kataza watu wasiende. 
forbid the people to go. 2. adj. final, 
definitive, neno hili — . This is the final 
word. Cf. katao, katavu, katazo, makataa, 
mkataa, mkatavu, ukatavu, ukatazaji. 



-kataa*, kata (-, ma-) part, section, division. 

- ya nchi. district. - ya nyumha. roonlc 

- la kitabu. section/chapter of a book; 
page. Cf. J kata. 

katabahu* at. the end of letters, preceding the 
signature (lit. 'he wrote it'). Cf. kitabu, 

katadole (-) ornith. grosbeak weaver 
( = yombiyombi). 

katakata red. (int.) of *kata. 

katani* (-) sisal, hemp (the fiber). Cf. 

katao* (ma-) rare refusal, rejection, denial. 
Cf. kalaa. 

katara (— ) 1. old/dilapidated vehicle. 
2. coll. motor bus. 

katavu* adj., rare stubborn, argumentative. 
Cf. kataa, mkatavu. 

kataza* {caus. of kataa.) forbid, prohibit; 
prevent. Cf. katazo. 

katazo* (ma-) {usually makatazo) 1. pro- 
hibition. 2. refusal, denial. 3. embargo. 
Cf. kataa, kataza. 

kati, katikati 1. (— ) middle, center. — ya 
mahali. in the middle of the place, wa- 
kati vva — . interval, interim, interregnum. 
2. {also — ya) adv. & prep, in the middle/ 
midst of, between, weka — . put/place in 
middle. 3.: -a — . central, komiti ya 
kati. central committee. 

katiba* (-) text, piece of writing, document: 
decree; decision, declaration; (pol.) con- 
stitution. Cf. kitabu. 

katibu* 1. write, appl. kalibia. appl. -ass. 
katibiana. correspond (with each other), 
make a settlement/contract/treaty. 2. (ma- 
writer, clerk, secretary. — mwenezi. sec- 
retary for propaganda. Cf. kitabu, uka- 

katika prep, in, at, with, from, to, on; dur- 
ing; concerning, ingia — mji. go to/into 
a city, toka — nchi. come from a country. 
panda — mlima. climb (up) a mountain. 
— kuenda. while going. — wakati wote. 
during the whole time. — habari zile. 
concerning those reports. 

-katika intr. of 'kata. 

katikati see kali. 

katili* 1. (ma-) murderer. 2. adj. murder- 
ous; (fig.) bloodthirsty, cruel. Cf. mka- 
tili, ukatili. 

katiti 1. adj. very small, tiny. 2. adv. 
very little, not much. 

katiza caus. of kala. 

kato* (ma-) section, fragment. Cf. kata. 

katoliki* I Engl, j adj. Catholic, kanisa 
(ya) — . Catholic church. Cf. kikatoliki. 

*katu* Llnd.} {—) katu (gum for chewing 
with betel). 




^katu* inter j. no! (emph.) 

katua clean, polish, shine up. — fedha. 

polish silver, appl. katulia. intr. katuka. 
Cf. kwatua. 

^kausha (wa-), kikausha ( vi-) one who 
brings bad luck, ill-omened person. Cf. 

kauta (— ) dust, grit. 

kauka become dry, dry up. nchi imekauka. 
The ground is dried up. fig. sauti imem- 
kauka. He is hoarse (lit.: his voice has 
dried <i"). ( i". coll. r.imckaska I am 
broke. I have no money, caus. kausha. 
dry something, wamekausha matunda. They 
have been drying fruit. Cf. ^kausha, * kavu, 
kikausho, kikavu, mkavu, ukavu. 

kaule* Vlnd. J sing, china, porcelain, im- 
ported earthenware, sahani za — . fim- 
ported) crockery. Cf. kauri. 

kauleni* (ma-) deceitful/untrustworthy person. 

kauli* (— ) 1, expression, voice, kwa — 

moja. unanimous. 2. advice; prescription, 
regulation; report. 

kaumu* (— ) 1. crowd, mass. — ya watu. a 
gathering of people. 2. representative, 

kaumwa (ma-) kaumwa (root of the mkaumwa 
tree, serving as a medicine for dysentery). 

kauri*, kaure Llnd.J (— ) cowrie shell. 
vyombo vya — . porcelain, china. Cf. 

^kausha caus. of kauka. 

*-kavu, kafu adj. 1. dry, dried up. kuni — . 
dry firewood, mto mkavu. a dried-up 
stream. 2. fig. sarcastic; deceitful, 
cunning; impudent, insolent, nuu mkavu 
wa macho, a deceitful, insolent person. 
Cf. kauka, kikavu, mkavu, ukavu. 

^kavu* L Engl. J (— ) curve. ( = mstari 
uliopinda.) — kuelekea kulia. curve to 
the right. 

kawa, kawili (— , ma-) a plaited cover or 
lid (for covering foods), prov. tulingano 
sawasawa kama sahani na— . We want to 
be like dish and lid (j'.e., live in harmony 
with each other). 

kawa (— ) mold, mildew, blight. 

^kawa {and appl. kawia) be delayed, tarry, 
linger, be late, be in arrears, appl.-caus. 
kawilisha. keep back, hold up, delay. 
caus. kawisha. put off, postpone, ad- 
journ. Cf. ukawiaji. 

kawadi*, kuwadi (— ) procurer, pimp. 
Cf. kawadia, mkuwadi. 

kawadia* procure, pander. Cf. kawadi. 




kawaida*, kaida (-) 1. rule, habit, regula- 
tion; custom, usage; system, form, scheme. 
2. norm, standard, mambo ya — . an ordi- 
nary, everyday matter, fuata-. follow/ 
comply with a rule/custom, —a — , kwa—. 
regular, ordinary, usual, kamiti ya — . 
standing committee. Cf. kiada. 

kawe (vi-) see kiwe. 
kawia see kawa. 
kawili (— , ma-) see ^kawa. 
*kaya (ma-) kaya (kind of shellfish). 
kaya* LZii.PJ (-) town, village. 

kaya pi. of ukaya. 

kayamba (— ) rattle. 

kayaya (— ) rare trouble, difficulty. 
( = matata.) 

kaza, kasa (caus. of *kaa?) ] . fasten 
tighten, make fast, hold tight. — kamba. 
fasten, pull tight a rope/cord. — sukurubu. 
exert pressure. 2. exert oneself, intensify 
one's efforts. — (mwendo) mbio. move 
faster, run. fig. persist, insist on. appl. 
kazia macho, fix the eyes on something. 
ass. kazana. hold together. Cf. kikaza, 
kikazo, mkazo. 

kazi (— ) 1. work, employment, occupation; 
(military) service. — ya kulima. agricul- 
tural work. — ya hiari. voluntary work. 

— ya kibaharia. service in the navy. 
mfanya — . worker, fanya — . to work. 
shika — . go to work. loc. kazini. at 
work. 2. business, affairs. — ya bahari. 
naval affairs. 3. product of (skilled) 
work, art, decoration, kanzu ya — ■ deco- 
rated (embroidered) kanzu. 4. duty, obli- 
gation. 5. specialty. Cf. kaza (?). 

karo 'nia-^ see mka 

kazoakazoa (— ) term of abuse (scavenger? 
Cf. zoa). 

ke adj. female, feminine. Cf. jike, kike, 
kuke, mke, mwanamke, uke. 

kebe (ma-) see mkebe. 

kebehi* insult, abuse, offend, injure. 

kecha (— ) jealousy, envy. 

kedhabu* (— ) see kadhabu. 

kefiakefia see kefyakefya. 

kefu!* (also kefule, sefule) interjection 
of surprise/disgust/indignation. 1. Shame! 
You scoundrel! 2. It is not worth men- 

kefu* see kifu. 
kefule!* inter j. see *kefu. 

kefyakefya, kefiakefia torment, annoy, vex, 
tease; nag; discourage, depress (- sum- 
bua, tesa, chokoza, udhi.) 




kejekeje adj., rare loose, slack. (- pwaya, 

kejeli* deride, mock, make fun of someone; 
slander, malign. 

kekee (— ) drill, auger, brace and bit. 

kekee (— ) broad silver bracelet. ( = kikuku, 
bangiti, urembo.,1 

keketa cut (by sawing back and forth, as with 
a dull knife). — meno. grit/grind one's 
teeth. Cf. mkeketo. 

kekevu, chechevu (— ) hiccup(s). fanya — . 
have the hiccups. 

keki* LEngl.l (-) cake, pastry. 

kelb* (— ) rare dog. ( = mbwa.) Cf. kalab. 

kelele (ma-) (also ukelele, -, ma-) noise, 
shouting, tumult, uproar, piga — . be 
noisy, shout, scream, nena kwa — . inter- 
rupt, interject, inter), kelele! Quiet! 
sema kwa -. talk loudly. 

keleli see keti. 

keleza see kereza. 

kem* adv. how much? how many? what 

^kerna dial, shout, roar, yell, scream, appl. 
kemea. scold, caus. kemesha, kemeza. 

^kema take off, peel (fruits). 

kerne (— ) call, shout. Cf. kemea. 

kemea scold, reprimand (someone). 
Cf. *kema, kerne, kemeo, ukemi. 

kemeo (ma-) rare rebuke, reprimand; warn- 
ing, threat. Cf. kemea. 

Ikenda num. (arch., dial.) nine, —a — . 
ninth. ( = tisa.) 

^kenda (< ka-enda) see ka and enda. 

kende (ma-) anat. scrotum, (pi.) testicles. 

kenga deceive, dupe, cheat, hoax, bam- 
boozle, appl. kengea. intr. kengeka. 
caus. kengeza. 

kenge, mburukenge (— ) monitor lizard 
(Varanus niloticus). 

kengee (-) [also ukengee) 1. blade (of a 
knife or sword), spearhead. 2. ray of 
the sun, sunbeam. - za jua. sunrise. 

kengele (-, ma-) bell, piga (gonga) -. 
ring (a bell). 

kengemeke rare rebuke, reprimand; accuse. 
(= suta, laumu, shutumu, shtaki.) 

kengeua deviate, diverge, turn aside/ off. 
— njia. depart from/turn off a path/road. 
intr. kengeuka. caus. kengeusha. pass. 
kengeuliwa. Cf. ukengef'u. 




kengewa (-) ornith. African kite. (= mwevve.) 2 kereng . ende ( _ } d nfly . 

kengeza 1. squint. 2. (ma-) cross-eyed 
condition, convergence. m i u mwenye make- 
ngeza. a squinting/cross-eyed person. 
3. adj. squinting/cross-eyed. mac ho ma- 
kengeza. squinting eyes. Cf. makengeza. 


geza caus. of kenga. 

ken>ekenye adv. completely, absolutely, 

kenyo (— ) rare excuse, evasion. (= da- 
nganyo. zuzuio.) 

Kepi* lEngl.l sing. Cape (of Good Hope). 

kepteni* lEngl.2 (ma-) see kapteni. 

kera torment, bother, tease, worry. Cf. kero, 

kerani* (ma-) see karani. 

kereketa scratch, cause irritation, prickle, 
cause a rough feeling (in the throat), fig. 
irritate, vex, anger, habari hii inani- 
kereketa sana This report made me very 
angry, appl, kereketea. 

^kereketa (-) rancid oil. 

koremkerem (-) ornith. keremkcrem (kind 
of bird, Merops), 

kereng'ende (-) ornith. (kind of) partridge, 

kereza, keleza 1. saw, file, rasp, abrade, 
grind, fig. — meno. grind the teeth. 
2. turn (on a lathe). Cf. kerezo, mkereza. 

kerezo (ma-) lathe. Cf. kereza. 

kerimu* see karimu, kirimu. 

kcro (ma-) unrest, disturbance; annoyance, 
teasing. Cf. kera. 

kerosini* LEngl. J (— ) rare kerosine, 
lamp oil. 

kesha 1. be awake, not sleep, have insom- 
nia, nimekesha usiku kucha nikisoma. 
I spent the whole night reading, appl. 
keshea. stay up with, watch over. 
keshea na mgonjwa. stay up with a sick 
person, caus. keshesha, kesheza. 
2. (ma-) insomnia; night-watch, vigil. 
Cf. kesho, mkesha. 

kesho 1. (-) the next day. 2. adv. to- 
morrow. — kutwa, day after tomorrow. 
Cf. kesha. 

kesi* [.Engl. J (-) case (at law). - ya 
jinai. criminal case. 

keta rare knock someone down, injure 

kete (— ) 1. small cowrie shell. 2. a game 
played with these shells, meno kama — . 
teeth like cowrie shells (a high compli- 




keti {rare keleti) sit down. — kitini. sit 
down in a chair, tafadhali — . Please be 
seated. oppZ. ketia. caus. ketisha. 
keep someone from leaving; preserve, 
protect, pass, ketiwa. Cf. kaa (?). 

keu: kupiga — . chew the cud. Cf. cheu. 

^keu a cut made with an ax (in order to 
straighten a pole; see keua). 

keua cut a notch (in a pole, in order to 
straighten it and make it serviceable for 
building after a wedge has been inserted). 

khalifa* (-) see halifa. 
khasara* (-) see hasara. 

*kia (vi-) 1. bolt, latch (on a door). 2. anat. 

^kia, kiwa step over, pass, cross, isiokia. 
impassable. Cf. kiuka. 

kiada* adj. plain, clear, distinct, sema — . 
speak slowly and clearly. Cf. kawaida. 

kiafrika* [Engl J adj.: -a -. African. 
Cf. Afrika. 

kiaga (vi-) dial, promise, agreement, con- 
tract. Cf. aga. 

kiagano (vi-) see agano. 

kiago (vi-) rare departure, farewell. 
Cf. ^ga. 

Kiajemi* 1. sing. Persian language. 2. adv. 
in the Persian manner. Cf. Mwajemi, 

kiama* (-) see kiyama. 

kiamba (vi-) see mwamba. 

kiambaza, kiwambaza, kiyambaza (vi-) 
(outer) wall (made of earth and rubble); 
(in gen.) wall (of a house). Cf. wamba. 

kiambo (vi-) rare 1. household, housekeep- 
ing, household furnishings. 2. village. 

kiamerika*, kiamerikani, kimarekani [Engl. J: 
—a — . adj. American. 

kiamerikani* see kiamerika. 

kiamshakinywa (vi-), chamshakinywa (vy-) 
breakfast. Cf. amka, kinywa. 

Kiamu sing. Old Swahili (the language of 
Lamu preserved in literary works). 

kianga, kiangazi (vi-) clearing up (of the 
weather, after rain), pigwa na -. clear 
up. Cf. angaa. 

kiangaza (vi-): - macho, reward for finding 
something lost {lit.: eye-brightener). 
Cf. angaa. 

kiangazi (vi-) see kianga. 

kiango (vi-) arch, lampstand, lamp holder. 
Cf. ^anga. 




kiangu (vi-) kiangu (kind of fish). 

kiangushio (vi-) parachute. Cf. angua. 

kiapo (vi-) 1. oath, apa (fanya, shika) -. 
swear an oath. - cha uwongo. perjury. 
also lia -. take an oath. Cf. Ma. 
2. myth, test, trial by ordeal, la -. 
subject oneself to a trial by ordeal. 
— cha moto. trial bv fire. Cf. ana 

Kiarabu* 1. sing, the Arabic language. 
2. adv. in the Arab manner. 3.: -a -. 
adj. Arabic, Arabian, Arab. Cf. Mwarabu, 

kiarif'a* (vi-) gramm. verb. Cf. arifu. 

kiarusi* sing.: ana -. He trembles. 
Cf. arusi. 

kiasi* (— ) 1. measure, price, value, amount. 
- gani? What is the price? How much does 
it cost? - cha sehemu. math, numerator, 
bila -. without measure, inexact; immod- 
erate, 2. fig. moderation, temperance. 
kwa -. moderately, temperately. 3. adv. 
a little, somewhat; for a short time. 
tembea — . go walking for a short time. 

kiasi* (— ) mil. charge, round (of ammuni- 
tion); cartridge. Cf. risasi. 

kiaskari*: -a -. adj. military, utumishi 
wa -. military service. Cf. askari. 

kiatomiki* [Engl.]: -a-, atomic. Cf. 

kiatu (vi-) sandal, shoe. - cha ngozi. 

leather shoe. - chepesi. slipper, mshona 
(mshoni wa) -. shoemaker. Cf. Ikwata, 
kwato, liwata. 

kiazi (vi-) sweet potato. - sena (kindoro). 
white (red) sweet potato. - kikuu. yam. 
— cha kizungu. European potato. 

1 kibaba* (vi-) kibaba (unit of weight or ca- 
pacity: about 700 g. or .56 liters), prov.: 
haba na haba hujaza -. Little by little 
fills the measure. 

^kibaba (vi-) dimin. of ^baba. 

kibafute (vi-) kibafute (a children's game in 
which the identity of an object hidden in 
the hand must be guessed at). 

kibago (vi-) stool. 

kibahaluli* (vi-) rare 1. small torch, paper 
spill. 2. foolish/stupid person. 

kibakuli* (vi-) see bakuli. 
^kibali* see kubali. 
kibali* sing, see ukubali. 

kibama (vi-) kibama (cake made of flour 
and bananas). 

kibanawasi* (vi-) liter, rabbit, hare. 
Cf. Abunuwasi. 

kibanda, kijibanda (vi-) {dimin. ofbanda) 
1. hut, shed, lean-to; pavilion. 2.: — 
cha uso. rare, forehead. 




kibaniko (vi-) 1. (roasting) spit. 2. recent 
toaster. Cf. bana. 

kibano (vi-) see mbano 3. 

Kibanyani* Llnd. J sing, language of the 
Banyan i (q.v.) . 

kibanzi (vi-) 1. splinter, chip, shaving, rare: 
vibanzi vua msumeno. sawdust. 2. fig. 
pointed instrument: skewer, etc. Cf. bana. 

kibao (vi-) (dimin. of bao) 1. small board, 
tray, salver. 2. slate fused by school- 

kibapara (vi-) 1. old, worn-out article of 
clothing. 2. pejor. poor person, beggar. 
3. kind of cap. 

kibaraka* (vi-) vassal, lackey; (comm.) re- 
actionary. Cf, baraka. 

kibaramwezi (vi-) windmill (children s toy). 
(= kititia 2.) 

kibarango (vi-) {dimin. of mbarango) 1. short, 
thick stick. 2. short, heavyset person. 

kibarua* (vi-) {dimin. of barua) 1. {also 
kijibarua) slip of paper, card. 2. irregular 
employment, kazi ya — . work by the day. 
3. worker who has no permanent employ- 
ment, day laborer. 4. employment (in gen.). 
siku hizi hana — . He has no employment at 
present, is unemployed. 

kibatari* [ Pers. J (vi-) small oil lamp. 

kibatobato (vi-) see batobato. 

kibavu, kibavubavu, kiubavubavu adv. on/at/ 
to the side, sideways. Cf. ubavu. 

kibe (— ) rare noise, shouting. ( = ukelele.) 

kibeberu 1. (vi-) dimin. ofbeberu. 2. —a—. 
adj. dictatorial, imperialistic. Cf. be- 
beru, ubeberu. 

kibemasa (— ) children's game (hide-and- 

kibepari* Llnd.j (vi-) (petty) bourgeoisie. 
Cf. bepari, ubepari. 

kiberenge* (vi-) 1. small locomotive (nar- 
row-gage). 2. fig. deceiver, dishonest 
person. 3. rare prostitute. 

kiberiti* (— ) see kibiriti. 

kibete (vi-) see kibeti. 

kibeti, kibweti, kibete (vi-) person or animal 
of less than normal size, dwarf, midget, 
bantam, pygmy. 

kibia (vi-) {dimin. of bia) 1. small 
earthenware pot. 2. lid of such a pot. 

kibibi* LPers.J (vi-) {dimin. of bibi) 

1. young mistress (eldest daughter of the 
house). 2. liter, princess. 3. young 
hen, peahen, female parrot; (in gen.) 
peacock (- tausi). 4. numbness, going 
to sleep (of the feet). 




kibinadamu*: —a — , adj. human, natural. 
Cf. binadamu, ubinadamu. 

kibindo (vi-), bindo (ma-) fold of the loin- 
cloth used for carrying money or tobacco. 

kibinja (vi-) whistle (sound or instrument). 
Cf. ubinja. 

kibiongo (vi-) one who stoops when he walks, 
a person bent over by age or illness. 

kibirikizi (vi-) summons, appeal, proclama- 
tion, piga — , announce, proclaim. 

kibiriti*, kiberiti, kibrili (vi-) 1. sulfur. 
2. match, ganda la — . matchbox, washa 
— . strike a match. 

kibisi (vi-) ornith. kibisi (species of grebe, 

kibia*, kibula (— ) 1. Isl. direction of prayer 
(toward Mecca). 2. part of a mosque where 
the imam stands. 3. north, tiyumba yangu 
inatazama — . My house faces north. Cf. 

kibobwe (vi-) see kibwebwe. 

kibofu (vi-) anat. (urinary) bladder. Cf. bofu. 

kibogoshi (vi-) small traveler's bag. 

kibogoyo (vi-) 1. toothless person. 2. one 
who makes others laugh but does not laugh 
himself, funnyman, humorist (writer of a 
humorous column in a newspaper, etc.); 
(sometimes dcrog.) card,' 

kiboko* L Pers.? J (vi-) 1. hippopotamus. 

2. whip made of hippopotamus hide. 

3. zigzag embroidery around the neck of 
a kanzu. 

kibole (vi-) anat. appendix. 

kibonge (vi-) {dimin. of bonge) pharm. 
tablet, pill, capsule. 

kibri* (vi-) see kiburi. 

kibriti* (vi-) see kiberiti. 

^kibua (vi-) kibua (a small fish). 

"kibua (vi-) 1. something light/pithy. 
2. dimin. of bua. 

kibubutu (vi-) rare 1. tree-stump. 2. fig. 
stump of an amputated limb. Cf. butu, 

kibudu* adv.: fa — . die a natural death. 

kibuhudi* (vi-) see kibuhuti. 

kibuhuti*, kibuhudi (vi-) 1. grief, care, 
trouble, shikwa na — . have troubles. 
2. foreboding, presentiment. 

kibula* (vi-) see kibia. 

kibuluu* [Engl.! 1. (-) kibuluu (kind of 
manioc). 2. adj. see buluu. 

kibumba, kipumba (vi-) {dimin. of bumba) 
lump, ball; (small) package, packet; paper 




] kibunzi (vi-) corncob. (- gunzi.) 

^kibunzi, kigunzi (vi-) end of the year, last 
day of the year* 

^kibunzi (vi-) kibunzi (children's game). 

kiburi*, kibri (— ) pride, arrogance, presump- 
tion, conceit, fanya (onyesha, wa na) — . 
be proud/arrogant/conceited, mlu anaweza 
kuwa na — bila ya kukionyesha kila siku. 
A person can be proud without showing it 
every day. Cf. takabari. 

kiburu (— ) dial. - kibuyu. 

kiburudishaji* (vi-) a cool and refreshing 
confection served as dessert. Cf. baridi, 

kiburudisho* (vi-) 1. rest, relaxation, re- 
freshment, recreation, recuperation. 2. re- 
lief, alleviation (of pain). 3. flavor, 
savor. Cf. baridi, burudi. 

kiburuta (vi-) (kind of) fan (usually made of 
tin and used to fan a fire). Cf. burura. 

kibuyu {dial, kiburu) (vi-) {dimin. of buyu) 
(small variety of) calabash. 

kibuzi (vi-) see mbuzi. 

kibwana (vi-) (dimin. of bwana) 1. young 
master (eldest son of the house). 2. liter. 

kibwanyenye (vi-) (petty) bourgeoisie. 

kibwebwe, kibobwe (vi-) (white) loincloth 
(worn by women). 

kibwengo (vi-) 1. evil sea spirit. 2. dance 
performed in exorcising spirits. 

kibweti (vi-) see kibeti. 

kibwiko (vi-) 1. deformed or mutilated foot, 
r Inhfnnt (= kiguu). 2. a person with 
such a deformity. 

kicha (vi-) bunch, bundle (usually of palm- 
leaf strips, used for plaiting mats). 

kichaa sing, mental disorder, insanity. 
( = wazimu.) ana — . He is deranged/ 

kichaani (vi-) hot. kichaani (annual grass, 
Striga elegans). 

kichaazi (vi-) kichaazi (variety of banana). 

kichaga (vi-), uchaga, uchala (— ) con- 
tainer for storing grain (on a raised plat- 

kichaka (vi-) (dimin. of ^chaka) 1. thicket, 
bushes, shrubbery. 2. group of trees,, 

kichala (vi-) bunch (of fruit). 

kichali, kichalichali (rare chali) adv. 
backwards, on the back, lala — . lie on 
one's back. 

kichalichali see kichali. 




kichane (vi-) 1. splinter, shaving. 2. bunch 
(of fruit). Cf. chana. 

kichangamko (vi-) see ehangamko. 

kichangamsha (vi-): — kinywa. a confection 
(served before the main part of a meal). 
Cf. changamka. 

kichanganyiko (vi-) math, multiplier; pro- 
duct (of multiplication). Cf. 1 changa. 

kichango (vi-) collection (of money), changa 
— . contribute to a collection. Cf. changa. 

kichanio (vi-) see kichanuo. 

kichanja (vi-) dimin. of chanja. 

kichanuo, kichanio, kitana (vi-) (dimin. of 
chanuo) comb. Cf. ''chana. 

kichea sing., rare 1. dawn. 2. clearing up 
(after a rain). Cf. cha. 

kicheche (vi-) dimin. of ^cheche. 


kichefuchefu sing. see kitefutefu. 

kichefuchefu sing, nausea, seasickness. 
coll. nina — . I feel sick. Cf. chefua. 

kichekesho (vi-) amusement, entertainment, 
diversion, fun. Cf. cheka. 

kicheko (vi-) laugh, smile, grin, angua — . 
burst out laughing. Cf. ^eheka. 

kichele (dial, kichelele) adv. 1. naked, 
bare, bald. 2. fig. well-defined, clear, 
plain, ameniambia — sana. He spoke to 
me very plainly. 

kichelele see kichele. 

^kichelema (vi-) watery manioc (or potatoes). 
■^kichelema (vi-) see kiselema. 

*kichembe (vi-) see kitembe. 

^kichembe (vi-) see ^chembe. 

kichinichini adv. underhandedly, secretively, 
disingenuously. Cf. chini. 

kichinja (vi-): — (or kitinda) mimba. the 
last child to whom a woman gives birth. 
— udhia. a weed (Dissotis prostrata) 
used as a remedy for headache. Cf. 

kichinjo (vi-) see mchinjo. 

kichipukizi (vi-) 1. sprout, shoot. 2. fig.: 
mtu huyu ni — tu. This person is as yet 
undeveloped (is still at the beginning of 
his career). Cf. chipua. 

kicho (vi-) 1. fear, anxiety, timidity. 
2. something arousing fear; danger, 
peril. Cf. cha. 

kichocheo (vi-) 1. poker (for stirring a 
fire). 2. fig. a quarrelsome person. 
Cf. chocha. 




kichocho (vi-) med. bilharzia. Cf. chocha. kichujio (vi-) dimin. of chujio. 

kichochoro (vi-), chochoro (ma-), mchochoro 
(mi-), uchochoro (ma-) narrow passage, 
alley (between houses). 

kichogo (vi-) see kisogo. 

kichokoo (vi-) 1. dimin. of mchokoo. 
2. spur (on a boot). Cf. chokoa. 

kichoma (vi-): — mguu (nguo). 1. a shrub 
(Bidens pilosa, Bidens leucantha). 2. an 
annual plant (Heteropogon contortus). Cf. 

kichomi, kichomo (vi-) sharp (pricking/stab- 
bing) pain, twinge, stitch, ana — . He has 
sharp pains/twinges. Cf. Ichoma. 

kichomo (vi-) see kichomi. 

^kichomo (vi-) rare (process, manner of) 
burning, cauterization. Cf. 'xb.oma. 

kichongochongo see kitongo. 

kichopa (vi-) small bundle. Cf. chopa. 

kichoro (vi-) small, illegible handwriting. 
Cf. chora, mchoro. 

kichozi (vi-) 1. kichozi (kind of bird: 'palm- 
wine drinker'). 2. fig. heavy drinker, 
drunkard, coll.: huyu — sana. He is a 
heavy drinker. Cf. 2 cn0 zi. 

kichuguu, kisuguu, kisugulu (vi-) ant/termite 
hill. Cf. chuguu. 

kichumba (dimin. of chumba) (vi-) compart- 
ment, cab. — cha dreva. cab (of a loco- 

*kichungu: coll. niliwakuta watu — . I met a 
tremendous crowd of people. Cf. ''chungu. 

^kichungu adv. sharply, bitterly, caustically. 
Cf. ^chungu. 

^kichungu, kijungu (vi-) (dimin. of J chungu) 
small cooking pot. 

^kichungu (vi-) tuft (of grass). 

kichwa, kitwa (vi-) 1. head. - kikubwa. 
arrogance, presumption, jipa (pata) — . 
be proud/arrogant/presumptuous, wa na 
(fanya) — . be obstinate/recalcitrant. 
ana — (kizuri). He is intelligent, nina 
(naumvva) — or — kinaniwanga. I have a 
headache, fig. — cha gari la moshi. lo- 
comotive, coll. — chini miguu juu. up- 
side down, topsy-turvy. 2. upper part, 
top, main part. loc. kichwani. upper 
end. — cha maneno. book title. — cha 
mlima. top of a mountain. 3. important 
person, leader. 4. adv.: kichwa kichwa. 
headlong, head over heels. 

kichwamgomba, kitwamgomba (vi-) somer- 

Kidachi* [Germ.] arch. 1. sing. German 

language. 2.: —a — . adj. German. 

(- Kijeremani.) Cf. Dachi. 




^kidaka (vi-) coconut (in the first stages of 

^kidaka (vi-) 1. niche. 2. anat. throat. 
— tonge. anat. uvula. Cf. daka. 

kidako (vi-) kidako (kind of fish). 

kidalali* (vi-) (dimin. of dalali) agent, 

*kidamu* (— ) naut., rare bow (= onto, gu- 
beti.) Cf. kadamu. 

^kidamu* rare - takadamu. 

kidanga (vi-) 1. unripe fruit. 2. adj. 
mchungwa — . unripe orange. 

kidani (vi-) necklace. 

kidaraja* (vi-) sport steeplechase, hurdle- 
race, obstacle-race. Cf. daraja. 

kidari (vi-) breast, breastbone (usually of 
animals or birds), coll. toa — . be con- 

kidato (vi-) 1. notch (cut in the trunk of a 
palm-tree as an aid for climbing). 2. rung 
(of a ladder). 

kidau* (vi-) dimin. of dau. 

kidau* (vi-) see kidawa. 
kidawa*, kidau (vi-): — cha wino. inkwell. 

kidawati* (vi-) see dawati. 

kidazi sing, baldness, bald spot, bald head. 
( = upaa.) 

kidei (— ) see kideri. 

kidemokrasi* LEngl.J adj.: —a — . demo- 
cratic, jamhuri ya — . democratic republic, 
sheria za — . democratic laws. 

kideri, kidei (— ) 1. cattle plague, rinder- 
pest. 2. disease of chickens. 

kidete adv. firmly. 

kidevu (vi-) anat. chin, ndevu za — . 
goatee. Cf. udevu. 

kidhabidhabina* (vi-) see mdhabidhabina. 

kidhi* grant, bestow, lend, present, confer; 
satisfy. — maombi. grant a request. appL 
kidhia. caus. kidhisha. pass, kidhiwa. 
Cf. mkidhi. 

kidifu* (vi-) see difu. 

kidiku (vi-) fragment, scrap. 

kidimbwi, kidumbwi (vi-) (dimin. of dimbwi) 
pool, puddle. 

kidimu (vi-): — msitu. wild lemon tree. 

kidimu (vi-) kidimu (a chicken with ruffled 
feathers or a bare neck). 




kidingapopo (vi-) med. dengue fever (tropical 
intermittent fever). 

kidiplomasi* LEngl.~]: _ a _, a gj % diplo- 
matic, mtumewa— . diplomatic courier. 

kidiri (— ) squirrel. (= kindi.) 

kidirisha* (vi-) ventilator. Cf. dirisha. 

kidividivi (vi-) earring. 

kidogo adv. a little, some, not much, few. 
maji — . some water, a little water. 
ekundu — . reddish, bado — . soon. Ted. 
kidogo kidogo, kidogodogo. very little, not 
much at all. Cf. dogo. 

kidokezi (vi-) see kidokezo. 

kidokezo, kidokezi (vi-) suggestion, proposal; 
hint, allusion; advice. Cf. dokeza. 

*kidoko (vi-) 1. click (of the tongue), piga 
— . to click. 2. ling, click (consonant). 
lugha yenye vidoko. language with click 
consonants. 3. hint, sign. Cf. dokeza, 

^kidoko (vi-) kidoko (kind of fish). 

kidole (vi-) finger, toe. Also: — cha tnkono. 
finger. — cha mguu. toe. — cha gumba. 
thumb. — shahada. index finger. — cha 
kati. middle finger. — cha kati ya kando. 
ring finger. — cha mvvisho. little finger. 
Cf. dole, udole. 

kidomo (vi-) 1. dimin. of mdomo. 2. dainti- 
ness, fastidiousness (with respect to food). 

mwenye -. gourmet. 3. red. kidomodomo. 
adv.: ana kidomodomo. He talks continu- 

kidonda (vi-) see donda. 

i kidondo (vi-) {usually vidondo) shaving(s); 
firewood, kindling. 

2l:j o _j t„;_\ „ _ u33C i 

kidonge (vi-) {dimin. of donge) 1. small 
piece/lump, globule. 2. pharm. tablet, 

kidotia, kilotia (vi-) child's cap. 

kidoto (vi-) 1. blinker, blinder (fastened 
over a camel's eyes). 2. fig., coll. 
funda — . follow blindly. 

'"kidoto (vi-) (small) drinking cup, goblet. 

kidude* (vi-) {dimin. of dude) 1. trifle; 
undefinable thing, what's-its-name, thing- 
umbob; gadget, device, instrument, 
knob. 2. something unknown/mysterious/ 
frightening. — gani hili? What in the 
world is this object? 

kidudu*, kijidudu (vi-) {dimin. of *mdudu) 
microbe, germ. 

kidudusi (vi-) 1. spot, speck. 2. med. 
pimple, rash. Cf. duduka. 

kidugu, kindugu 1. (vi-) dimin. of ndugu. 
2. adv. in a brotherly way. pendana — . 
love each other like brothers. 




kiduka* (vi-) small shop/business. Cf. duka. 

kiduku* LAfr. J (vi-) kiduku (duiker, small 

kidumbwi (vi-) see kidimbwi. 
^kidundu (vi-) forehead. ( = kipaji.) 
kidundu (vi-) see dundu. 

kidungadunga (vi-) boring insect, weevil. 
Cf. *dunga. 

kidurango (vi-) rare dwarf. ( = mbilikitno, 


urazi (vi-) see kidurus 

kidurusi, kidurazi (vi-) dial, termite hill. 
( = chuguu.) 

kidusi (— ) 1. acrid odor, {e.g., of game, 
fish). 2. in gen. unusual smell/taste. 

kiduta (vi-) prominence, height, hill. 

kieleaji (vi-) something which floats; (pi.) 
flotsam. Cf. elea. 

kielekezo (vi-) sign, indication, hint. Cf. 
elea, elekea. 

kielelezo (vi-) see kielezo. 

kielezo, kielelezo (vi-) explanation; pattern, 
model, form; example, illustration. Cf. 

kiendeleo, kiendelezo (vi-) progress, ad- 
vance. Cf. enda, endeleo. 

kiendelezo (vi-) see kiendeleo. 

kieneo (vi-) see eneo. 

kienezo (vi-) see chenezo. 

kienge (vi-; see mwenge. 

kienyeji sing.: —a — . peculiar to or limited 
to a country, national, nguo za — . na- 
tional dress/costume, vita vya — . civil 
war. Cf. enye, mwenye ji. 

*kifa (vi-) mil. nipple (of a musket), firing 
pin, detonator. 

^kifa (vi-) dying, death. Cf. fa. 

kifaa (vi-) 1. implement, utensil, apparatus, 
equipment, material, vifaa vya kuoga 
equipment for washing, vifaa vya nyumbani. 
household implements. 2. (us. pi.) 
counter (small object used in teaching 
arithmetic, etc.). Cf. faa. 

kifabakazi (vi-) bot. Nandi flame tree 
(Spathodea nilotica). 

kifaduro (vi-) med. whooping cough. 

kifafa (vi-) med. convulsion, spasm, fit; 
epilepsy, mwenye — . an epileptic, 
amepata (ugua) — . be epileptic, have a 
fit of epilepsy. 




kifalme adj. & adv. royal(ly). nguo ya — . 
regal clothing. Cf. mfalme, ufalme. 

kifandugu (— ) anat. coccyx. 

kifani (vi-) see kifano. 

kifano, kifani (vi-) similar thing, equal, 
match, haina — . It is unequaled/unique 
nr r p r ...... _ 

kifaranga* [ Port. J (vi-) (dimin. of Ma- 
ranga) young bird, chick. 

Kifaransa* 1. sing. French language. 
2.: —a — . adj. French. Cf. Faransa, 
Mfaransa, Ufaransa. 

kifarasi* adj. & adv. like a horse; at a gal- 
lop, galloping, enda mbio — . run at a 
gallop. Cf. farasi. 

kifaru (vi-) {or augment, faru) 1. rhinoceros. 
2. fig., mil. tank, bunduki ya kupigia vi- 
faru. antitank gun. 3. —a vifaru. adj. 
armored, kikundi cha vifaru. armored bat- 

kifauwongo (vi-) (lit. that which feigns 
death; cf. 2|dfa, uwongo) 1. mimosa 
(Mimosa pudica). 2. kifauwongo (a shrub, 
Biophytum sensitivum). 3. (kind of) weevil 
(or other insect which feigns death when 

kifefe* (vi-) 1. = ufefe. 2. weak/useless 

kifia appZ. of 2 kifu. 

kifichifichi see kifichoficho. 

kificboficho, kifichifichi adv. stealthily, in 
secret, maneno ya — . intrigues. Cf. 

kifidio* (vi-) see fidia. 

kifijo (vi-) (usually vifijo) applause, joyful 

kifiko (vi-) time of arrival; place where one 
arrives, destination. Cf. fika. 

kifisifisi adv. like a hyena; (fig.) secretly, 
surreptitiously. Cf. fisi. 

kifo (vi-) death, dying, manner of death. 
— chake kilituhuzunisha. His death has 
distressed us. prov. — cha wengi arusi. 
The dying of many is like a wedding 
( = the awareness of working in common 
for a good cause gives one strength). 
Cf. fa. 

*kifu 1. (vi-) something dead (decayed, de- 
composed), carrion. 2. adv. as if dead. 
lala — . sleep very soundly. Cf. fa. 

^kifu*, kefu 1. be enough, suffice, chakula 
chako kimenikifu. Your food has satisfied 
me (I cannot eat any more), appl. kifia. 
kifia haja. satisfy someone's desires. 
2. sing, sufficiency, plenty, abundance. 

kifua (vi-) breast, chest (of men); breast- 
bone, hawezi — . he coughs. — kikuu. 
med. tuberculosis. See also mafua. 




kifuasi (vi-) 1. succession, series, se- 
quence (of numbers). 2. even number. Cf. 

kifudifudi see fudifudi. 

kifufu (vi-) see kifuu. 

kifuka (vi-) hot. kifuka (a shrub, V erononia 

kifukizo, kivukizo (vi-) smoking, fumigation, 
burning of incense; fumigating material, 
incense. Cf. *fuka. 

kil'uko (vi-) (dimin. of mfuko). 1. pouch, 
small bag/sack. — cha fedha or cha ku- 
tilia fedha. purse. 2. anat. tonsil. 
3. red.: kifukofuko. cocoon (of an insect). 

kifuku (vi-) the hot rainy season. Cf. fuka. 

kifuli (vi-) see kivuli. 

kifulifuli see fudifudi. 

kifumba (vi-) [dimin. of ^fumba) small sack 
made of matting. 

kifumbazi (vi-) see *kivumbasi. 

kifumbu (vi-) filter, sieve (of matting or 
basketwork). Cf. 2 fumba, kifumba. 

kifumufumu (vi-) rare kifumufumu (kind of 
manioc). ( = muhogo.) 

kifundi: —a — . technical, msaada vva — . 
technical assistance. Cf. "funda, fundi. 

kifundo (vi-) (dimin. of fundo) 1. knot, 
piga — . tie a knot. 2. anat. joint. 

— cha mkono. wrist. — cha mguu. ankle, 
heel. loc. kifundoni. up to the ankles. 
3„ tassel. Cf. funda, fundika. 

kifunga (vi-) 1. rare something used for 
tying/fastening. — mbuzi. a short-lived 
variety of grass (Eleusine indica). 
2°: — stimu. elec. fuse. (- falaki.) 
Cf. Ifunga. 

kifungo (vi-) 1. (act of, method of) fasten- 
ing. 2. fastener (button, buckle, clasp, 
etc.). 3. confinement, prison; jail sen- 
tence, peleka (tia) kifungoni). put into 
prison. 4. typ. parenthesis, bracket, 
andika vifungoni. put in parentheses. 
Cf. * funga. 

kifungu (vi-) (dimin. of Mungu) small por- 
tion; paragraph, section, article (of a law, 
constitution, etc.); (mus.) measure. 

kifungua (vi-) something that opens or un- 
fastens. — kopo. can opener. — kinywa. 
breakfast. — mimba. firstborn child. 

— mkoba. hist, payment to a medicine 
man for discovering the cause of an illness 

— miango. gift made by the bridegroom to 
those who, on his wedding day, open the 
door to the room of the bride. Cf. funga. 

kifunguo (vi-) 1. d imin. of ufunguo. 
2. skeleton key. Cf. funga. 

kifunifuni see fudifudi. 




kifuniko (vi-) 1. cover, lid, screen. — cha 
chungu. potlid. — cha saa. case of a 
watch. — cha taa. lampshade, globe. 
2. fig. concealment, refuge, hiding-place. 
Cf. funika. 

kifunuo (vi-) uncovering, revealing. Cf. 

l,;{\. = ( v ;_) lit„ (o -oir.ted stake thrust in the 
ground, used for stripping off the husks of 
coconuts). Cf. fua, 

kifupi adv. briefly, in brief. Cf. fupi. 

kifusi (vi-) see fusi. 

kifuu, kifufu (vi-) l.( empty) shell of the 
coconut. 2. rare: — cha yai. eggshell. 
Cf. l fuu. 

kifyonza: —{or mfyonza) vumbi (vi-) vacuum 
cleaner. Cf. fyonza. 

kiga (vi-) dial, thigh (of an animal), shank, 
ham. ( = paja.) 

kigae, kigai (vi-) {dimin. of gae) small 
fragment, splinter, potsherd; (roof-)tile. 

kigaga (vi-) (dimin. of gaga) crust, scurf, 

kigagazi (vi-) nausea, seasickness. 

kigai (vi-) see kigae. 

kigambo (vi-) controversy, controversial ques- 
tion, (point at) issue. Cf. amba. 

Kigana* VEngl.^'. —a—. Ghanaian. 

*kiganda (vi-) dimin. of Uganda. 

^Kiganda: —a—, adj. pertaining to/char- 
acteristic of the Baganda. 

kigango (vi-) dimin. of gango. 

kiganja, kiganya (vi-), ganja (ma-) palm of 
the hand. ( = kitanga.) 

kigao (vi-) (dimin. of ngao) (small) shield, 

kigasha (vi-): — cha mkono. forearm. 

kigawanye, kigawe (vi-) math, dividend. 
40 ni kigawe cha 10. Forty is a multiple 
of ten. Cf. gawa. 

kigawanyo, kigawo (vi-) division, distribu- 
tion; (math.) divisor. Cf. gawa. 

kigawe (vi-) see kigawanye. 

kigawo (vi-) see kigawanyo. 

kigego (vi-) 1. child that develops abnor- 
mally (regarded as unluc ky ). 2. fig.: 
mtoto huyu ni — sana. This child is hard 
to bring up. 

kigelegele (vi-) [also ugelegele sing.) 

shout of joy (usually of women, on the oc- 
casion of a returning, a birth, a wedding, 
etc.). ( = kelele, shangwe, kijijo.) 




kigeni: —a — . adj. foreign, maneno ya — . 
a foreign language. Cf. geni. 

kigeregenja (vi-) see kigereng'enza. 

kigereng enza, kigeregenja (vi-) splinter, 
fragment, chip, shaving. 

kigesi, kigezi (vi-), kugesi (— ) anklet. 

kigeugeu (vi-) 1. inconstant/fickle person. 
2. chameleon. ( = kinyonga). 3. adj. & 

adv. inconstant, changeable, vacillating, 
fickle, fanyia fulani — . make someone 
vacillate/waver. Cf. geua. 

kigezi (vi-) see kigesi. 

kigezo* \_Pers.j (vi-) 1. pattern (for cutting 
clothes). 2. measuring rod, yardstick. 
Cf. geza. 

kigogo. 1. (vi-) dimin. of gogo. 2. adv.: 
lala (kama) — . sleep very soundly. 

kigogota, kigotagota, kigong'ota, king'oto 

(vi-) woodpecker. Cf. gogota. 

kigoli, kigori (vi-) young girl (before men- 

kigoma (vi-) (dimin. of ngoma) small drum, 

kigomba (vi-) (dimin. of mgomba) young 
banana plant. 

kigombegombe (vi-) kigombegombe (kind of 

kigongo (vi-) see kijongo. 

kigong'ota (vi-) see kigogota. 

kigingi, kigwingwi (vi-) peg, stake, post 
(for tying animals). 

Kigiriki* LEngl.j 1. sing, (modern) Greek 
language. 2. adv. in the Greek manner. 
3.: —a — . adj. Greek. Cf. Mgiriki, 

kigono (vi-) resting place, shelter, camp. 
Cf. gona. 

kigori (vi-) see kigoli. 

kigosho (vi-) bend, crookedness, deformity. 
— cha mkono. deformed arm. 

kigo pi. of ukigo. 

Kigoa* Llnd.J 1. sing, language of the 
Goanese. 2.: —a — . adj. Goanese. 

kigodo (vi-) kigodo (confection made of rice 
flour, sugar, and grated coconut). 

kigotagota (vi-) see kigogota. 

kiguba (vi-) see kikuba. 

kigugu 1. (vi-) dimin. of gugu. 2. adv. 
wild, in confusion, like weeds, jenga — . 
build in a disorderly fashion (not in rows). 

kigoe (vi-) see kingoe. 

kigugumizi, kigugumiza (vi-) stuttering. 
ana — . He stutters. Cf. gugumia. 




kigumba (vi-) arrowhead, barb on an arrow- 

kigumi (vi-) see kiguni. 

kiguni*, kigumi (vi-) {dimin. of guni) small 
bag of matting (for packing dates). 

kigunzi (vi-) 1. dimin. of gunzi. 2. fig. 
the last day of the year. ( = kibunzi.) 

kiguu (vi-) {dimin. of mguu) 1. deformed 
foot, clubfoot. 2. lame person. 

kiguzo (vi-) (dimin. of nguzo) 1. prop, sup- 
port, stand (for holding something). 
2. (cricket) stump. 3. comfort, assurance. 

kigwaru (also kinyevu) (vi-) a growth or 
swelling on the genitals. 

kigwe (vi-) (dimin. of ugwe) string, cord; 
tape, braid; strap; lace (of a shoe); rein. 

kigwingwi (vi-) see kigingi. 

kihanie (vi-) deserted dwelling place. 
( = hame, mahamc, tongo.) 

kiharusi*, kiarusi (vi-) med. stroke, spasm, 

kiherehere (vi-) confusion, excitement. 
— eha moyo. palpitation of the heart. 

kihero (vi-) 1. dimin. of hero. 2. crib, 
manger, trough. 

kihesabu*: —a — . adj. mathematical. Cf. 

Kihindi* 1. sing. Hindustani (language). 
2. —a — . adj. Indian. Cf. Hindi, 
Mhindi, Uhindi. 

kihongwe, kongwe (vi-) (also punda — ) 
pack donkey. 

*kihori* (vi-) rare dimin. of ^hori. 

2 kihori* (vi-) di.aiu. uf *:.ori. 

kihoro (vi-) grief, pain, tia — . feel grief/ 

kihunzi (vi-) thieves' Latin (a form of con- 
cealed speech in which final syllables are 
put first). Cf. kinyume 1 . 

kihusiano (vi-) gramm. relative afformative 
(infix or suffix). Cf. husu. 

kiinamizi (vi-) share of meat which the 

butcher receives for slaughtering an animal. 
Cf. inama. 

Kiingereza* 1. sing, the English language. 
2. adv. in the English manner. 3.: —a—. 
adj. English. Cf. Mwingereza, Uingereza. 

kiingiiio, kiingio (vi-) admission fee. Cf. 

kiingio (vi-) see kiingiiio. 

^kiini, kini (vi-) 1. inside, interior; pith; 
kernel, nucleus. — cha matunda. kernel/ 
stone of fruit. — cha yai. yolk of an egg. 
— cha jicho. anat. pupil (of the eye). 
2. fig. substance, essence, gist (of a 




matter). — ya hoja. central issue. 3. re- 
cent —a — . nuclear, siasa ya — . comm. 
policy of nuclear blackmail, silaha za 
vi int. nuclear weapons. Cf. ini. 

kiini: — macho (vi-) (conjuring) trick, 
sleight of hand. 

kiinikizo (vi-) 1. heavy burden. 2. bribery, 
bribe. C. ir.ika. 

kiinua: — mgongo (vi-) extra payment, bonus 
(for heavy work); tip. Cf. inua. 

kiisha* see kisha. 

Kiislamu* 1. sing, (religion of) Islam. 

2. adv. in the Moslem manner. 3. : —a — . 
adj. Islamic, Moslem. Cf. Islamu, silimu. 

kiitikio, kiitiko (vi-) response, repetition, 
refrain. Cf. ita. 

kiitiko (vi-) see kiitikio. 

kijaa (vi-) 1. millstone. 2. a completely 
filled vessel. Cf. jaa. 

kijakazi (vi-) (dimin. of mjakazi) hist. 
young slave girl. Cf. ja. 

kijaluba*, kijaruba (vi-) dimin. of jaluba. 

kijamanda* (vi-) 1. dimin. of jamanda. 
2. blinker, blinder (of basketwork; fast- 
ened over the eyes of camels ). 

kijambia* (vi-) 1. dimin. of jambia. 2. gus- 
set (of a kanzu). 

Kijampani* sing. & adj. see Kijapani. 

kijana (vi-) young person, boy, girl, young- 
ster, wewe — sisi ni watu wazima. You 
are a youngster, (but) we are grown-ups. 
Cf. mwana. 

kijani 1. (vi-) dimin. of jani. 2. adv. 
like grass. 3. adj. — kibichi. grass- 


Kijapani* iEngl.J 1. sing, the Japanese 
language. 2.: —a — . adj. Japanese, 
Cf. Mjapani. 

kijaruba* (vi-) see kijaluba. 

kijembe (vi-) (dimin. of jembe) 1. small 
knife, pocketknife. 2. fig. cutting/sar- 
castic language. 

Kijeremani* L Engl. J 1. sing. German lan- 
guage. 2. —a -. adj. German. Cf. Mje- 
remani, Ujeremani. 

kijeshi* 1.: —a — . adj. military, army... 
korti la — . court-martial. 2. (vi-) military 
training. Cf. jeshi. 

kijia (vi-) see kinjia. 

kijibanda (vi-) see kibanda. 

kijibwa (vi-) little dog; (fig.) lackey, puppet. 
Cf. mbwa. 

kijicho (vi-) 1. envy, jealousy. 2. malice, 
spite. 3. malignant/envious glance, kuwa 
na — or kuwa na — rohoni. be envious/ 
jealous. Cf. jicho. 




kijichumba (vi-) (dimin. of chumba) cubicle, 

kijidonda (vi-) {dimin. of donda) pimple, 

kijidudu (vi-) see kidudu. 

kijigari* Llnd.J (vi-) (dimin. of gari) 
motor scooter. 

kijihospitali* L Engl. J (vi-) {dimin. of hos- 
pitali) medical station, first aid. 

kijiji (vi-) (dimin. of mji) (small) village, 
hamlet, ( = kitongoji.) 

*kijiko (vi-) (dimin. of *mwiko) spoon 
(in gen.). — cha chai. teaspoon. — cha 
chakula. tablespoon. — cha kupika. 
serving spoon. 

^kijiko (vi-) dimin. of jiko. 

kijimbi: — msitu (vi-) ornith. (species of) 

kijimea (vi-) (dimin. of mmea) bacterium. 

kijimo (vi-) dwarf. ( = mbilikimo, kibeti.) 

kijina (vi-) (dimin. of jina) gramm. pro- 

kijineno (vi-) (dimin. of neno) prattling 
(of children), tittle-tattle. Cf. ^nena. 

kijinga (vi-) dimin. of ^kin 


^kijinga, kijingajinga adj. stupid, foolish. 
Cf. jinga. 

kijingajinga see kijinga. 

kijini* (vi-) (dimin. of jini) liter, spirit, 
fairy, elf. 

kijino (vi-) 1. dimin. of jino. 2. a small 
fish, whitebait. 3. shrimp. 

kijio (vi-) evening meal, dinner. Cf. ja. 

kijiri (vi-) see chichiri. 

kijisanduku* (vi-) (dimin. of sanduku) mail- 

kijisehemu* (vi-) (dimin. of sehemu) pkys. 

kijisu (vi-) (dimin. of kisu) small knife. 

kijitabu* (vi-) (dimin. of kitabu) 1. pamph- 
let, brochure. 2. article, essay. 

kijiti (vi-) (dimin. of ^mti) 1. small tree, 
bush, shrub. 2. (small) stick, twig, piece 
of wood, peg. 

kijito, kijuto (vi-) (dimin. of mto) small 
stream, brook, rivulet. 

^kijitu (vi-) small person; (often contemptu- 
ous) little man, wretch. Cf. mtu, jitu. 

kijitu: —a — . adj. huge, gigantic, ameangu- 
kiwa na kijitu cha jiwe. A huge stone fell 
on him. Cf. jitu. 



kijivi 1. (vi-) (dimin. of mwivi) thievish 
person. 2, adv. in a thievish/underhanded 
way. Cf. iba. 

kijivu, kijivujivu adj. ash-colored, ashen, 
gray. Cf. jivu. 

ki jiwe (vi-) see kiwe. 

kijogoo 1. (dimin. of jogoo. 2. (vi-) 

(species) of) sea-fish. 3. adv. like cocks/ 
roosters, fig. shindana — . fight with each 
other like cocks, prov. mtu huyu ndiye — 
vva mji siku hizi. He is a notorious char- 
acter. Cf. jogoo. 

Kijomba sing. arch. Swahili (language). 
( = Kiswahili; cf. mjomba, Ujomba.) 

^kijusi* (vi-) 1. bad smell. 2. impurity 
(period of forty days after parturition, 
during which a woman is considered to be 
impure). Cf. ujusi. 

^kijusi (vi-) dimin. of Imjusi. 

kijusu (vi-) anat. foetus (of four months). 

kiiutn (vi-) sp.p kijito. 

kijuujuu adv. 1. above, up, upwards, on 
top. 2. fig. superficially. Cf. juu. 

kijuvi 1. adj. & adv. impertinent, impudent, 
insolent, sema — . talk impudently. 
2. (vi-) an impertinent child. Cf. jua, 

kijongo, kigongo (vi-) (dimin. of mgongo) 
hump, mwenye — . hunchback. 

kikaango (vi-) (dimin. of kaango) (cooking-) 
pot, frying pan. 

kijoyo (vi-) (dimin. of moyo) 1. - kimoyo. 
2. inclination, desire. 

kijukuu (vi-) (dimin. of mjukuu) great- 

kijumba (vi-) (dimin. of nyumba) small house, 
hut; booth. — cha simu. telephone booth. 

kijumbamshale sing, (epithet applied to the) 

kikabaila*: —a — . adj. great, important, 
serikali za — , the great powers. Cf. ka- 

kikabila* adj. & adv. pertaining to the 
people, —a — . people's ..., popular, 
national. Cf. kabila. 

kikaimati* (vi-) 1. (kind of) porridge, gruel 
(made of wheat meal). 2. (kind of) pan- 
cake, fritter. 

kijumbe (vi-) (dimin. of jumbe) intermediary 
in arranging a marriage, go-between. Cf. 
mjumbe, ujumbe. 

kijungu (vi-) see 4|d c | lun g U> 

kikaka 1. (vi-) haste, hurry, rush; confu- 
sion, disorder. 2. adv. hurriedly, 
hastily. Cf. kakakaka. 

kikale adj. & adv. ancient, archaic; old- 
fashioned, obsolete. Cf. kale. 




kikalio (vi-) coll. luxury (cigarettes, to- 
bacco). Cf. kaa. 

kikambo adv. like a stepparent. Cf. kambo. 

kikamulio (vi-) press, squeezer (for extracting 
juice from fruit). C f. ^kama. 

kikanda (vi-) see kanda. 

kikande (vi-) kikande (fish similar to sole), 

kikanza (vi-) 1. ( act of) warming up. 2. some- 
thing which warms. Cf. ^kaanga. 

kikao (vi-) 1. domicile, residence. — chake 
Tanga. He lives/resides in Tanga. 2. du- 
ration of one's stay in a place, period of 
residence. 3. way /style of life; (social) 
position, standing; conduct, behavior, atti- 
tude, kaa kwa — enema, live on good terms. 
4. section, division, department. 5. ses- 
sion. — cha Halmashauri. session of par- 
liament. Cf. *kaa. 

kikapu (vi-) {also kapu, ma-) basket. — cha 
karatasi. wastepaper basket. 

kikaratasi*, kikartasi (vi-) (dimin. of kara- 
tasi) handbill, broadside, circular. 

kikariri* 1. (vi-) repetition, reiteration. 
2. adv. again, repeatedly, for the ump- 
teenth time, over and over. Cf. kariri. 

kikartasi* (vi-) see kikaratasi. 

kikatoliki* {.Engl.'] 1. sing. (Roman) Catho- 
lic religion, Catholicism. 2.: —a — . adj. 
(Roman) Catholic. Cf. katoliki. 

kikaufu see kikavu. 

kikausha (vi-) see -kausha. 

kikausho (vi-): —cha wino. blotting paper. 
Cf. kauka. 

kikavu, kikauvu 1. sing, dryness. 2. adj. 
& adv. dry; (fig.) cool, reserved. Cf. 
Ijtayn, kauka. 

kikawaida* —a—, adj. usual, regular, 
natural. Cf. kawaida. 

kikawe (vi-) see kiwe. 

kikaza, kikazo (vi-) 1. fastener (clamp, clip, 
joint, coupling, etc.). 2. lintel (of a door 
or window). Cf. kaza. 

kikazo (vi-) 1. = kikaza. 2. pressure. 
3. ling, stress, accent. Cf. kaza. 

kike sing. 1. femininity, —a—, female, 
feminine, mtoto wa — . girl, fanya — . be- 
have like a woman. 2. adv. like a woman, 
in a feminine way. Cf. ke. 

kikero (vi-) nose ring. ( = hazama, kishaufu.) 

kiki* {Engl. J (— ) sport, kick-off (in foot- 

kikiki adv. firmly, tightly, funga — . fasten 

kikiri* (— ) struggling, wrestling; pushing, 
crowding. Cf. kikirika; also kakara, 




kikirika* wrestle, fight; push, shove. Cf. ki- 

kikisa speak fast/indistinctly; be confused/ 
incoherent. oppZ. kikisia. 

kikisia appl. of kikisa. 

kiko (vi-) (tobacco) pipe. 

^kiko (vi-) anat. elbow. ( = kivi.) 

^kiko loc, sing, he (she, it) is there, kiti 
— ? Is the chair there? 

^kikoa (vi-) people doing something in com- 
mon, a thing done in common (meal, collec- 
tion of money); group, team, kula — . have 
meals in common. 

kikoa (vi-) dimin. of ^koa, "koa. 

kikofi (vi-) palm of the hand, handful. Cf. 
kofi, ukufi. 

kikohozi (vi-) cough, fit of coughing, aumwa 
— . He has a cough. Cf. kohoa. 

kikoi (vi-) white loincloth (with colored 

kikojozi (vi-), kojozi (— ) person with weak 
kidneys, bed wetter, dawa ya — . diuretic 
(medicine). Cf. kojoa. 

kikoko (vi-) (dimin. of ukoko) rare scurf, 

kikoloni* {Engl. J- —a — . colonial, seri- 
kali ya — . colonial administration. Cf. 

kikomba (vi-) : — cha njaa or njaa ya — . 

ravenous hunger, tremendous appetite. 
Cf. 1 komba. 

kikombe (vi-) 1. cup (mug, goblet, etc.). 
2. elec. insulator, vikombe vya simu. 
insulators on a telegraph-pole. 3. hub 
(of a wheel). (- kinu.) Cf. komba. 

kikombo 1. (vi-) bend, curve. 2. (also 
kikombokombo) adv. in a curved/crooked 
way. fig. unintelligibly, maneno ya — . 
unintelligible words. Cf. komba. 

*kikomo (vi-) (also komo, ma-) 1. end, con- 
clusion, termination, boundary, goal. — 
cha uso. forehead. 2. place to stop, 
stand. 3. grarrrn. object. Cf. * koma. 

^kikomo* (vi-) dimin. of omo. 

kikomunisti*, kikomyunisti {Engl.]' —a—. 
adj. communistic. Cf. mkomunisti, ukomu- 

^kikondo (vi-) kikondo (variety of banana). 

^kikondo (vi-) dimin. of mkondo. 

kikondoo 1. (vi-) (dimin. of kondoo) lamb. 
2. adv. like a sheep, unresistingly, pa- 
tiently, meekly. Cf. kondoo. 

kikongo 1. sing. Kikongo language. 2.: —a 
— . adj. Congolese. 




kikongwe 1. (vi-) very old person, one bent 
and feeble from old age, 2. adv.: enda — . 
to walk bent over and with difficulty. 
Cf. kongwe, konga. 

kikono (vi-) 1. stump of an arm, deformed 
arm. 2. antenna (of insects ). Cf. mkono. 

kikonyo (vi-) stalk, stem (of fruit). Cf. 
mkono. kikono. 

kikope (vi-) 1. dimin. of kope, ukope. 
2. med. inflammation of the eyes, con- 
junctivitis, sty ( = chokea). 

kikopo (vi-): mtoto — . ruffian, rascal, cheat. 


Cf. kopa. 
kikopwe (vi-) see kilopwe. 
kikora sing., rare joy, rejoicing. Cf. kora. 

kikore (vi-) a newly laid out garden or 
field. Cf. kore. 

kikore (vi-) rich/famous person. Cf. kora. 

kikorokoro (vi-) 1. rare thing, piece of 
equipment, utensil. 2. (plur.) goods, 
chattels, belongings, utensils, appurte- 
nances. ( = makolokolo.) 

kikorombwe (vi-) call, shout (with the hands 
cupped around the mouth), piga — . to call/ 
shout to someone. 

■^kikoromeo (vi-) a coconut when almost ripe. 
Cf. Ikoroma. 

^kikoromeo (vi-) anat. Adam's apple. 
Cf. ^koroma. 

kikororo (vi-) water-pipe, hookah. 
(- buruma.) 

*kikosi (vi-) anat. nape of the neck. Cf. 

"KiKosi \yi-) mil. unit, troop, squaa, pla- 
toon. — cha askari. a squad of soldiers. 
afisa ya vikosi vya jeshi la East Africa, 
officer of a unit of the East African army. 
— cha askari wapanda farasi. cavalry 

kikota, kikoto (vi-) stalk of millet (= ^kota). 

^kikoto (vi-) 1. switch, whip (braided of 
grass or twigs). 2. pigtail, braid (of hair). 

^kikoto (vi-) see kikotwe. 

"'kikoto (vi-) see kikota. 

kikotwe, kikoto (vi-) kikotwe (kind of fish). 

kikozi (vi-) see kozi. 

kikristo*, kikristu LPort.Pj'- —a — . adj. 
Christian. Cf. mkristo, Ukristo. 

^kikuba*, kiguba (vi-) bundle of aromatic 
plants (worn by women at the throat). 

kikuba* 1. (vi-) dimin. of kuba. 2.: —a—. 
adj. dome-shaped. 




kikucha (vi-) dimin. of ukucha. 
kikuchia (vi-) hangnail. Cf. ukucha. 

*kikuku (vi-) bracelet, anklet. — cha ku- 
pandia farasi. stirrup. 

^kikuku (vi-) dimin. of *kuku. 

kikuli sing, fright, terror, dread, horror. 
( = hofu kuu.) 

kikulia (vi-) someone who grew up in a place 
(but was not born there). Cf. Ikua. 

kikumbatio (vi-) embrace. Cf. kumbatia. 

kikumbo (vi-; also kumbo, ma-) push, thrust, 
butt, piga — . shove, jostle, butt. Cf. 

kikumbuko sing., rare memory, remembrance. 
Cf. kumbuka. 

kikumi (vi-) ten-cent piece. Cf. kumi. 

kikunazi* LPers.j (vi-) anat., vulg. clitoris 
( = kisimi, kinembe). Cf. kunazi. 

kikundi (vi-) {dimin. of kundi) 1. (small) 
group, clique, circle, vikundi vya muawana. 
cooperatives, vikundi vya kivita. military 
circles. 2. mil. battalion. — cha vifaru. 
armored battalion. Cf. kundi. 

kikundu (vi-) med. hemorrhoid(s). Cf. 

kikunja: — jamvi (vi-) court fee, costs. 
Cf. kunja. 

kikunje (vi-) see kikunjo. 

kikunjo, kikunje (vi-) 1. fold, crease, seam, 
pleat, edge. 2. fig. wrinkle. Cf. kunja. 

kikuta (vi-) {dimin. of ukuta) stone border, 

^kikuti (vi-) chance, opportunity; event. 
Cf. Ikuta. 

kikuti (vi-) dimin. of kuti. 

^kikuto (vi-) something rolled up, roll. 

^kikuto (vi-) rare hyena (= fisi). 

kikuukuu 1. (vi-) old, worn-out article of 
clothing. 2. adj. & adv. useless, worth- 
less. Cf. kuukuu. 

kikwapa (vi-) 1. see kwapa. 2. perspira- 
tion (from the armpits), ananuka — . He 
smells of perspiration. 3. armhole (of a 

kikwaru (vi-) cock's spur. ( = kipi.) 

^•kikwata, kwata adv.: enda — . go on foot. 
Cf. kiatu, * kwata. 

^kikwata (vi-) a tall thorny shrub (Acacia 
mellifera) used to form hedges. 




kikwato (vi-) dimin. of kwato, ukwato. 

kikwazo (vi-) hindrance, difficulty, impedi- 
ment. Cf. kwaa. 

kikwe (vi-): — cha mkono rare elbow. 
( = kiko [cha mkono J, kivi.) 

kikwi (vikwi, zikwi) 1. crowd, multitude, 
countless number. 2. liter, thousand 
(only in tales; - elfu). 

kikwifukwifu sing. 1. hiccup. 2. sobbing. 

kila*, killa, kula, kulla 1. adj. each, every, 
all, entire. — mtu. every person, all 
people. — mji. every city, the entire city. 

— mara. every time. 2. adv. ever (gen- 
eralizing). — aendako. Wherever he goes. 

— aendapo. Whenever he goes. 

kilabu*, klabu LEngl.l (vi-) 1. club. 

mwanachama wa — . club member. 2, bar. 

kilaji (vi-) food. Cf. *la. 

kilalannngu (vi-) hot. a hardy creeping plant 
(Callopsis Yolkensii). 

kilalio (vi-) 1. sleeping-place, bed(stead). 
2. evening meal. Cf. lala. 

kilalo (vi-) resting-place, shelter. Cf. lala. 

kilango (vi-) {dimin. of mlango) 1. narrow 
passage. — cha bahari. strait, channel, 
narrows, fairway, waterway. — cha mlima. 
ravine, defile, bottleneck. 2. valve. 

kile demon, ki- cl. that, kiti — . that chair. 
kitabu — . that book. 

kilegesambwa 1. (vi-) anau kneecap. 

( = piayagoti.) 2. prov., arch. Everyone 
can expect to have bad things said about 
him during his lifetime. 

kileji (vi-) kileji (a cake made of wheat or 
rice meal). 

kilele*, kileleta LPers.J (vi-) tip, peak, 
highest point. — cha mlima. mountain- 
top. — cha mti. treetop. Cf. kinyanga- 

kileleta* (vi-) see kilele. 

kilema (vi-) 1. defect, infirmity, mwenye 
— . cripple. — cha mkono. a one-armed 
person. 2. deformed/crippled person. 
Cf. lemaa. 

kilemba (vi-) 1. turban, piga— . put on/ 
wear a turban, vunja — . take off a turban. 
fig. — cha jogoo. cock's comb. 2. praise, 
flattery; reputation, coll. usinivike — cha 
ukambaa (ukoka). Don't try to flatter me 
(lit.: Don't put a turban of grass on my 
head). 3. gift (e.g., that given by a 
bridegroom to his father-in-law), gratuity. 
Cf. mkilemba. 

kilembwa (vi-) termination, tip, point. 
— cha titi. nipple. 

kilembwe (vi-) great-great-grandchild. 

kilemea: — nembo. (vi-) bot. a shrub 
(Cremaspora africana). 




kilendo (vi-) kilendo (kind of fish). 

kilenga (vi-) foetus (in the fourth month). 
{- kijusu.) 

kilenge (vi-) kilenge (a children's game). 

kileo (vi-) 1. intoxication. 2. intoxicating 
beverage. Cf. lewa. 

kileti (vi-) 1. handle, (door-)latch, lever. 
2. naut. thole, rowlock. 3. stick used in 

kili pi. of ukili. 

Ikilifu* (vi-) see difu. 

^kilifu* see kalifu. 

kilihafu (vi-) first stomach (of ruminants). 
( = kisafu.) 

kilili (vi-) dimin. of ulili. 

kilima (vi-) (dimin. of mlima) hill, knoll. 

kilimbili (vi-) wrist; (rare) upper arm. 

kilimi (vi-) 1. (dimin. of ulimi) anat. uvula 
2. med. sore throat. 3. mouthpiece (of a 
wind instrument). 4. fig. bad/abusive 
language. Cf. limi, mlimi, ulimi. 

kilimia sing., astr. Pleiades. Cf. lima. 

kilimo (vi-) 1. agriculture, cultivation. 
2. produce, crop(s). Cf. Mima. 

kilimwengu sing, internationalism. — ya 
wafanya kazi. proletarian internationalism, 
—a — . international, mchafuko wa — . in- 
ternational crisis. Cf. ulimwengu. 

kilinda (vi-) guard, watchman, protector. 
Cf. linda. 

kilindi (vi-) place where water is deep, 
channel. Cf. lindi. 

Kilindini sing. Kilindini (the harbor of Mom- 
basa). Cf . kilindi. 

kilindo (vi-) 1. (act of) watching, guarding, 
protecting (especially planted fields against 
birds). 2. watchman's platform (on a plan- 
tation). 3. shelter (from rain, etc.). 
4. storage place. Cf. linda. 

kilinge (vi-) 1. secret meeting-place (of 
medicine-men). 2. fig. secretiveness, 
mystification, maneno ya — . mysterious, 
unintelligible words. 

1 kilingo (vi-) (dimin. of ulingo) platform 
(for keeping a watch over planted fields). 

^kilingo (vi-) 1. notch, cut, mark (on trees, 
to show the way). 2. fig. example, model, 
pattern. Cf. Minga. 

"*kilingo (vi-) war drum, 
kiliniki* (— ) see kliniki. 
kilinzi (vi-) bracelet of beads. 




kilio (vi-) 1. sound. 2. cry, scream; weep- 
ing, lamentation, mourning. 3. gramm. in- 
terjection. Cf. lia. 

kill a* see kila. 

kilo* LEngl. J (-) kilogram. 

kilometa* \_Engl. J (— ) kilometer. 

kilopwe, kikopwe (vi-) bot. kilopwe (shrub, 
Jaquemontia capitata). 

kilotia (vi-) see kidotia. 

kimacho, kimachomacho adj. & adv. 

1. alert, wide awake, lala — . lie (stay) 
awake. 2. open, frank, alisema naye — . 
He spoke frankly with him. Cf. jicho. 

kimachomacho see kimacho. 

kimagamaga adv. very fast, in a hurry. 

nilipomwona alikuwa anakw enda — . When 
1 saw him, he was in a great hurry. 
Cf. magamaga. 

kimaji, kimajimaji adj. & adv. watery, wet, 
damp, swampy, misty, steamy. Cf. maji. 

kilua (vi-) flower of a species of liana. 
Cf. mkilua. 

kiludhu*, kuludhu (-) velvet. 

kilunzi sing, kilunzi (a secret language in 
which the final syllables of words become 
the first). 

kiluwiluwi (vi-) 1. insect larva. 2. tadpole. 

Ikima* (vi-) 1. price, value. — chake kadiri 
gani? Howmuch is it worth? 2. measure; 
size, stature. Cf. kimo. 

^kima (— ) kima (kind of monkey, Cercopithe- 
cus pygerythrus). 

^kima* LPers.^\ (-) minced meat. 

kimaada* adj. right, correct, true; genuine; 
fitting, proper; due. 

kimajimaji see kimaji. 

kimako sing, astonishment, amazement. 
Cf. maka. 

kimalidadi*, kimaridadi: —a — . adj. elegant, 
fashionable; (pej.) overdressed. Cf. ma- 

kitnanda (vi-) 1. {rare kiwanda) omelet, 
scrambled eggs. 2. a trial by ordeal 
(the parties are given bread to eat; the 
guilty person is supposed to be unable to 
swallow it). Cf. manda. 

Kimanga* rare ( = Kiarabu) 1. sing, the 
Arabic language. 2. adv. in the Arab 
manner. 3.: —a — . adj. Arab, Arabic, 


Arabian. Cf. Manga, 
kimangalingali see kingalingali. 

kimangari (vi-) bot. kimangari fhardy plant, 
Ramphicarpa veronicaefolia). 




kimango (vi-) round grinding stone (for grind- 
ing flour, etc.). Cf. mango. 

kimanjano: -a — . adj. yellow, rangi ya — . 
yellow pigment (dye, paint). Cf. manjano. 

kimarekani* see kiamerika. 

kimaridadi* adj. see kimalidadi. 

kimasliamba* 1. sing, language/manners/ 
customs of the agricultural peoples. 2.: 
-a — . adj. rural, rustic; rude, crude, rough. 
Cf, shamba, 

kimasomaso sing, pretext, excuse, pretence, 
evasion, dissimulation, hypocrisy, fanya — . 
be evasive, make excuses, pretend. 

kimatu (vi-) young locust. Cf. matumatu, 

heels, kukimbia kwa kupeana. relay race. 
intr. kimbika. pass, kimbiwa. appl. kimbilia. 
1. run to someone. 2. run up. kimbilia roho. 
save someone's life, appl.-caus. kimbiliza. 

1. save oneself. 2. (w. int. force) hurry, 
hasten, kimbiliza kazi. work fast, kimbiliza 
maneno. talk very fast (and unintelligibly). 
caus. kimbiza. 1. put someone to flight. 

2. help someone escape, abduct someone. 
caus.-refl. jikimbiza. hide, remain in hiding. 
Cf. kimbilio, kimbio, kimbizi, mkimbiaji, 

kimbilio (ma-) 1. refuge, hiding-place, shelter. 
2. fig. help, salvation. Cf. kimbia. 

kimbimbi sing, gooseflesh. ( = msisimko.) 
fanya — . shiver (from cold). 

kimbio, kimbiombio adv. at full speed, on the 
double, quickly, hastily. Cf. kimbia. 

kimau (vi-) uniform shirt (with short sleeves). kimbiombio see kimbio. 

kimavi: — eha kuku. bot. variety of weed 
(Ageratum conyzoides, sometimes used as 
a vegetable). 

kimazeru (vi-) see zeru. 

kimba (vi-) ]. rare corpse (= maiti). anguka 
kimba kimba. lose consciousness, faint. 
2. heap of dung/excrement. 

kimbizi: maji ya — . rushing/turbulent water, 
torrent. Cf. kimbia. 

kimbugibugi (vi-) bot. kimbugibugi (variety of 
grass, Dactylotenium aegyptiacum). 

kimbunga (vi-) 1. storm, whirlwind, hurricane, 
typhoon. 2. fig.: — cha nyama. rinderpest, 
hoof-and-mouth disease. 

kimbaombao (vi-) 1. kimbaombao (kind of 
chameleon). 2. coll. tall, thin person. Cf. 

kimbia run away, take flight, escape. — mbio, 
coll. beat a hasty retreat, take to one's 

kimburu (vi-) 1. half-wild cat. (= shume.) 
2. rare mongoose. (= nguchiro.) 

kimea (vi-) sprouted seed of grain (used for 
making beer). Cf. mea. 



kimelea (vi-) 1. a parasitic plant. 2. a plant/ 
tree which grows wild, Cf. mea. 

stature/height of a person. 2. tape measure, 
measuring tape. Cf. kima. 

kimene sing, pride, arrogance; contempt, 
disdain. Cf. mena. 

kimenomeno (vi-) disease of the teeth (thrush, 
pyorrhea). Cf. jino. 

kimerimeti (vi-) see kimeti. 

^kimo loc. be in something. 

kimondo (vi-) see kimwondo. 

kimoyo, kimoyomoyo (vi-) {dimin. of moyo) 

1. grief, sorrow, pain. 2. med. heart disease. 

kimeta, kimete, kimetameta (vi-) 1. radiance, kimoyomoyo see kimoyo. 

glitter, sparkle, brightness. 2. spark. Cf. 

kimetameta (vi-) see kimeta. 

kimete (vi-) see kimeta. 

kimeti, kimetimeti, kimerimeti (vi-) glowworm, 
firefly. Cf. meta. 

Kimrima* sing, coast language (- Swahili). 
Cf. mrima. 

kimu* 1. lsl. begin prayer (in a mosque). 

2. provide with food/clothing. 3. harp on (a 
subject). Cf. mkimu. 

kimua see kimwa. 

kimi (— ) pay, wage(s). — cha chini. minimum 

kimulimuli, kimurimuri (vi-) 1. glowworm, firefly, 
2. will-o'-the-wisp. Cf. mulika. 

^kimia (vi-) 1. (fine) network, netting. 2. net, 
casting net. 

^kimia (— ) see kimya. 

kimio (vi-) {dimin. of umio) 1. anat. uvula. 
2. med. sore throat, tonsillitis. 

kimkumku 1. sing., rare madness, insanity, 
lunacy. ( = wazimu, kichaa.) 2. (— ) rare 
lie, falsehood. ( = uwongo.) 

*kimo* (vi-) 1. measure, size; height, 
stature; altitude. — cha mtu. the size/ 

kimurimuri (vi-) see kimulimuli. 

Kimvita sing. Swahili dialect of Mombasa. 
Cf. Mvita, Mmvita. 

kimwa, kimua 1. fly into a rage, become violent. 
2. be out of sorts/discontented. Cf. mkimwa, 

kimwenye, kimwinyi sing, free, comm.) 
feudalism. Cf. enye, mwenye. 

kimwezi (vi-) {dimin. of mwezi) artificial satel- 
lite, sputnik {lit.: little moon). 



kimwinyi see kimwenye. 

kimwitu 1. (vi-) dimin. of mwitu. 2. adv. in a 
wild/uncultivated manner. 3.: -a -. adj. of 
the jungle, wild. 

kimwondo, kimondo (vi-) {also - cha nyota) 
astr. shooting star, meteor. 

kimwondo (vi-) rare stupid person fnnL 
( = mjinga.) 

kimya, kimia 1. sing, calm, quiet, prov. 
— kingi kina mshinda mkuu. Great calm is 
followed by a great storm, nyamaza — . be 
silent, keep silence. 2. adv. (also kimya- 
kimya) still, quiet. 

kimyakimya see kimya 2. 

^kina (vi-) (great) depth. - cha bahari. deep 
place in the ocean, a deep. Cf. mwina. 

2 kina* (-) see akina. 

j kina* (vi-) liter, rhyme, tunga (tia) vina. 
make rhymes, write poetry, shairi la (lenye) 
vina. rhyming poem. 

kinaa* (— ) see kinaya. 

kinaganaga adv. 1. personally, oneself, kuja 
— . to come oneself/personally. 2. thoroughly, 
in detail, eleza — . explain in detail. 

kinagiri (vi-) (gold) pendant (on a necklace). 

kinai* have enough, be satisfied, wamekula 
mpaka wamekinai. They ate until they 

were satisfied, fig. be satiated/surfeited; 
feel disgust/loathing, amekinai. 1. He has 
had enough (to eat). 2. He is surfeited/has 
no appetite, intr. kinaika. caus. kinaisha. 
Cf. kinaifu, kinaya, mkinaifu, ukinaifu. 

kinaifu* adj. self-contented, complacent, fig. 
proud, arrogant. Cf. kinai. 

kinakilo* sing, carbon paper, tracing paper. 
Cf. nakili. 

kinamasi, kinamassi (vi-) 1. slime, slimy 
substance (mucilage, etc.). 2. swamp, 

kinamassi (vi-) see kinamasi. 

kinamisa (-) rare deep/dead silence. 

kinamo sing, flexibility, pliancy, plasticity. 
udongo wa — . potter's clay. Cf. nama. 

kinana (vi-) kinana (kind of yam). 

kinanasi (vi-) kinanasi (variety of grass). 

kinanda (vi-) 1. stringed instrument (a kind of 
banjo). 2. piano. 3. harmonium, (parlor-) 
organ. 4. mouth organ. 5.: - cha rekodi. 
record player. 6. ornith. (species of) finch 
( = binti chuma). 

'kinanga (-) kinanga (kind of drum). 

■'kinanga* (vi-) dimin. of nanga. 

^kinara* (vi-) 1. (dimin. of mnaraj candlestick. 
2. platform, podium (usually for Moslem reli- 
gious observance in the open air). Cf. nuru. 



2 kinara* ilnd. J (vi-) embroidery (on the kinegwa, kinega (vi-) ornith. swallow. 
collar of a kanzu). 

kinembe (vi-) anat. clitoris. ( = kisimi.) 

kinaya*, kinaa ( — ) independence, self- 
sufficiency; (fig.) self-content, compla- kinena (vi-) anat. groin, mons veneris. Cf. 

cency; arrogance, conceit. Cf. kinai. nena, manena. 

kinda 1. (ma-) {also mkinda, mi-, wa-) 
young of animals/birds. Originally only 
1 I - _! . : -1- m .... _;-- l ' u„ 

— la HUCfC. V.11K.H. nw^u - •" "ft «■..«>,. 

calf. — la farasi. foal, colt. 2. adj. young, 
immature, mnazi mkinda. young coconut 

kindakindaki adv. above, up(wards), aloft. 
(= juujuu.) 

kindana dial, object, protest, aliambiwa 

ahame lakini alikindana. He was told that he 
had to-move, but he protested. Cf. kindano; 
also kinga, kinza. 

Ikinga 1. protect, ninajikinga macho na jua. 
I protect my eyes from the sun. 2. check, 
obstruct, stop, nipishe usmikinge. uon't 
stand in my way. 3. fig. contradict, object, 
oppose. 4. intercept, catch, collect. — 
mvua. collect rainwater, caus. kingiza. 
defend, refl.-caus. jikingiza. defend one- 
self, stat. kingama. be between, be in the 
way; cut across, intersect, ass. kingana. 
protect each other; oppose each other. 5. 
(— ) check, obstruction, means of protection, 
screen, safety-device; protection, defense, 
aid. Cf. kingio, kingo, mkinga, mkingaji, 
mkingamo, mkingiko, ukingo. 

kindanindani adv. surreptitiously, furtively, 2kinga (_) 1, piece of firewood, log. 2. f 

secretly, cheka -. laugh furtively, vita ya 
— . partisan warfare. Cf. ndani 

brand, prov. — na — ndipo moto uwakapo. 
Log after log keeps the fire burning. 

kindano (ma-) (dial.) objection, protest. Cf. 

Ikingaja (vi-) bracelet (of grains or seeds or 
of glass beads). 

kindi {dial, chindi, sindi) (-) squirrel. 

^kingaja (vi-) back of the hand. 

kindoro (vi-) 1. red pigment. 2. red sweet- 
potato, muhogo wa -. sweet manioc. 3.: 
kofia ya -. red cap, fez. 

kindu (-) kindu (fruit of the mkindu). 

kingalingali, kimangalingali adv. backwards, 
on the back, lala — . to lie on one's back. 

kingama stat. of kinga. 

kindugu see kidugu. 




kingana ass. of ^inga. 

Kingazija sing, language of the Comoro 
Islands. Cf. Ngazija, Mngazija. 

kingilizi (-) see kingio. 

kingio, kingo, kingilizi (-, ma-) protection, 
cover, screen, shield. - ya taa. lampshade, 

Cf. ikinf 

kingiza caus. of kinga. 

kingo (-) 1. see kingio. 2. threshold, door- 
step, sill. 3. fig., med. cataract. 4. pi. of 
ukingo. Cf. ^kinga, ukingo. 

kingoe, kigoe (vi-) 1. hooked stick (for pulling 
down the branches of fruit trees). 2. rec. 
golf club. Cf. ngoeka. 

kingojeo (vi-) see kingojo. 

kingojezi (vi-) see kingojo. 

kingojo, kingojeo, kingojezi (vi-) 1. keeping, 
saving, preservation. 2. watching, guarding. 
kaa (linda) -. keep watch/guard. 3. sentry 
post, guard station. Cf. ngoja. 

king'ong'o sing, talking through the nose. 
ana — . He talks through his nose. Cf. 

kingoringori, kinjorinjori adv. lengthwise, 
longitudinally. Cf. njorinjori. 

Kingozi sing. Old Swahili (the language of 
Malindi and Pate, preserved in poetry). 

kingu* [£ng/.] (-) king. 

kingubwa (vi-) see kingugwa. 

kingugwa, kingubwa (vi-) spotted hyena. 

kingune (vi-) stunted tree. 

kinguo (vi-) {dimin. of nguo) small piece (of 
cloth), rag. 

Kingwana sing. Congo Swahili. (= kiungwana.) 

ikini*, kinika be true, be probable. Cf. yakini. 

2 kini (vi-) see 1 kiini. 

kinika* see *kini. 

kining'ina, kinying'ina (vi-) great-great-grand- 

kinini* (-) see kwinini. 

kinjia, kijia, kajia (vi-) {dimin. of njia) 
narrow road/street, path. Cf. ja. 

kinjorinjori, kinjurinjuri, kinjorijori, kinjurijuri 

(-) style of cutting the hair (one tuft is left 
long). Cf. njorinjori. 

2 kinjorinjori see kingoringori. 

king'oto (-) see kigogota. 

kinjuri(n)juri (-) see kinjorinjori. 




kinofu (vi-) (dimin.- of mnofu) piece/bite of 

kinokero (vi-) gazelle, impala. (= 4 paa.) 

kinono (vi-) a (young) fatted animal. Cf. nona. 

kinoo (vi-) 1. whetstone, grindstone, knife 
sharpener. 2. fig. bar (of soap). Cf. noa. 

kinsuiri (vi-) rare ring finger. 

kinu (vi-) 1. mortar, press, mill. — cha moshi. 
steam engine. - cha taa (stimu). power 
plant. - cha kushindikia mafuta. mold for 
pressing butter. - cha kuchambulia pamba. 
cotton gin. 2. hub (of a wheel, bicycle, 
etc.). 3.: vinu. coll. machinery. 

Kinubi* 1. sing. Nubian language, -a -. 
Nubian. 2. (vi-) Kinubi (Nubian musical 
instrument similar to a harp). 3.: -a -. adj. 
Nubian, Sudanese. Cf. Mnubi. 

kinuka: - jio (-) kind of flower (four o'clock, 
Miribilis jalapa). 

kinundu 1. (vi-) {dimin. of nundu) (small) 
lump, hump; tubercle; (fig.) pushbutton. 
2. (also kinundunundu) adj./adv. bumpy, 

kinundunundu see kinundu. 

kinusi (-) see ^hunusi. 

kinwa (vi-) see kinywa. 

kinyago (vi-) 1. comedy, farce, masquerade. 
2. comedian, clown, joker. 3. kind of dance 
(performed at the initiation rites of children). 
4. scarecrow. Cf. manyago, unyago. 

kinyakuzi (vi-) see kigwaru. 

kinyama 1. (vi-) dimin. of mnyama. 2. adv. 
like an animal, in a brutish/coarse way. Cf. 

kinyamkela (vi-) wind spirit, pepo ya -. whirl- 

kinyangalele (vi-) point, tip, summit, peak, 
top. Cf. kilele. 

kinyangalika, kinyangarika sing, a nondescript/ 
useless/meaningless thing. Cf. nyangalika, 

kinyegele, kinyegere (vi-) see nyegere. 

kinyegenyege sing, prurience, lasciviousness. 
Cf. nyega. 

kinyegere (vi-) see nyegere. 

kinyeleo, kinyweleo (vi-); nyeleo, nyweleo, 
unyweleo (ma-) pore (of the skin). Cf. nya, 

kinyemi, nyemi 1. (-) something good/ 
pleasant. 2. adj. & adv. good, pleasant. 

kinyenyevu, kinyevunyevu sing, moistness, 
dampness. Cf. nya. 

kinyaa (vi-) 1. something which causes disgust: kinyerenyere a d v . gently, calmly, slowly, 
discharge, secretion; excrement; filth. 2. 
disgust, repugnance. Cf. nyara. 




kinyesi, kinyezi (vi-), nyesi (ma-) excreta, 
excrement, feces. Cf. nya. 

kinyozi, mnyozi (vi-) barber, hairdr 
Cf. nyoa. 

kinyevu sing. see kinyenyevu. kinyuma see kinyume. 

2 kinyevu sing, tickling, itching; prurience, 
lasciviousness. Cf. 'nyea. 

kinyevu (vi-) see kigwaru. 
kinyevunyevu (vi-) see kinyenyevu. 
kinyezi sing. see kinyesi. 
kinying'inga (vi-) see kining'inga. 
kinyo (vi-) anat. anus ( = mkundu). Cf. nya. 

kinyonga (vi-) med. lameness caused by 
disease/injury of the hip. Cf. Inyonga, 

kinyonga (vi-) chameleon. (= kigeugeu.) 

kinyonge 1. (vi-) misery, wretchedness; de- 
pravity. 2. adv. miserably, wretchedly. 
kaa -. to live wretchedly/in poverty, lia 
-. to cry piteously. Cf. nyonge. 

kinyongo sing. 1. whim, mood; fad; melan- 
choly, mwenye -. hypochondriac. 

2. qualms, scruples; aversion, prov. 
mpenzi hana -. A lover has no scruples. 

3. bitterness, vindictiveness. Cf. 2 nyonga, 

kinyong'onyo 1. sing, fatigue, weariness, 
weakness. 2. adv. weakly, wearily, enda 
-. to walk along wearily. Cf. nyong'onyea. 

kinyumba (vi-) (dimin. of nyumba) 1. concubine 
kaa (or ishi) -. live with a woman. 2. pi. 
household utensils, -a _. household..., 

kinyumbu (vi-) see nyumbu. 

kinyume, kinyuma sing. 1. back part, rear; 
background; reversal, inversion, msemo 
wa -. thieves' Latin (produced by moving 
the last syllable of each word to the begin- 
ning; cf. kihunzi). 2. opposite, contrary; 
antithesis, habari ya -. a contrary report. 
3. result, consequence. 4. adv. back- 
wards, behind; in the opposite/contrary 
vay. mpango wa -. reverse order. Cf. 


kinyunga sing, dough. 

kinyunya (vi-) confection, piece of candy/ 
cake. Cf. nyunyiza. 

kinywa, kinwa, kanwa (vi-) mouth, throat. 
kwa -. orally. - wazi. with open mouth. 
Cf. nywa. 

kinywaji, kinyweo, kinywewa (vi-) beverage, 
drink. Cf. nywa. 

kinyweleo (vi-) see kinyeleo. 

kinyweo (vi-) 1. see kinywaji. 2. drinking- 
vessel. Cf. nywa. 




kinza retort, object, protest; check, obstruct. 
ass. kinzana. kinzana na mtu. quarrel 
with someone. Cf. kinzani, kinzano, 
mkinzani, ukinzani; and also kinga. 

kinzani adj. obstinate, refractory; quarrel- 
some. Cf . kinza. 

kinzano (ma-) {usually makinzano) contra- 
diction, objection, protest; obstruction, 
obstacle. Cf. kinza. 

*kio (vi-) see kioo. 

2 kio (vi-) see 2 kioo. 

kioga, kiyoga (vi-) see uyoga. 

kiogajivu (vi-) ornith. blue roller. 

kiogeo (vi-) bathtub. Cf. oga. 

kioja (vi-) see kiroja. 

kiokosi, kiokozi (vi-) reward given the 
finder of a lost object. Cf. okota. 

kiokote (vi-) foundling (child). Cf. okota. 

Ikiokozi (vi-) (act of) recovering/saving/ 
rescuing. Cf. Tikoa. 

2 kiokozi (vi-) see kiokosi. 

kiolezo (vi-) pattern, sample, specimen, 
example; samplerfsewmg, embroidery). 
Cf. oleza. 

kiomo* l.(vi-) dimin. of omo (a/so kikomo). 
2. adv. straight ahead. 

kiongozi (vi-) 1. leader, guide; conductor 
(of a band, orchestra). 2. leadership, 
vanguard. Cf. ongoa. 

kiongwe (vi-) see kihongwe. 

kionja (vi-): - mchuzi. small beard below 
the lip, imperial (lit.: 'gravy-taster'). 
Cf. onja. 

kionjo (vi-) taste, sample (of food, etc.). 
Cf. onja. 

kionyo (vi-) rare characteristic, sign, in- 
dication, allusion, hint, warning. Cf. ona. 

ikioo, kio (vi-) (sheet/pane of) glass, (- cha 
kujitazamia) mirror. - cha dirisha. win- 
dowpane. - cheupe. clear glass. 

2 kioo, kio (vi-) rare fishhook. (= ndoana.) 

kiopoo (vi-) hook, stick/pole with a hooked 
end; handle (of a pump). Cf. opoa. 

kiosha (vi-) 1. -miguu. (ceremonial wash- 
ing of the feet (on the occasion of a mar- 
riage). 2. payment made at a wedding for 
such ceremonial washing. Cf. osha. 

kiosho (vi-) 1. (act of, place for) washing. 
2. what is needed for washing; (usually 
viosho) washing utensils. Cf. osha. 

kiota, kioto (vi-) nest, roost (of fowls). 
Cf. 2 ota. 

kioteo (vi-) see 2 oteo. 




kioto (vi-) see kiota. 

kiowe (vi-) see 


kioza sing, decay, rottenness; badness; 
(med.) gangrene. - cha matunda. decay 
of fruit, fig. ana - ndani. He has a bad 
character. Cf. oza. 

(..: \ .L-. 

~u gives [w. ]ou. n.j. 
1.: — mkono. present given by the bride- 
groom to the bride before he enters the 
bedroom for the first time. 2.: - imara 
rel. confirmation. Cf. Ipa. 

kipa* LEngl.j (ma-) doorkeeper, porter; 
(sport) goalkeeper. 

kipaa (vi-) (dimin. of 3 paa) edge, side, 
slope (of a roof). - cha mbele (nyuma). 
front (back) slope of a roof. Cf. 2 paa. 

Z kipaa (vi-) see kipara. 

kipago (vi-) 1. step, rung (of a ladder). 
2. threshold, doorstep, sill. 

i kipaji (vi-) 1. gift, present, donation. 
2. fig. ability, talent, endowment, ana - 
kwa lugha. He has a gift for languages. 

Cf. V- 

2 kipaji (vi-) (dimin. of 2 paji) 1.: - cha 
uso. forehead, brow , temple. 2. a cos- 
metic or beauty patch applied to the fore- 
head or temple. 

kipakasa sing, gift of the bridegroom to the 
bride after entering the bedroom . Cf. *kipa. 

kipaku (vi-), paku (-) 1. spot of color. 
2. adj. spotted, speckled. Cf. *paka. 

kipamba* [Pers.J (vi-) (also upamba, -) 
tuft of cotton, (small piece of) lint, wadding, 
cotton-wool. Cf. Upamba. 

kipambio (vi-) see kipambo. 

kipambo, kipambio (vi-) 1. decoration, orna- 
ment. 2. furnishings, appointments (of a 
house). Cf, Upamba. 

kipanda (vi-) dial. see panda. 

kipande (vi-) (also mpande, mi-) 

1. piece, part, portion. — cha nyama. 
a piece of meat. 2. fragment, splinter. 
3. instrument, equipment. — cha kupimia. 
surveying instrument. 4. arch, card on 
which the daily work of a laborer is re- 
corded kazi ya — . work by the day. 
Cf. pande, pandikizi, upande. 

kipandikizo (vi-) see pandikizo. 

kipandio (vi-) rung of a ladder. ( = kipago.) 
Cf. ipanda. 

kipandisho (vi-) mus. sharp sign. Cf. 1 panda. 

^kipanga (vi-) kipanga (a bird of prey, Falco 

^kipanga (vi-) horsefly. 




■^kipanga (vi-) dimin. of upanga. 

kipanya (vi-) (dimin, of *panya) mouse. 
( = panya mdogo.) 

kipao (vi-) (act, means, etc., of) ascending/ 

mounting. Cf. paa. 

kipapa (vi-) 1. trembling, shudder, tremor. 
2. med. chill, ague. Cf. papa. 

kipapae (vi-) witchcraft, black magic. 

kipapatiko, kipapato (vi-) tip of a bird's wing 
or of a single feather. Cf. papa. 

kipapato (vi-) see kipapatiko. 

kipara, kipaa (vi-) bald spot, bald head; 
(rel.) tonsure. Cf. 2 para. 

kipasha: - mto (vi-) heater, hot plate. 
Cf. pata. 

kipasuasanda (vi-) kipasuasanda (kind of 
bird). Cf. pasua, sanda. 

Kipate sing. Swahili dialect of the island of 

kipato (vi-) earnings, receipts, pay, wages, 
salary. - cha shirika. fin. dividend. 
Cf. pata. 

ikipawa (vi-) 1. gift, present. 2. fig. 
talent. Cf. 1 pa. 

2 kipawa (vi-) step, rung (of a ladder). 
{- kipago, kipandio.) 

"kipawa (vi-) dimin. of upawa. 

kipee (vi-) see kipele. 

kipele, kipee (vi-) {dimin. of upele) 
pimple, pustule; (pi.) rash. 

kipembe, kipembepembe adj. & adv. angular; 

notched, serrated; bent, crooked. Cf. 



kipembepembe see kipembe. 

kipendo (vi-) rare love, affection, devotion. 
( = upendo.) Cf. penda. 

kipendwa (vi-) see kipenzi. 

kipenga, kipyenga (vi-) rare whistle. 
( = filimki, uluzi, miunzi.) 

kipenge, kipengee, kipengele, kipengere (vi-) 
see pengee. 

kipenu (vi-) 1. see upenu. 2. side cabin 
(of a ship). 

kipenyo (vi-) 1. perforation, hole (through 
something), aperture, break (in a hedge, 
etc.). 2. socket. 3. axis (of a globe, 
etc.), diameter (of a circle), nusu-kipenyo. 
radius. Cf. penya. 

kipenzi, kipendwa (vi-) favorite, pet. 
Cf. penda. 

Ikipeo (vi-) 1. apex, vertex, peak, tip. 
- cha macho, horizon. 2. fig. ideal. 
Cf. 1 pea. 



•'kipeo (vi-) rare broom, brush. (= ufagio.) 
Cf. ^pea. 

kipepeo (vi-) 1. fan, (recent) ventilator. 
2. butterfly. 3. kipepeo (kind of fish, 
Zanclus cornutus ). Cf. pepa. 

kipepo 1. sing, (gentle) breeze. 2. adj. 
ghostly, ghostlike, anasema — . He speaks 
unclearly/confusedly. Cf. pepa. 

kipera, kiperea (vi-) small canoe (for two 

kiperea (vi-) see kipera. 

kipete (vi-) ferrule, ring. Cf. peta. 

kipeto (vi-) 1. container (bag, box, case). 
— cha barua. 2. rare envelope. Cf. 

kipi (vi-) cock's spur. Cf. kipia. 

kipia (vi-) I. top, tip (of a mountain, tower). 

2. post, pillar (supporting a ceiling). 

3. fig. see kipi. 

kipigi, kipiki (vi-) small stick (thrown to 
knock down fruit). Cf. piga, Ipikipiki. 

kipigo (vi-) blow, stroke, thrust, impact. 
alipata — kikuhwa. He got a good thrash- 
ing. Cf. piga. 

kipiki, kipikipiki (vi-) dimin. of pikipiki. 


kipila (vi-) ornith. curlew. ( = ' sululu.) 

1 kipilipili (vi-) kipilipili (kind of edible fish). 

2 kipilipili* \_Pers.1 adj. & adv. 1. peppery, 
peppered; resembling peppercorns, nywele 
za — . anthr. peppercorn hair. 2. fig. 
clever, shrewd. Cf. pilipili. 

kipima (vi-) measure(ment), measuring instru- 
" — ;o.o.'. utcr.go. 
rangefinder. Cf. pima, kipimo. 

kipimio (vi-) scale (of a map). Cf. pima. 

kipimo (vi-) 1. measure(ment), instrument 
for measuring, gauge. — cha jasho. baro- 
meter. — cha homa. fever thermometer. 

— cha volta. voltmeter. — cha maji. water 
gauge. — cha urefu. linear measure. — cha 
ujazo (nafasi). cubic (dry /liquid) measure. 

— cha eneo. square/surface measure. 

— cha uzito. weight measure. — cha wa- 
kati. measurement of time. 2. size 

(of shoes, clothes, etc.). Cf. upinda. 

kipinda 1. (vi-) {also pindi, pinda, ma-) 
cadaver, carcass (of an animal that has 
died a natural death). 2. adv.: kufa — . 
die a natural death. Cf. upinda. 

kipindi (vi-) 1. (unit, period of) time, period, 
moment. - cha asubuhi. (in the) morning. 
kila — or — chote. at all times, always. 
kwa vipindi. periodically, regularly, —a — . 
temporary, for the time being. 2. set time, 
definite period of time. — cha masoma. 
period of instruction. 3. med. attack, fit. 
— cha homa. attack of fever, homa ya vi- 
pindi. intermittent fever. 4. sport time, 
count. 5. (radio) program. 6. adv. for 
the present, for the time being. Cf. pinda. 




kipindo (vi-) 1. wrapper. 2. fold (of cloth- 
ing). 3. winding-sheet (for a corpse). 
4. bag, pocket, purse. Cf. pinda. 

kipindua (vi-): — cha reli. railw. switch. 
Cf. pinda. 

Ikipindupindu (vi-) 1. outbreak; spasm , con- 
vulsion. 2. med. epidemic, cholera. 
— cha nyama. rinderpest. Cf. pinda. 

^kipindupindu adv. headlong, head over 
heels. Cf. pinda, pindu. 

kipinga (vi-): - hatari. safety precaution/ 
device. Cf. pinga. 

kipingamizi (vi-) rare difficulty, obstacle, 
impediment. Cf. pinga. 

kipingili, kipingiri (vi-) 1. thickening; joint, 
node (of plants). 2. portion between two 
nodes or joints, fig. - cha mkono. lower 
arm. - cha mguu. shinbone. Cf. pinga, 

kipingiri (vi-) see kipingili. 

kipingo (vi-) 1. obstruction, barrier, hurdle. 
2. peg, bar, bolt. 3. pin. 4. necklace, 
bracelet (of beads). Cf. pinga. 

kipingu (vi-) dimin. of pingu. 

kipingwa (vi-) bar, bolt (on a door). Cf. 

kipini (vi-) 1. handle, haft, hilt (of tool, 
knife, sword, etc.). 2. ornament worn in 
the ear or nose. Cf. mpini. 

kipito (vi-) means of getting through, passage. 
Cf. pita. 

kipo loc. be there, kiti — barazani. The 
chair is there on the veranda. 

kipofu. 1. (vi-) (rare mpofu, wa-) a blind 
person. 2. adj. & adv. blind(ly), heed- 
less(ly), reckless(ly). Cf. pofua. 

kipokee adv. alternately, by turns, in suc- 
cession. Cf. pokea. 

kipokeo (vi-) mus. accompaniment, refrain. 
Cf. pokea. 

^kipolepole see polepole. 

^kipolepole (vi-) kipolepole (kind of butter- 

^kipondo (vi-) dimin. of pondo. 
^kipondo (vi-) see kipondwe. 

kipondwe, kipondo sing, a dish prepared of 
crushed grain and grated coconut. Cf. 

kiponya (vi-) medicine, remedy. Cf. pona. 

kipooza 1. sing, (also upooza) insensi- 
bility; (med.) paralysis. 2. adj. & adv. 
paralyzed, helpless. Cf. pooza. 

kipopo (vi-) moth, butterfly. (= kipepeo 2.) 
Cf. popo. 

kipora (vi-) see pora. 




kiporo (vi-) (also uporo) leftovers (of food). 

kiporomoko see poromoko. 

kipozamataza (vi-) ornith. clapper lark. 

kiprotestanti* [.Engl. ]: -a-, adj. 

kipua 1. (vi-) dimin. of ^na. 2. rufi, : 

through the nose, nasally, sema -. speak 
through the nose/with a nasal twang. 

kipuku, kipukupuku adv. in great quantity, 
in abundance, without number, watu wa- 
nakufa — maradhi. The people perished in 
great numbers from an epidemic. Cf. pu- 

kipukupuku see kipuku. 

^kipukusa (vi-) 1. falling, dropping (of 
leaves, fruit). 2. fig. downfall, ruin. 
3. med. epidemic, pestilence. Cf. pu- 

^kipukusa (vi-) wood-boring beetle. Cf. pu- 

^kipukusa (vi-) see kipukute. 

kipukute, kipukusa (vi-) kipukute (variety 
of banana). Cf. pukusa. 

kipuli (vi-) kipuli (ear-pendant) 

kipumba (vi-) see kibumba. 

kipumbu (vi-) med. scrotal hernia, orchitis, 
varicocele. Cf. pumbu. 

kipumziko sing, rest(ing-place), recreation, 
refreshment. Cf. pumua. 

kipungu (vi-) 1. eagle. 2. osprey. 

2 kipungu (vi-) kipungu (kind of fish). 

kipunguo (vi-) 1. reduction, decrease. 

2. absence, lack, shortage. Cf. 2p un g a# 

kipunguzi (vi-) deduction, discount, rebate. 
Cf. 2 punga. 

kipunjo 1. (vi-) short weight. 2. adv. de- 
ceitfully, slyly, craftily, cheka -. laugh 
slyly. Cf. punja. 

kipupa sing, (excessive) eagerness, haste. 
— cha kula. greediness, gluttony. — cha 
kazi. zeal in one's work, kwa — . eagerly, 
zealously. Cf, pupa. 

kipupwe (vi-) 1. cool season (June-August). 
2. a cool wind blowing during this season. 

kipure (-) ornith. (variety of) dove (with red 
at the throat and beneath the wings). 

kipusa (vi-) 1. small tusk (of a rhinoceros). 
2. coll. pretty girl. 

kipuzi (vi-) bauble, trinket, worthless thing. 
Cf. puza. 




kipwa (vi-) dry place (rock, etc.) left by the 
tide, shallow place; (pL)reei, sandbank. 
Cf. pwa. 

kipwe (— ) ornith. (species of) shrike 
(Dryoscopus senegalensis). 

kipwepwe (vi-) med. skin-eruption, rash 
(applied chiefly to a symptom of leprosy). 

kireaktive* L Engl. J' ndege ya — . jet air- 

kirehani (vi-) kirehani (variety of sweet 

kirembo 1. (vi-) (dimin. of rembo) ornament, 
decoration; beauty spot (line, etc., on the 
face). 2. adv. elegantly, with fine clothes, 

kipyenga (vi-) see kipenga. 

kirafiki* adv. in a friendly manner. Cf. 

Kireno* [ Port. J 1. sing, the Portuguese 
language. 2.: —a — . adj. Portuguese. 
Cf. Reno. 

kirago (vi-) 1. sleeping-mat. 2. fig. belong- 
ings, (personal) affairs, funga virago vyake. 
pack one's bags, close out one's affairs. 
Cf. rago. 

kirahi*, ikirahi, karaha(-) aversion, dislike, 
abhorrence, antipathy; prejudice. Cf. ka- 

kiraia* 1. adv. as/like a citizen, fanya — . 
behave as a citizen. 2.: —a — . adj. 
civil, haki za -. civil rights. Cf. raia. 

kiraka* 1. (vi-) spot of color. 2. patch. 
nguo yenye — . a patched garment, shona 
(tia) — . apply a patch, patch (up), mend. 
3. adv. (also kiraraka) spotted, speckled. 
Cf. marakaraka. 

kiranja (vi-) title applied to the first boy of 
a group to be circumcised. 

kiri*, kirri recognize, acknowledge; accept, 
assent, confirm, ratify; approve, grant, 
allow; admit, confess. — kosa plead 
guilty, appl. kiria. intr. kirika. caus. 
kirisha. pass, kiriwa, Cf. ikirari, ukiri. 

^kiri (— ) strip of matting (for plaiting). 
(= ukili.) 

kiriba* (vi-) water-container (made of hide ), 
waterskin . 

kiridhi* see karidhi. 

kirihi*, kirikhi 1. abhor, feel aversion; be 
prejudiced. 2. offend, treat discourte- 
ously, appl. kirihia. intr. kirihika. 
caus. kirihisha. pass, kirihiwa. Cf. 

kirikhi* see kirihi. 

kirauni* \_Engl.~\ (-) crown. 




kirimba (vi-) 1. cage (for a bird or animal) 
\- kizimba); (fig.) meat safe, refrigerator. 
2. frame (of a door or window), sill/lintel. 

kirimu*, kerimu 1. entertain, give presents 
to a person. 2. be hospitable/generous. 
appl. kirimia. intr. kirimika. pass, kiri- 
miwa. Cf. karama, karamu, karimu, mkari- 
mu, ukarimu. 

kirimu* L Engl. J (— ) cream, rangi ya — . 
cream-colored, pale yellow. 

kiroboto (vi-) flea. 

kiroho*: —a — . adj. spiritual. Cf. roho. 

kiroja*, kioja (vi-) 1.- something astonish- 
ing/terrifying (e.g., oddity, monster). 
2. rarity, marvel. 3. something that gives 
pleasure, something amusing/comical. 
Cf. roja. 

kirokironi*, kirokoroni (-) see korokoroni. 

kirri* see kiri. 

kirugu (vi-) 1. top of a wall (of a house). 
2. height of a house-wall. 

kiruhu*, kiruu (— ) anger, wrath, rage, fury. 

kirukanjia (vi-) 1. zool. shrew. 2. ornith. 
nightjar. 3. fig. restless/footloose per- 
son. Cf. ruka. 

kirukia (vi-) kirukia (parasitic climbing 
plant). Cf. ruka. 

kirumbizi, kiumbizi (vi-) ornith. golden 

^kirumbizi, kiumbizi (vi-) kirumbizi (kind of 
dance or mock fight with sticks). 

Kirumi* 1. sing. Latin (language). 2. —a — . 
adj. Roman, Latin, kanisa la — . the 
Roman (Catholic) Church. Cf. Rumi, Mruma. 

kirungu (vi-) (dimin. of rungu) knob (of a 

radio, etc.). 

Kirusi*, Kirussi 1. sing. Russian language. 
2.: —a — . adj. Russian. Cf. Mrusi, Urusi. 

Kirussi* sing., adj. see Kirusi. 

kirusu (— ) mixture of millet flour (prepared 
for making beer). 

kiruu* (— ) see kiruhu. 

1 kisa*, kissa (vi-) 1. narrative, report, story. 
2. explanation; cause, reason, nipe — cha 
kunitukana. Tell me the reason why you are 
insulting me. 3. matter, affair, business, 
nipe — chako. Tell me your affair (i.e., 
something about yourself). 4. jur. com- 
plaint, charge. Cf. mkasa. 

kisa (vi-) kernel of a fruit-stone. 

kisababu* (vi-) (dimin. of sababu) pretext, 
excuse, evasion. 

kisafu (vi-) (first) stomach (of ruminants). 
( = kilihafu.) 




*kisaga (vi-) a dry measure (app. one quart). 
Cf. saga. 

^kisaga (vi-) (species of) weevil. 

kisagalima (vi-) an old worn-out hoe. Cf. 

kisagaunga (vi-) kisagaunga (species of crab). 
Cf. saga, ^unga. 

kisahani* (vi-) {dimin. of sahani) 1. small 
plate, saucer. 2. sport discus, tupa — . 
throw the discus. 3. (phonograph) record. 

kisaki* adv. firmly, tightly, funga -. tie 
tight. Cf. saki. 

kisalisali* sing. med. gonorrhea; (rare) 
bilharzia (the two diseases are believed to 
be the same because their symptons are 
similar). ( = kisonosono, kichocho.) 

kisambare (vi-) kisambare (species of grass, 
Lobelia fervens). 

kisambo sing, see kisamvu. 

kisamli (vi-) see kitamli. 

kisamvu, kisambp sing, vegetable dish (pre- 
pared with manioc leaves and beans). 

kisanamu* (vi-) {dimin. of sanamu) picture 

kisanduku* (vi-) (dimin. of sanduku) small 
box, casket. 

kisarawanda (vi-) sheet (spread over the bed 
on the wedding night). 

kisasa* 1. sing, modern times, the present. 
2. adj. & adv. new, modern, present-day. 
up-to-date. Cf. sasa. 

kisase* (vi-) see kisasi. 

kisasi*. kisase (vi-) 1. revenge, retaliation. 
2. compensation, indemnification, toza 
(fanya) — . demand compensation. 

kisawazisha (vi-): — joto. rec. thermostat. 
Cf. sawa, sawazisha. 

kiselema, kichelema (vi-) an implement (hoe, 
knife, pencil) that has been worn down by 
much use. 

kisengeseage adv. forward and backward, 
like a crab, enda— . run like a crab. 

kiserikali*: —a — . adj. governmental, state.. 
karamu ya — . state banquet. Cf. serikali. 

kisetiri* (vi-) 1. dividing wall, partition, 
screen. 2. hiding-place. 3. fig. toilet, 
W.G. Cf. stiri. 

kiseyeye sing, bleeding of the gums (from 

kisha*, kiisha adv. afterwards, thereafter, 
then. Cf. isha. 

kishale (vi-) dimin. of mshale. 




kishamba* 1. (vi-) villager, countryman. 
2. sing, rustic manners/speech. 3. adj. 
(—a — ) & adv. rustic, countrified (= kima- 
shamba). Cf. shamba. 

kisharifu* (vi-), msharifu (mi-) ornith. 
(species of) kingfisher. Cf. sharifu. 

kishasi (vi-) see kishazi. 

kishaufu* (vi-) 1. piece of jewelry, trinket, 
pendant (on a chain). 2. nose ring (= ki- 
kero, hazama). Cf. shaua, shaufu. 

kishaushi (vi-) see kishawishi. 

kishawishi*, kishaushi (vi-) temptation, al- 
lurement; attraction, lure, bait. Cf. sha- 

kishazi*, kishasi (vi-) {dimin. of shazi) 

string/stick on which fish or fruit are hung. 

kishenzi* LPers.J 1. sing., hist, language 
of the inhabitants of the interior. 2. sing. 
wildness, barbarity. 3. adv. in a savage/ 
barbarous way. 4.: —a — . adj. wild, un- 
civilized. Cf. shenzi. 

kisheria*: —a — . legal. See sheria. 

kishigino (vi-) see kisigino. 

kishika: — mkono (vi-) advance (of money), 
earnest (money), instalment. Cf. shika. 

kishiki: — cha buga (vi-) climbing plant 
( Cissampelos pariera). 

kishikizo (vi-): - herufi printer's form. 
Cf. shika. 

kishiko (vi-) elec. contact. Cf. shika. 

kishiku* (vi-) 1. (tree) stump, log. - cha 
jino. root of a tooth. 2. wooden block/ 

i . 

"kishina (vi-) see shina. 

kishina (vi-) kishina (kind of dance). 

kishinda (vi-) remainder, residue; dregs (in a 
drinking-vessel). Cf. shinda. 

kishindi (vi-) see ushindi. 

kishindo (vi-) 1 noise, (sound of a) blow, 
impact, step. 2. fig. excitement, uproar. 
3. fig. disorder, confusion. Cf. ^shinda. 

kishogo (vi-) see kisogo. 

kishona (= kichoma nguo.) (vi-) kind of grass 
(Heteropogon contortus). 

kishoroba* (vi-) {also ushoroba sing.) 

nnrrow strip of land, patch; path (in a field). 

kishungi (vi-) toupee. Cf. ^shungi. 

kishupi (vi-) small bag or basket (of matting), 

kishutuo (vi-) see kisutuo. 

kishwara* (vi-) loop of rope (for holding an 
oar, etc.). 



kisi*, kissi (rare gisi) 1. presume, sur- 
mise, guess; estimate, calculate, consider 
carefully, appl. kisia. guess at, estimate 
(something). 2. (ma-) estimate, calcula- 
tion; proposal. Cf. kisio, makisi. 

^kisi*, kissi naut. change course, tack, put 

kisibao* (vi-) see kisibau. 

kisibau*, kizibau, kisibao, kisibayo (vi-) 
open jacket or vest (worn over the kanzu). 

kisibayo* (vi-) see kisibau. 

kisibiti* (vi-) (also mboga za — ) caraway 
seed, cumin. 

kisichana (vi-) 1. dimin. of msichana. 
2. girl who has not yet reached puberty. 

kisicholipwa, kisichotendwa (vi-) debt, ar- 
rears. Cf. lipa, tenda. 

kisifa* (vi-) gramm. adverb. Cf. sifa. 

kisigino, kishigino (vi-) anat.: — cha mkono. 
elbow. — cha mguu. heel. 

kisiki (vi-) 1. tree-stump. 2. block/chunk 
of wood, log. 3. fig. prostitute. Cf. ki- 

kisikusiku, kiusikusiku 1. (vi-) evening, 
twilight, dusk. 2. adv. at night, in the 
nighttime. Cf. *siku, usiku. 

kisima (vi-) water hole, well. prov. mchimba 
— hutumbika mwenyewe. Who digs a pit for 
others falls into it himself. 

kisimamleo (vi-) aloe(s). See also nidi. 

kisimbo (vi-) see msimbo. 

kisimi (vi-) coll., anat. clitoris. (- kinembe.) 

kisio* (ma-) (usually makisio) estimate, 
conjecture; proposal. Cf. *kisi. 

kisirani* (— ) 1. failure, (bad) omen, mis- 
fortune, atanitia— . He will bring me bad 
luck. 2. annoyance, anger, ana — . He is 
vexed/angry. 3. tendency to cause 
trouble/damage, destructiveness, delin- 
quency, hoodlumism, hooliganism. Cf. 

kisiri* (vi-) secret; free, pol.) secret ballot. 
—a—, secret, covert. Cf. siri. 

kisiwa (vi-) island. 

kisogo, kishogo, kichogo (vi-) anat. nape of 
the neck, back of the head. prov. akupaye 
— si mwenzio. Whoever turns his back on 
you is not your friend, kisogoni. (what is) 
behind, the past. Cf. kogo. 

kisomari* (vi-) see kisumari. 

kisombo (= kisamvu, kisambo.) (vi-) paste/ 
porridge made of manioc and beans. 

kisomo (vi-) instruction, training, education. 
Cf. soma. 




kisongo (vi-) 1. pressing, pressure. 2. press, 
vise. 3. typ. ligature, logotype. 4. med. 
tourniquet. Cf. songa. 

kisonono, kisunono (vi-) med. gonorrhea. 
— cha damu. bilharzia. Cf. sonona. 

kisoshialisti* [Engl.] (vi-) socialism. 
—a — . socialist(ic). 

kispoti* [Engl.] adj.: -a-, sport... 

kissa* (vi-) see kisa. 

kissi* see ^kisi, 2 kisi. 

kistari* (vi-) (dimin. of mstari) punct. dash, 

kisu (vi-) knife, kata kvva -. cut with a 
knife, ukali wa — . edge of a knife, -cha 
kukunja. pocketknife. coll. wewe - 
mimi nyama. Do whatever you want with 
me (lit.: You are the knife, I am the meat). 
Cf. jisu, kijisu, msumeno. 

kisua* (vi-) 1. garment, suit (of clothes). 
2, a well-dressed person. 

kisugulu (vi-) see kichuguu. 

kisuguu (vi-) see kichuguu. 

kisukari* 1. (-) kisukari (sweet variety of 
banana). 2. adj.: —a—, very sweet, 
sugary. Cf. sukari. 

kisukumi (vi-) growth or swelling on the 
genitals. (= vitio.) Cf. sukuma. 

kisukumizi (vi-) 1. - kisukumi. 2. disease/ 
misfortune transferred by one person to 
another. Cf. sukuma, msukumizi. 

kisukuu (vi-) see kitukuu. 

kisuli*, kisulisuli, kizuli, kisunzi (vi-) 
(spell of) dizziness, fainting fit, vertigo, 
swoon, upepo wa kisulisuli. whirlwind. 
L/. kisusuli. 

kisumari*, kisomari (vi-) (dimin. of msumari) 
pin, peg. (= pini.) 

kisunono (vi-) see kisonono. 

kisunzi (vi-) see kisuli, 

kisura* (vi-) si. pretty girl. Cf. *sura, 

kisusi (vi-) 1. slope of a roof. 2. sloping 
side of a thatched roof. 

kisusui* (vi-) see kisusuli. 

kisusuli*, kisusui (vi-) 1. scorpion. 

2. paper kite, windmill (children's toy). 
Cf. kisuli. 

kisutu* (vi-), msuto (mi-) kisutu (large 
piece of printed cotton cloth, used as a 
woman's garment or as a screen or curtain). 

kisutuo, kishutuo (vi-) 1. payment (especi- 
ally in kind). 2. special remuneration for 
workers, usually in the form of food re- 
ceived during or after the performance of 
heavy work. 




Kiswahili* 1. sing, the Swahili language. 
2. adv. in the Swahili manner. Cf. Swa- 
hili, Mswahili, Uswahili. 

^kita, kitakita prickle, sting, itch. 

2 kita 1. be/stand firm (in the face of danger, 
etc.). 2. thrust firmly into the ground (a 
spear, etc.), place firmly. 

Ikitaa* (vi-) dimin. of mtaa. 

2 kitaa* (vi-) kitaa (kind of fish). 

kitabosha (vi-) kitabosha (pastry made of 
rice-flour, sugar, and honey). 

kitabu* (vi-) 1. book. - cha ram an i. atlas. 
ufualaji wa vitabu tu. pedantry, dogma- 
tism. 2.: vitabu. literature. Cf. katiba, 
katibu, katabahu, kijitabu, kitiba, maktaba, 
mkataba, ukatibu. 

kitadali (vi-) bot. kitadali (variety of herb, 
Euphorbia hirta). 

kitagaa (vi-) 1. dividing, splitting, branch- 
ing, forking (of trees, roads ). 2. (rotten) 
branch (of a tree). Cf. 2 taga. 

kitaifa* 1. (vi-) (dimin. of taifa) small 
ethnic group, tribe. 2.: -a -. adj. popu- 
lar, national, bima ya - ya afya. national 
health insurance. 

kitakataka (vi-) (dimin. of takataka) 1. par- 
ticle of dust/dirt. 2. fig. trifle, bagatelle. 
Cf. 1 taka. 

kitakita see kita. 

kitakizo (vi-) kitakizo (head or foot of a 
bedstead). Cf. tako. 

kitako 1. vi-) anat. seat, bottom, buttock; 
perineum. 2. seat, place to sit; base. 
mstari wa — . base line- kaa — . seat one- 
self, be seated, sit. — cha baisikeli. saddle 
of a bicycle. 3. med. hemorrhoid(s). 
4. adv. below, at the bottom, at the lower 
end. Cf. tako. 

kitale (vi-) kitale (young coconut in the 
stage of milk-formation). 

kitali (vi-) 1. naut. sailcloth, canvas. 
2. recent, sport ring (for boxing). 

kitalu (vi-) 1. fence, wall. 2. enclosed 
place (yard, courtyard, garden). 

kitambaa (vi-), mtambaa (mi-) 1. cloth, rag, 

patch. 2. med. bandage. 3. napkin, 

handkerchief. Cf. tambaa, utambaa. 

^kitambi (vi-) turban-cloth. Cf. ^tambaa. 

2 kitambi (vi-) anat. 1. peritoneum. 2. me- 
sentery. — cha nyama. reticular fat (of a 
slaughtered animal), fig. mwenye — . cor- 
pulent person. 

^kitambi: — cha maskini (vi-) kind of 
vegetable (Talinum cuneifolium). 

kitambi sing, pride, conceit, arrogance. 
Cf. tamba. 




kitambo (vi-) 1. (short) time, moment. - ki- 
dogo. after a short time, soon thereafter. 
- cha chuo. school term. 2. (o/ so tambo, 
utambo) (short) space, distance, length, 
height, hapa na B ni _ kidogo. From here 
to B is only a short distance. 

kitambulisho (vi-) certificate, authentication. 
Cf. tambua. 

kitamli, kisamli (vi-): nrnazi wa -. variety 
of coconut palm (the nuts are used only for 
their milk). Cf. mkitamli. 

kitana (vi-) see kichanuo. 

kitanda (vi-) 1. bed, bedstead. 2. litter, 
stretcher, enda (panda) kitandani. go to 
bed. 3.: - cha mfumi. ( weaver's) loom. 
Cf. tanda. 

kitandawili (vi-) see kitendawili. 
kitandiko (vi-) cover, blanket. Cf. tanda. 

1 kitanga (vi-) (small, circular) mat, prayer 
mat. - cha mkono. palm (of the hand). 
- cha mguu. sole (of the foot), -cha 
mizani. pan of a scale/balance. Cf. 

2 kitanga (vi-): _ cha pepo. a kind of dance. 

kitanga (vi-) dimin. of 2 tanga. 

kitangangaya sing, kitangangaya (children's 
game, hide-and-seek). 

kitango (vi-) idleness, indolence, waste of 
time, trifling. Cf. ^anga. 

2 kitango (vi-) lace, fastener (e.g., the tufts 
on a mattress, etc.). 

kitangulizi (vi-) 1. mat h. uneven/odd num- 
ber. 2.: - cha jeshi. vanguard. 3. = utan- 
gulizi. Cf. tangulia. 

kitanguo (vi-), mtanguo (mi-) 1. annulment, 
cancellation, abolition, suspension, revo- 
cation, invalidation, nullification. 2. dis- 
missal, discharge, removal (from office). 
Cf. tangua. 

kitani* (-) 1. s i S al, flax, tow. shamba la -. 
sisal plantation. 2. linen (cloth). 3. string, 
lace (of a shoe). 

kitanitani, kitanutanu adv. backwards, on the 
back, lala -. lie on one's back. 

kitano (vi-) kitano (small coin, 5-cent piece). 
Cf. Itano. 

kitanutanu see kitanitani. 

kitanzi (vi-) (small) loop, noose, eyelet. 
Cf. tanda, tanzi, utanzi. 

kitapo (vi-) 1. shivering, trembling. 2. med. 
chill, ague. Cf. ^tapa. 

kitara* [lnd.1 (vi-) scimitar. 

kitara (-) dial., rare 1. kitara (place where 
a council meets). 2. (law) court. 




kitarishi* (vi-) messenger-boy, 'stooge.' 
Cf. tarishi. 

^kitasa (vi-) 1. lock (on a door, etc.). 
2. buckle. 

kitasa* (vi-) dimin. of tasa. 

Ikitata* (vi-} 1. lath, molding. 2. med. 

^kitata (vi-) 1. = matata. 2. speech im- 
pediment, lisp ( = ^kitembe, utasi). Cf. 

kitata (vi-): — eha asali. honeycomb. 

kitatange (vi-) 1. kitatange (sea-fish with 
spines). 2. fig. mischief-maker, insuf- 
ferable person. Cf. tata. 

kitawa* 1. sing, retirement, solitude, seclu- 
sion. 2. adv. retired, secluded, kaa — . 
live in retirement/seclusion. Cf. tawa. 

1 kitawi (vi-) 1. dimin. of tawi. 2. kitawi 
(a kind of weed). 

^kitawi (vi-) kitawi (implement used in weav- 

kitaya (vi-) see taya. 

kite sing. 1. groan, moan, wail, sigh, cry 
(of pain). 2. suffering, torment, grief. 
3. passion. 4. effort, exertion, straining 
(as in childbirth). 

kitefu (vi-) see kitefutefu. 

kitefute (vi-) anat. cheekbone. (= kitu- 

^kitefutefu, kichefuchefu (vi-) 1. sobbing, 
sighing. 2. hiccup. 

^kitefutefu (also kitefu, kitetefu) (vi-) 
something soft/smooth. Cf. z teke. 

kiteku (vi-) X. style, burin; chisel. 2. pick- 
ax. Cf. tekua. 

kitelemsho (vi-) 1. downward movement. 
2. mus. flat(-sign). Cf. telemua. 

Ikitembe, kichembe (vi-) speech defect, lisp, 
indistinct pronunciation, stuttering, piga/ 
sema — . speak with a lisp/indistinctly. 

^kitembe (vi-) dimin. of tembe. 

^kitembwe (vi-) vegetable fiber. Cf. utembo. 

^kitembwe (vi-) kitembwe (kind of fish). 

kitendakazi (vi-) determining/decisive factor. 
Cf. tend a. 

kitendawili, kitandawili (vi-) riddle, puzzle, 
tega — . propound a riddle, pose a problem. 
Cf. tenda. 

kitende (vi-) surroundings, environment, 
milieu. Cf. tenda. 




kitendo (vi-) 1. act, action. 2. undertaking, 
operation. 3. feat, exploit. 4. gramm. 
verb. Cf. tenda. 

kitengele (vi-) 1. band, stripe. 2. small 
round mat. 

kitengeneza: - uvuke (mvuke) (vi-) auto. 
carburetor. Cf. tengenea. 

kitengo (vi-) (dimin. of mtengo) gramm. 
preposition. Cf. *tenga. 

kiteo (vi-) (dimin. of uteo) (shallow, dish- 
shaped) basket (used for sifting grain). 

^kitete (vi-) (dimin. of ^ete) reed, sedge. 

4citete (vi-) dial, mongoose. 

kitetefu sing, see kitefutefu. 

kitetemeko (vi-) see kitetemo. 

kitetemo, kitetemeko (vi-) shivering, trem- 
bling, shuddering. Cf. tetema. 

kiteuzi (vi-) chem. separator. Cf. teua. 

kitewatewa, kitewetewe (vi-) kitewatewa 
(small worm). 

kitewetewe (vi-) see kitewatewa. 

kithaura* (vi-) dimin. of thaura. 

kithiri* 1. grow, become larger, increase. 
2. (also caus. kithirisha) cause to grow 
enlarge, increase, appl. kithiria. 

kiti (vi-) 1. seat, chair. - cha kifalme. 
throne. - cha farasi. saddle. 2. fig. 
seat (in a representative assembly). 
mwenye — . chairman. 3. headquarters. 
4.: — cha pweza. starfish. 

kitiba* sing, essential nature, character, 
disposition, constitution. Cf. kitabu. 

LitimKntw.Vo r,.i-1 —7 „» ._ 

""" "■" '■•' f""' "" u ""'6 , -i op- 

kitimbi (vi-) deception, deceit, trick, in- 
trigue. Cf. chimvi. 

kitimiri* sing. 1. name of an evil spirit. 
2. charm to ensure easy childbirth. 

kitinda (vi-), mtinda (wa-): — mimba. last/ 
youngest child. Cf. tindika. 

kitingisha (vi-) earthquake. (= tetemeko la 
nchi.) Cf. tinga. 

kitinitini (vi-) see ^kititi. 

kitisho, kitusho (vi-) threat, menace, danger; 
fright, fear, apprehension; confusion, coll. 
amepata — cha kutosha. He has really had 
a scare thrown into him. Cf. tisha. 

kitita, kititi adv. 1. in great numbers, in 
abundance. 2. all at once, in cash, cash 
down, amelipa pesa -. He paid in cash. 
3. suddenly, unexpectedly. 

^kitita (vi-) dimin. of tita 3. 




kititi (vi-) 1. dimin. of titi. 2. med. 
mastitis (inflammation of the mammary 

^kititi, kitinitini (vi-) small hare. 

''kititi sing.: — cha bahari. the depths of the 

4 kititi adv. 1. see kitita. 2. upright, in an 
erect position, vertical(ly). simama — . be 
upright, stand erect. 

kititia (vi-) 1. blade, vane (of a fan, wind- 
mill). 2. windmill (children's toy). 3. fig. 

kititimo (vi-) 1. (rolling, reverberating) noise 
(like thunder). 2. disorder, confusion. 
Cf. titima. 

*kilo (vi-) (also — cha thamani) precious 
stone, jewel. 

^kito (vi-) kito (children's game in which ob- 
jects are hidden and hunted for). 

kitoasi, kitoazi (vi-) castanet. Cf. toasi. 

kitobo, kitobwe (vi-) (dimin. of tobo) 

1. small hole, perforation. 2. fig. dimple. 
Cf. toboa. 

kitobwe (vi-) see kitobo. 

kitokono (vi-) (also tokoni, tokono, ma-) anat. 

kitoleo (vi-) math, subtrahend. Cf. toa. 

kitoma (vi-) 1. small round pumpkin. 2. ki- 
toma (the pumpkin shell used as a vessel 
for milk or water). 3. med. orchitis, hy- 

kitone (vi-) (dimin. of tone) drop (of liquid), 
(ink) blot. Cf. tona. 

kitonge (vi-) small lump, ball, morsel. — cha 
wali. small lump of rice (taken in the fingers 
and eaten). 

kitongo, kichongochongo adv. from the side, 
on a slant, diagonally, obliquely, tazamia 
mtu — . look at someone askance/contempt- 
uously. Cf. tongoza. 

kitongoji (vi-) (small) village, hamlet. 
(= kijiji.) 

kitongotongo see kitongo. 

kitoria (vi-) kitoria (edible fruit of the East 
African rubber liana, mtoria). 

kitoroli* LEngl. lorry or Germ. Motorroller? J 
(vi-) motor scooter. 

kitororo (vi-) ornith. (species of) barbet. 

kitoto 1. (vi-) (dimin. of mtoto) small child, 
baby. 2. adv. in a childish/foolish way. 

kitovu (vi-) 1. anat. navel, umbilical cord. 
2, middle, center. 3. fig. home, place of 
origin, enda kitovuni. go home (to one's 
birthplace.). 4. hub (of a wheel), (anything 
that serves as a) pivot. 




kitoweleo (vi-) see kitoweo. 

kitoweo, kitoweleo (vi-), toweo (ma-) 
1. something added to food (i.e., vege- 
tables to meat, gravy, sauce, curry, etc.), 
relish. 2. seasoning, condiment, spice. 
Cf. towea. 

kitreya* LEngl.'} (vi-) tray. 

kitu (vi-) thing, object; matter, substance, 
vitu vya starehe. luxuries. - kidogo. 
trifle, small matter, hapana -. nothing. 

kitubio (vi-) 1„ repentence, atonement; (rel.) 
penance, confession. 2. punishment, re- 
tribution. Cf. tubu. 

kituguta (vi-) anat. cheekbone. (= kitefute.) 

kituka (vi-) 1. clump of trees, copse, grove. 
2. thicket. (= kichaka.) 

kituko (vi-) (usually vituko) 1. fear, terror. 
tia fulani vituko. inspire someone with 
terror. 2. excitement, confusion, dismay, 
consternation, alipokuja akaionyesba vi- 
tuko vingi. When he came, he found things 
in a state of great confusion. Cf. tukia. 

kitukuu, kisukuu (vi-) great-grandchild. 

kitulivu adv. quietly, calmly, peacefully. 
Cf. tua, tulivu. 

kitulizo (vi-) soothing, relief, alleviation, 
dawa hii ni - cha maumiwu. This medi- 
cine is a sedative/anodyne. Cf. ^ua. 

kitumbo 1. (vi-) dimin. of tumbo. 2. (vi-) 
abnormally large stomach, obesity, coll.: 
usinitie - uchungu. Don't annoy me. 
3. adv. (also kitumbotumbo) on the 
stomach, prone. lala -. lie prone. 

kitumbotumbo see kitumbo 2. 

kitumbua (vi-) (rice) fritter (fried in fat). 
\- andazi.) 

kitumwa adv. in a servile/obsequious way. 
Cf. turn a. 

kitunda (vi-) 1. pawn (chess). 2. dimin. of 

^itunga (vi-): kofia ya -. a kind of fez. 

kitunga (vi-) dimin. of 2 tunga. 
kitungo (vi-) dimin. of mtungo. 

kitungule (vi-) 1. hare. (= sungura.) 2. fig. 
sly, crafty person. 

kitunguu (vi-) onion, shallot. - saumu. garlic 

kituo (vi-) 1. pause, interruption, rest. 
2. stopping place. _ c ha gari. railway 
station. 3. settlement, establishment, 
post, camp. - cha kupumzika. (vacation) 
resort. _ c ha biashara. trading post, com- 
mercial center. - cha mafuta. auto, filling 
station. - cha kivita. military base. 

4. gramm. alama ya -. punctuation. 

5. section, paragraph (in a book). Cf. 




Kituruki* sing. Turkish language, —a — . 
adj. Turkish. Cf. Mturuki, Uturuki. 

kitusho (vi-) see kitisho. 

kitutumi (vi-) something. causing a rumbling/ 
growling sound. Cf. tutuma. 

kitwa (vi-) see kichwa. 

kitwamgomba see kichwamgomba. 

kitwana (vi-) (dimin. of mtwana) 1. hist. 
slave boy. 2. scamp, brat. 

kitwea sing, solitude, loneliness. 

kitwitwi (vi-) ornith. sandpiper. 

kiu (— ) 1. thirst, ona (wa na) — . be thirsty. 
komesba (kata) — . quench the thirst. 2. fig. 
dryness, drought. — ya maji. water short- 
age. Cf. kwiu. 

*kiua (vi-) 1. buttonhole. 2. embroidering 
on a kofia. 

^kiua (vi-) kiua (kind of fish). 

kiua (vi-): — mwitu. variety of tree. 

4 kiua (vi-) something that kills ( = kiuaji). 

"kiua (vi-) dimin. of Tia, ua. 

kiuaji (vi-) 1. deadly weapon. 2. something 
that has a deadly effect (snake, poison, 
etc.). Cf. ^ua. 

kiubavubavu see kibavu. 

kiuka step/jump/pass over something. 

(- kia, chupa, ruka, vuka.) Cf. ukiauaji. 

kiuma (vi-) 1. something that stings/bites/ 
causes pain. — mbuzi. a kind of black 
lizard {lit.: 'goat-biter'). 2. fork. Cf. uma. 

kiumambuzi (yi-) 'goat-biter.' kind of lizard. 
Cf. uma, * mbuzi. 

kiumanzi (vi-) kiumanzi (small insect that 
kills flies). 

kiumbe (vi-) (rare chumbe, vy-) creature, 
(human) being. Cf. umba. 

1 kiumbo (vi-) nature, character, quality. 
Cf. umba. 

■^kiumbo (vi-) vessel used for holding 
potter's tools. 

kiume 1. sing, male sex. —a — . male, 
masculine, mtoto wa — . boy. 2. sing. 
masculinity; strength, vigor; heroism. 
3. adv. in a masculine/manly way. 
Cf. J-ume. 

kiunda (vi-) kiunda (a kind of trap). Cf. ^unda. 

^kiunga (vi-) 1. suburb(s), environs (of a 
town). 2. garden, fruit-orchard. — cha 
minazi (michungwa). coconut (orange) 
grove. Cf. unga. 

^kiunga (vi-) kiunga (kind of fish). 



kiungo (vi-) ]. something serving to con- 
nect or join: connection, joint, coupling, 
etc. 2. elec. connection, switch, contact. 

3. anal. & mec li. joint, articulation, 

4. gramm. conjunction. Cf. 2 unga. 

-kiungo (vi-) spice, seasoning, condiment 
(sail, vinegar, etc.). Cf. 2 lln g a . 

''kiungo (vi-) palm-leaf (used as roofing 

Kiunguja 1. sing. Swahili dialect of Zanzibar 
(as contrasted w. the dialect of the coast 
LKimrima], of Mombasa [kimvita], and of 
Lamu [Kianiu]). 2. adv. inthemanner 
usual in Zanzibar. Cf. L'nguja. 

kiungulia (vi-) 1. stomach upset, indiges- 
tion. 2. belching, eructation. - moyo. 
med. heartburn, pyrosis, ianya -. belch. 
Cf. J ungua. 

kiungurumo (vi-) see ngurumo. 

kiunguza, kiunguzo (vi-) 1. poison, virus. 
2. medicine containing viruses. 3. acid. 
Cf. 'lingua. 

kiunguzo (vi-) sec kiunguza. 

kiunguana 1. sing. Swahili language (term 
used in the back country); manners and 
speech of a well-bred person. 2. adv. in 
a well-bred/cultivated manner. 3.: -a -. 
adj. cultivated, civilized. Cf. mwungwa- 
n a, u img wan a: also Kin guana. 

kiimo (vi-) ( a / so c h uno , _) u (m# kiunonj) 
waist. 2. anat. hip, loins. 3. anat. rump, 

kiun/a (vi-) a board placed in a grave to pro- 
tect the corpse from contact with earth and 
stones. Cf. l unda. 

kiunzi (vi-) wooden frame, scaffolding. 
Cf. 'unda. 

kii-siKiisiku (vi-, adv.) see kisikusiku. 

kiva (-) rare harmony, unity; agreement, ap- 
proval. (= uinoja.) 

kivazi (vi-) dress, clothing; style (of dress). 
Cf. vaa. 

kivi (vi-) anat. elbow. (= 2 kiko.) 

kivi (vi-) see I kiwi. 

kivimba (vi-) see kivimbe. 

kivimbc, kivimba, kivimbo (vi-) 1. me d. 
swelling, tumor. 2. arch, vault(ing). 
3. girth, circumference. _ cha dunia. 
rare equator (= ikweta). Cf. vimba, 

kivimbo (vi-) see kivimbe. 

kivinvovinvo 1. (vi-) , m- ■ • 

iiiju i. y\i ) trembling, quivering. 

2. (vi-) confusion, uncertainty, clouding 

(of the mind). 3. adv. tremblingly. Cf. 


kiviringo (vi-) see mviringo. 




kivita adj.: —a — . warlike, military, mam bo 
ya — . matters relating to war, military af- 
fairs; military actions/movements. Cf. 

kivivu, kivivuvivu adv. in a lazy /indolent/ 
bored manner, tazama — ■ look at something 
in an indolent/bored way (with half-closed 
eyelids). Cf. vivu. 

kivivuvivu see kivuvu. 

kivo, kizo (vi-) (great) quantity, abundance; 
superfluity, surplus. ( = ^wingi.) 

kivoteo* lEngl. J (vi-) vote, ballot. 

kivukizo (vi-) see kifukizo. 

kivuko, kivusho (vi-) 1. ford, crossing; ferry. 
— kikavu. isthmus. 2. crossing place, 
landing stage. 3. ferry time/fare. Cf. %-ua. 

kivulana (vi-) {dimin. of mvulana) boy, 
young man. 

kivuli, kifuli (vi-) 1. shadow, shade; shaded 
place, lala kivulini. lie in the shade. 
2. vision, phantom, ghost. Cf. mwavuli, 

kivumanyuki (vi-) kivumanyuki (hardy plant, 
Pentas purpurea). 

kivumanzi (vi-) small bell, cowbell. 

kivumbasi, kivumbazi, (rare) kifumbazi (vi-) 
kivumbasi (a fragrant wood which, when 
ground up with oil, is used as a perfume or 
to keep off mosquitoes). 

kivumbazi (vi-) see kivumbasi. 

kivumbi (vi-) 1. dust; vapor, haze. 2. dust- 
• cloud, sandstorm. 3. fig. great quantity, 
large number. 4. fig., coll. crowd, noise, 
confusion, mjini kulikuwa na — . There 
was a great hubbub in the city. Cf. vumbi. 

kivumi, kivumo (vi-) 1. humming, murmuring, 
piiBtlir.". 2. H". -ccei- hears::--. 
Cf. vuma. 

kivumo (vi-) see kivumi. 

kivunde adj. fermented, ugali (wa) — ■ por- 
ridge of manioc meal which has begun to 
ferment. Cf. vunda. 

kivunga (vi-) {dimin. of vunga): — cha 
nywele. long, thick hair. 

kivunjavunja, kivunjajungu (vi-) zool. mantis 
(so called from the superstition that the 
person who kills a mantis will break the 
next thing he touches; cf. vunja and jungu). 

kivunjo (vi-) 1, (act of) breaking, splintering. 
2. med. fracture. 3. auto, breakdown. 
4. tool for breaking (hammer, crowbar, etc.). 
Cf. vunja. 

kivuno (vi-) rare 1. harvest, yield. 2. gain, 
profit. Cf. vuna. 

kivusho (vi-) see kivuko. 

kivyao (vi-) see kizao. 

kivyazi (vi-) see kizao. 



kiwa adj. (of persons:) poor; solitary, aban- 
doned, outcast; (of things:) solitary, iso- 
lated. ■(= upweke, hame, ganjo.) Cf. ma- 
kiwa, mkiwa, ukiwa. 

kiwaa (vi-) see lwaa. 

kiwafuwafu adv., rare sideways, anguka -. 
fall sideways. 

kiwamba (vi-) see kiwambo. 

kiwambamoyo (vi-) see kiwambo. 

kiwambaza (vi-) see kiambaza. 

kiwambo, kiwamba, kiambo (vi-) tension, 
tautness; something stretched tightly, cov- 
ering. - cha ngoma. drumskin, drumhead. 
kiwamba cha moyo (or kiwambamoyo) 
anat. diaphragm. Cf. wamba. 

kiwanda (vi-) 1. plot of ground, yard. 
2. working place, workshop, factory, plant. 

- cha jotojoto. heat-treatment plant. 

- cha kufanyia unga wamaziwa. powdered- 
milk processing plant. - cha kutoa nguvu 
za umeme (katika mto). (hydro-)electric 
power station. 3. mine, forge, foundry. 

4. pi. industry, enterprise(s). Cf. 

kiwanda (vi-) rare see kimanda. 

kiwango (vi-) 1. number, quantity. 2. cal- 
culating, computing; computation. 3. fig. 
status, (social) position. C f. '^wanga. 

kiwango (vi-) kiwango (variety of cowrie 

kiwanja (vi-) 1. place, plot of land, field. 
- cha ndege (eropleni), - cha kutua. air- 
field, landing field. - cha kurusha roketi. 
launching pad/platform. - cha michezo. 
playing field, (sports) stadium, arena. 

2. foreC01irt: ; rr,nrt(irarA)_ C U- _ 

astr. halo of the moon. Cf. uwanja. 

kiwara* (vi-) flat land, plain, savannah. 

kiwavi (vi-) 1. larva, gru b, caterpillar. 
2. chrysalis. 3. (variety of) stinging 
nettle (Tragia furialis, Tragia Scheffleri). 
Cf. wan a. 

kiwe, kawe, kijiwe, kikawe (vi-) 1. dimin. of 
jiwe. 2. ■(_ cha uso) pimple, rash (on the 

kiweko (vi-) 1. base, support, prop, under- 
pinning. 2. fig. basis, foundation. Cf. 

kiwele (vi-) udder, mammary gland (of animals; 

cf. 2 z j wa ) # 

kiweo (vi-) thigh, shank, ham. (= paja, kiga.) 

kiwete 1. (vi-) lameness, crippling, enda -. 
be lame, limp, 2. (vi-) a lame person, 
cripple. 3. adv. in a limping way, like a 
cripple. 4.: - a -. adj. lame, crippled. 

kiweto (vi-) hen that does not lay. 

kiwewe (vi-) confusion, dismay, astonishment. 


*kiwi, kiwiwi, kivi (vi-) 1. stick set against 
a door to hold it shut. 2. bolt (on a door). 

■'kiwi (vi-) 1. (also — cha macho) blinding, 
dazzling (by the sun, etc.). 2. fig. delu- 
sion. Cf. ukiwi. 

kiwiko (vi-) anat. wrist, ankle. — cha 
mkono. wrist. — cha mguu. ankle. 

kiwi 1 i (vi-) eth. community, common interest, 
kazi ya — . cooperative work (regarded as a 
social obligation of all village dwellers). 

kiwiliwili (vi-) 1. body, trunk. 2. fig. 
girth, size, volume. Cf. mwili. 

kiwimawima, imaima adv. in an upright posi- 
tion, head up, top uppermost; erect, verti- 
cal, straight. Cf. wima. 

kiwimbi 1. (vi-) small wave, ripple. 2. adv./ 
adj. wavy, undulating. Cf. wimbi. 

kiwiwi (vi-) see *kiwi. 

Kiyahudi* 1. sing, the Hebrew language. 
2. adv. in the Jewish manner. 3.: —a — . 
adj. Jewish. Cf. Myahudi. 

kiyama*, kiama (— ) Isl. resurrection, day of 
judgment. (- ufufuo, which is used in 
both Moslem and Christian contexts.) 

kiyambaza (vi-) see kiambaza. 

kiyana* (vi-) earthenware dish. 

kiyoga (vi-) dimin. of uyoga. 
kiyombo (vi-) bark cloth, 
kiyowe (vi-) see yowe. 

Kiyunani* 1. sing, (ancient) Greek language. 

2. adv. in the (ancient) Greek manner. 

3. —a — . adj. (ancient) Greek, Hellenic. 

kiyuyu (vi-) kiyuyu (poisonous shrub, 
Synadenium carinatum). 

kiza (— , ma-) see giza. 

kizalia (vi-) kizalia (someone who was born 
in a particular place, native), mimi — cha 
hapa. I was born here. I am a native of 
this place. — cha Tanga. someone born 
in Tanga, a native of Tanga. Cf. zaa. 

kizamaji (vi-) something thrown into the 
water; (pi.) jetsam. Cf. ^zama. 

kizamani* adv. in an earlier way, earlier, 
formerly. Cf. zamani. 

kizamiadagaa (— ) kizamiadagaa (kind of 
bird, kingfisher). 

kizao, kivyao, kivyazi (vi-) rare 1. produce, 
production. 2. product. Cf. zaa, zao. 

kizazi (vi-) 1. procreation, reproduction; 
progeny, offspring, hana — . she is child- 
less. She cannot bear children. 2. birth. 
3. generation. — hiki. the present 
(living) generation. Cf. zaa, uzazi. 



kizee (vi-) 1. old woman. 2. sorceress 
witch. Cf. zee. 

kizembe 1. (vi-) indolent, relaxed posture; 
(fig.) bad behavior. 2. adv. in an idle/ 
indolent/negligent manner. Cf. zembe, 
mzembe, uzembe . 

kizibau (vi-) see kisibau. 

kizibo (vi-) 1. stopper, plug, spigot, tap. 
2. (act of) stopping up, filling up. 3. fig. 
stopgap, (temporary) expedient. Cf. ziba. 

kizibuo (vi-) corkscrew. Cf. ziba. 

kizidishe* (vi-) math, multiplicand. Cf. zidi. 

kizidisho* (vi-) math, multiplier. Cf. zidi. 

kizimba, kizimbi (vi-) 1. birdcage, dovecote. 
2. jur. witness stand. 

kizimbi (vi-) see kizimba. 

kizimwe (vi-) hot. blight, smut (of grains). 
C f. zima, zimwe. 

kizingiti (vi-) 1. threshold, sill, lintel 
( = top or bottom piece of a door or 
window). 2. dam, weir. 3. reef, bar. 

J kizingo (vi-) twist, turn, bend (of a road, 
river). Cf. zinga. 

-kizingo (vi-) sand (from the seashore). 

Jkizio (vi-) 1. halt (of a round body, e.g., 
fruit). 2. fig., geogr.: - cha dunia. 

^kizio (vi-) {also - cha simu) el 
lator. Cf. ' zia. 

ec. msu- 

kiziwi (vi-) 1. a deaf person. 2. a coconut 
that has dried up inside (i.e., shell without 
meat or milk; compare Germ, eine taube 
Nuss?). Cf. ziwi, ukiziwi. 

kizo (vi-) see kivo. 

kizuio, kizuizi (vi-) 1. obstacle, impediment. 
2. restriction, limitation, curb, prohibition. 
Cf. zuia. 

kizimwi (vi-) liter. L fairy, sorceress. 

2. evil spirit. Cf. zimwi, mzimu, kuzimu, 

kizinda (vi-) 1. virginity. 2. virgin, weka 
-. preserve virginity, tomoa -. deflower. 

3. anat. hymen. Cf. zinda. 

kizingia (vi-) something that revolves/whirls, 
— cha maji. whirlpool. Cf. zinga. 

kizuizi (vi-) see kizuio. 

kizuizini (vi-) detention (by police, as in Mau 
Mau Camps). Cf. zuia. 

kizuizui (-) kizuizui (children's game, simi- 
lar to blindman's buff). 

kizuka (vi-) 1. apparition, vision. 2. liter. 
fairy, spirit. 3. window. Cf. zua, Izuka. 




kizuli (vi-) see kisuli. 

Kizurigu ]. sing, (collective term for any) 
European language, —a — . adj. European. 
2. adv. in the European manner. 3.: ki- 
zunguni. arch. European quarter in an 

African town. Cf. zungu, I mzungu, 

2 2 

Mzungu, Uzungu. 

koba* (vi-) (augm. of mkoba): fanya — . be 
convex/bulgy; belly out (of a sail). Cf. 
kuba, kubaza. 

kobati* [Engl. j sing, cobalt. 

kobe (— ) 1. land tortoise. 2. Isl. a person 
who breaks his fast during Ramadhan. 

I.: I.- /..: \ 

kizunguzungu sing, dizziness, indisposition. 
Cf. zungua. 

kizushi (vi-) 1. innovator, revolutionary. 
2. intruder. 3. novelty, sensation. 
Cf. zua, ^zuka. 

kizuu (vi-) kizuu (evil spirit). Cf. zua, 

klabu* (vi-) see kilabu. 

kliniki*, kiliniki LEngl.J (— ) clinic. 
— ya watoto. children's clinic. 

k.m. abbr. of kwamfano. for example, e.g. 

koa (ma-) 1. metal ring (worn as an orna- 
ment around the neck or on the arm). 
2. leather strap/belt. 

^koa 1. be sharp/pointed, kisu kinakoa. 
The knife has a sharp point. 2. fig. be 

^koa (ma-) snail, slug; snail-shell. 

*kobwe (— ) kobwe (variety of bean). 
^kobvve (— ) kobwe (kind of snail). 
'-'kobwe (— ) clapping (with cupped hands). 

koche (ma-) koche (fruit of the dwarf palm). 
Cf. mkoche. 

kocho adj. shrewd, experienced, clever, ex- 
pert. ( = bingwa, hodari, stadi.) 

kochokocho adv. in great abundance, 

kodi* 1. rent, lease, caus. kodisha. ni- 
memkodisha fulani shamba. I have leased 
a field to X. 2. (— ) rent, lease; tax, 
duty, taratibu za — . tax regulation. 
mtoza — . tax-collector. Cf. mkodi, uko- 

kodoa (usually — macho) look fixedly, stare. 
appl. kodolea. stare at. caus. kodosha. 
gape, goggle. 

kodolea opp/. of kodoa. 




kodwe (-) small stone; piece, man fin games), 
die. Cf. jiwe, mbwe. 

koeka see ngoeka. 

kofi (ma-) 1. (also ukofi) palm of the hand, 
handbreadth. piga makofi. clap, applaud. 
2. (also ukofi) handful. 3. slap, box on 
the ear. 4. hand clapping (with a dance). 

kohl* (-) m in. antimony, kohl (for applica- 
tion to the eyes as a cosmetic). (- wanja 
wa manga.) Cf. mkahale. 

koho*, korho (-) koho (species of hawk or 

kohoa cough, caus. kohoza. re/7, jikohoza. 
clear one's throat (from embarrassment or to 
attract attention). Cf. kohozi, kikohozi, 

kofia* (-) headgear, cap, fez. - ya bulibuli. 

embroidered white cap. - ya kitunga, - ya kohoo (ma-) see kohozi. 
kibandiko. ordinary cap/fez. — ya zari. 
cap decorated with braid. 

X koga (ma-) 1. mold, mildew, blight, dry rot. 
fanya (ota) -. moulder, rot, become moldy. 
— la meno. tartar on the teeth. — yamaji. 
seaweed. 2. fig. moldiness, mustiness; 
uncleanliness, foulness. — la nguo. 
slovenliness of dress. 

2 koga show, explain, demonstrate. Cf. 

J koga see *oga. 

'kogo (ma-, -), mkogo (mi-) anat. the back 
of the head, occiput. 

^kogo (-) kogo (string of beads worn by 
women around the loins). 

kogo (ma-) conceit, presumption, arrogance. 

kogo* I Engl, cargo] (-) rare, naut. dock. 
( = gudi, majahabu.) 

kohozi, kohoo (ma-) 1. cough. 2. expec- 
toration, phlegm, mucus. Cf. kohoa. 

koikoi (ma-) 1. evil spirit. 2. heron, stork. 

koja (-) koja (ornament worn around the 
neck). - la dhahabu. gold necklace. 

^koja (-) koja (metal pot). 

kojoa urinate, appl. kojolea. cans, ko- 
josha/kojoza. dawa ya kukojosha. di- 
uretic. Cf kojozi, kikojozi, mkojo. 

kojojo (ma-) sea slug, beche-de-mer. 

kojozi (-) 1. see kikojozi, mkojo. 2. ko- 
jozi (species of banana with diuretic ef- 
fect). Cf. kojoa. 

koka 1. (usually - moto) kindle a fire. 
2. warm oneself at a fire. 

2 koka = kuoka (inf. of oka). 




^koko (ma-) 1, bush, thicket, wilderness. 
2. see kokwa. 

2 koko* [Engl.] (-) cocoa. Cf. 2 mkoko. 

kokoa 1. sweep up/away. 2. wash away. 
appl. kokolea. maji yameukokolea mcha- 
nga. The water has washed away the sand. 

kokoto (ma-; us. pi.) crushed stone, mako- 
koto ya kupigilia. (rough) gravel (for making 
concrete), makokoto ya kutomelea. paving 

kokwa, koko (— , ma-) 1. fruit-stone. 2. nut. 
— ya jicho. eyeball. 3. coll., anat. (— za 
chini/pumba) testicle. 

ciow, cttcKie. 

kokomea drive/knock/wedge in. Cf. kongo- 2 kola see kc 

kokomoa (& intr. kokomoka) 1. throw up, 
vomit. 2. fig. blurt out. 

kokomoka intr. of kokomoa. 

kokona, sosona wipe oneself with leaves 
(after a bowel movement). 

kokoreka see kokoleka. 

kokorocha see korocha. 

kokota draw, pull, drag. — gari. pull a wagon. 
fig. — maneno. speak slowly or with dif- 
ficulty. — roho. be short of breath, 
breathe with difficulty. — kazi. work 
slowly, appl. kokotea. intr. kokoteka. 
caus. kokoteza. refl. jikokota. drag one- 
self along, move slowly /with difficulty. 
Cf. kokotevu, mkokoto. 

kokotevu adj. slow, hesitant, dilatory. 
Cf. kokota. 

*kole (ma-) coconut-palm branch. Cf. Ankole 

kole (ma-) hostage (someone held as surety 
for another's debt). Cf. koleza 2. 

kolea 1. season, prepare (foods). 2. fig. 
make something appear attractive (by arts 
of persuasion), caus. koleza. 1. - ko- 
lea. 2.: koleza moto. start or encourage 
a fire (with oil, etc.). 

kolego (ma-) spade, shovel. 

kolekole (— ) kolekole (large fish). 

koleo, kweleo (— , ma-) 1. tongs, pincers, 
pliers, forceps, tweezers. 2. koleo (a 
long pole with a bent end for picking fruit 
from trees). 3. notch in an arrow. 

koleza 1. caus. of kolea. 2. make someone 
accountable for another's offense or debt; 
keep back/withhold something. Cf. ^kole. 




koli* (_) 1„ nauU s hip' s papers. 2. list, 

kololo (ma- 


koloni* [Engl.] (ma-) colony, colonial prop- 
erty, afisi ya makoloni. Colonial Office, 
uhuru wa watu wa makoloni. freedom for the 
colonial peoples. Cf. kikoloni, mkoloni, 

koma stop, end, cease; come to an end, reach 
a goal/destination, prov. lisilo na mkoma 
hujikoma lenyewe. A matter that has not 
been settled settles itself, caus. komesha. 
put a stop to, bring to an end, terminate; 
cut short, curtail, amekomeshwa. He has 
been compelled to stop, komesha maneno. 
cut off a debate, komesha vita, break off 
hostilities. Cf. ^ikomo, 3 mkoma, ukomo, 

2 koma (ma-) koma (edible fruit of the mkoma). 

koma (ma-) koma (spirit of a deceased per- 

4 koma* [Engl.] (-) comma. 

komaa 1. be full-grown/mature (people or ani- 
mals). 2. be over-ripe (fruit). 3. fig. be 
decayed/ruined; lose strength/vitality; be 
demoralized, caus. komaza. 1. aid/pro- 
mote/encourage development/growth. 2. de- 
moralize, ruin. 

komafi (ma-) komafi (fruit of the mkomafi). 

komakanga (_) ornith. (species of) finch. 

komamanga (ma-) pomegranate. Cf. mkoma- 
manga, 2\] an g a . 

komanguku (-) komanguku (a wild herb, 
Crotalaria senegalensis). 

komanya rare know, understand. (= faliamu.) 
caus. komanza. inform, announce; explain. 

komanza caus. of komanya. 
komaza caus. of komaa. 

komba hollow out, scratch out; press out, 
empty; scrape off, clean out. - dafu. 
scrape out the meat of a coconut. - chu- 
ngu. clean out a pot. /i>.-fulani mali. 
take the money out of someone's pocket, 
impoverish/ruin someone, double appl. 
kombelea. double appl.-intr. kombeleka. 
amekombeleka. He has lost his last cent. 
He is completely ruined. Cf. komboa, 
ikombe, 3kombe, Ikombo, 3k om bo, kikomba, 
kikombe, kikombo, ukombe. 

2 komba (-) 1. zool. galago (which drinks 
the sap of the coconut palm). - wa Bukini. 
lemur. 2. coll.: mlevi kama -. a heavy 
drinker (lit..- one who drinks like a komba). 

3 komba (_) komba (kind of fish). 

kombaini* [Engl, combine] (-, ma-) 1. 
union, alliance , club. 2. sport combined 




kombamoyo (ma-) roof-beam, rafter. 
kombamwiko (-) cockroach. (= mende.) 
kombati (ma-) see kumbati. 

*kombe (— , ma-) 1. a bivalve shellfish. 

— ya pwani. oyster (= chaza). 2. dish, 
plate. 3. anat. shoulder-blade, scapula. 

— la kichwa. skull. Cf. *komba. 

^kombe (— ) kombe (a climbing plant yielding 
poison for arrows). 

''kombe (— ) gouge, scraper. Cf. *komba. 

4 kombe (— ): kunywa — . treatment by a 
witch doctor (the witch doctor writes on a 
plate which is then washed off and the 
water drunk by the patient). 

kombeo, kumbewe (ma-) sling, catapult. 
piga — . throw by use of a sling. 

*kombo (ma-) (usually makombo) 1. piece, 
fragment, morsel. 2. leftovers, crumbs. 
sili makombo ya mtu mwingine. I don't 
eat another man's crumbs. 3. fig. trash, 
junk. Cf. komba. 

^kombo (ma-) pardon; reprieve, amnesty. 
omba — . beg pardon, pa — . grant pardon. 
Cf. komboa. 

^kombo (ma-) 1. curve, bend, twist; crooked- 
ness. 2. hook, hooked implement. 3. fig. 
fault,. defect; difficulty. 4. fig. fad. 
Cf. 1 komba. 

komboa 1. get out, scrape out. 2. buy off, 
redeem, ransom; free, liberate; frel.J save, 
redeem. — deni. pay /settle a debt. reft. 
jikomboa. buy oneself off; recover/recoup 
(one's losses, in gambling, etc.). appl. 
kombolea. intr. komboka. caus. komboza. 
Cf, *komba, ^kombo, mkombozi, ukombozi; 
also (dial.) gomboa. 

kombora* (ma-) bomb, shell, grenade, rocket. 
— dogo. (hand-)grenade. — la atomiki. 
atomic bomb. — la hydrogen, hydrogen 

kombozi (ma-) see ukombozi. 

kome (ma-) pearl oyster (Cassis madagas- 
cariensis). Cf. *kombe. 

komea close, bolt, latch (a door). — mlango. 
bolt a door. appl. komelea. intr. komeka. 
caus. komeza. in v. komoa. 1. unbolt. 
2. fig. free, liberate. 3. fig. dishonor, 
bring into disrepute. Cf. komeo. 

komeo (ma-) bar, bolt, latch (on a door or 
window). Cf. komea. 

komishena*, komeshena \_Engl. J (— ) com- 

komisheni*, kamisheni tEngl. J (— ) com- 

komiti*, komitii, kamiti tEngl. J (— ) com- 
mittee. — ya uchaguzi. pol. electoral 
committee. — ya kawaida. standing com- 
mittee. — ndogo. subcommittee. 




komitii* (-) see komiti< 
komo (ma-) see kikomo. 
komoa inv. of komea. 

komoo (-) expulsion, exorcism. - ya koikoi. 
exorcising of an evil spirit. Cf. komea. 

^ompania* LPort. j (-) mil. company. 

2 kompania* (_) see kampuni. 

komred* tEngl.l (_) comrade. 

komwe ( ma -) komwe (seeds of the mkomwe; 
used as counters in playing bao). 

kona* (_) secret meeting place; a second 
establishment maintained by a marriedman 
for his mistress. 

2 kona* L Engl J (_) corner „ 

konda waste away, become thin/emaciated, 
lose one's strength; pine away, languish. 
- kwa njaa. become emaciated from star- 
vation, appl. koitdea. caus. kondesha. 
refl.-caus. jikondesha. languish, pine 
away, grieve. 

kondakta* tEngl.'] (ma-) conductor. 

kondavi, kondawi (ma-) string of beads worn 
around the loins by women. 

kondawi (ma-) see kondavi. 

^onde (ma-) fist. piga _ usoni# stfike some _ 
one , n the face with the fist. fig. p j Ra 
moyo -. display courage/manliness. Cf. 

2 konde (ma-) (small) field, cultivated plot of 
land. |i ma _. cultivate a plot of land. 

°konde ( ma -) stone, pit (of fruit), (= kokwa.) 

ikondo (-) arch., liter, battle, combat, war. 
(- vita.) 

kondo (_): _ ya nyuma> afterbirth> siku y& 
kondoni. period of a woman's recovery 
after childbirth. 

kondoo (_) sheep. _ dume. ram. - jike. 
ewe. manyoyaya-. (sheep's) wool, 
fleece. Cf. kikondoo. 

konesha* [.Engl J sport throw a corner 
(football). Cf. 2 kona> 

^onga become old/weak/sickly, caus. 
kongesha. make old, wear out. pass. 
Jongwa. Cf. kikongwe, 2k„ ngoka , k o n go ja , 
kongwe, mkongojo, mkongwe, ukongwe. 

2 konga (-) konga (dance). 

konge pi. pf ukonge. 

kongoa draw (pull, tear, break) out, extract; 
disconnect. - msumari (ji„o). pull out a 
nail (tooth), appl. kongolea. take apart/ 
to pieces, intr, kongoka. become discon- 
nected, come apart. 




kongoja walk unsteadily, stagger, totter, appl. 
kongojea. fimbo ya kukongojea. walking 
stick, cane, appl.-refl. jikongojea. walk un- 
steadily with the aid of a cane. Cf. konga, 

kongojo pi. of ukongojo. See mkongojo. 
A kongoka intr. pf kongoa. 
^kongoka be old. Cf. ^konga. 

kongomana 1. come together, assemble, meet, 
gather. 2. crowd/pack together, pile/heap/ 
stack up; weld together, agglomerate. 3. be 

kongomea join, put together, fasten, nail, 
attach, hang up. Cf. kokomea. 

kongomeo (ma-) fastening, connection. 

^kongomeo (ma-) anat. larynx, Adam's apple. 
Cf. koromeo. 

kongoni, kuguni (— ) zool. kongoni (species of 
antelope: hartebeest, gnu, topi). (= nyumbu.) 

kongonyoa see konyoa. 

kongoro (-) old bull. Cf. konga. 

kongosho (— ) anat. pancreas, thymus, sweet- 

kong'ola, gong'ota 1. beat (hides, in preparing 
leather). 2. hammer (metals). 

(a children's game, in which one child walks 
on stilts and represents a stork). 

kongowea rare greet (in a servile way), salute. 

^kongwa (ma-) arch, slave stick (a pole with 
a forked end and a cross pin, used for 
shackling slaves by the neck). 

fodder, Commelina bracteosa). 

Ikongwe (— ) mus. soloist, leader of a chorus/ 
choir, toa — . lead (singing), start a song (in 
which others join). 

^kongwe (— ) kongwe (a perennial plant, Aneilema 
aequinoctale/ sinicum). 

^kongwe adj. old, worn-out. bibi kikongwe. 
a very old woman. Cf. *konga, mkongwe, 
kikongwe, ukongwe. 

konje (— ) zool. konje (species of marten). 

konjo (ma-) see konzo. 

kono (mi-) (augm. of mkono) 1. (fore-)paw. 
2. handle, grip. 3.: — la tembo. trunk of an 
elephant. Cf. mkono. 

konoa see konyoa. 

Ikonokono (ma-, — ) slug, snail. (= koa.) 

^konokono (— ) konokono (variety of tree, 
Annona squamosa). 

kongoti (ma-) 1. ornith. heron, stork. 2. kongoti 




konsonanti* [Engl.] (-) phon. consonant. 

kontinenti* [Engl J (-) geogr. continent. 
- la Afrika. the continent of Africa. 

kontrakta* [Engl.] (_, rare ma-) contractor. 

konya float, hover, swing, rock, wave, 
flutter, bendera inakonya.The flag waves. 
caus. sep tnnyeza. 

2konya (-) konya (a children's game). 

konyeza {caus. of konya) 1. give a sign/ 

signal; wink, beckon; warn. ass. konyezana. 
wink/make a gesture at each other (as a 
sign of mutual understanding or as a greet- 
ing). 2. (ma-) see konyezo. Cf. konyezo, 
mkonyezo, ukonyezo. 

konyezo, konyeza (ma-) sign, signal; wink; 
warning. Cf. konyeza. 

konyo (ma-) great number, abundance. - la 
nazi. a great quantity of coconuts. 

konyoa, kongonyoa, konoa tear/pluck/pick off. 
- maua (matunda). pick flowers (fruit). _ 
maungo. divide/separate into parts. 

konzi (_, ma -) 1. fist; a blow with the fist. 
piga -. strike with the fist. 2. the open 
hand. 3. handful. Cf. ^onde. 

konzo, konjo (ma-; augm. of mkonzo), ukonzo, 
ukonjo (konzo) stick, rod, pole (with a 
hardened tip, used as a hunting weapon or i, 
pit traps). 

koo (ma-) anat. throat, Adam's apple, craw. 

2 koo (ma-) 1. a breeding female animal. - la 
kondoo. brood ewe. - la kuku. brooding hen. 
2. fig., coll. mistress, prostitute. 

3 koo pi. of iukoo. 

koongo, koroneo (ma-) 1. rl,»p reSE ; G: . :_ .j.. 
earth; drainage, catchment. 2. ravine, gully. 
3. hole dug for planting seed. 

kopa (ma-) (usually makopa) (pieces of dried) 

2 kopa* [Port J ( ma -) cards (suit of) hearts, 
ace of hearts. 

3 kopa 1. borrow, take on credit, nimemkopa 
rafiki yangu fedha. I have borrowed money 
from my friend, prov. kukopa rahisi, kulipa 
natanga. Borrowing is pleasure, paying 
back is pain. caus. kopesha. lend, extend 
credit. 2. cheat, defraud. Cf. ^ope, kikopo, 
mkopaji, mkopeshi, mkopo, ukopaji. 

kope, kopo (ma-) loan, credit. Cf. 3kopa. 

2 kope (-) burnt end of a wick. 

kope (-, ma -) anat. eyelash, eyelid, kwa - 
la juu na chini. in the twinkling of an eye. 
Cf. kikope, ukope. 

kopesa: - macho, blink, wink, 
koplo* [Engl.'] (wa-) mil. corporal. 




Ikopo (ma-) see kopc. 

2 kopo* [Port.] (ma-) 1. metal vessel, can; 
pan, pot. 2.: samaki ya — . canned fish. 
3.: — la maji ya mvua. gutter, eaves, rain- 

kora, kola rare please; be enough/sufficient, 
suffice. Cf. kikora, kikore. 

korani*, kurani (— ) Koran. 

kore (-) rare (cultivated) field, garden, 
plantation. (= shamba.) Cf. kikore. 

korlio* (-) see koho. 

korija*, korja [lnd.~\ korija (unit of quantity 
used in selling: score, 20 units). 

korja* (-) see korija. 

koro adv., rare altogether, throughout. 

^oroboi* [Engl, carbine ?] (-) arch. 
muzzle-loader. ( = gobori.) 

2 koroboi* [Engl, carbide?] (-) small lamp. 

3 koroboi* [.Engl, call a boy or crew boy ? ] 
(-) arch, native child employed at a 
mission. Cf. boi. 

korocha, korochakorocha, kokorocha poke, 
stick, pierce. 

korodani* [Pers.'] (-) 1. sheave (of a pulley). 
2. anat. scrotum, testicles. 

korofi* 1. adj. rough, wild, brutal, cruel; un- 
lucky, ominous, disastrous, 2. (— ) korofi 
(a species of bird supposed to bring bad 
luck). Cf. korofika, mkorofi, ukorofi. 

korofika* be ruined, suffer misfortune, caus. 
korofisha. ruin/injure someone, bring some- 
one bad luck/misfortune. Cf. korofi. 

korofindo* [ ? Cf. KhpL carbine. Germ. Flinte 
? ] (— ) arch, muzzle-loader, musket. 

korofisha* caus. of korofika. 

koroga stir (up), mix, shake; (fig.) agitate, 
provoke. — simu. si. call someone up on the 
telephone. ( = more formal piga simu). Cf. 
mkoroga, mkorogo, ukorogefu. 

korokoni* (-) see korokoroni. 

korokoroni*, korokoni, kirokironi, kirokoroni, 
karakoli, karakoni [Turk.'] (-) 1. jail. 
2. rare guardhouse, police station. 

^koroma (ma-) koroma (coconut when almost 
ripe). Cf. kikoromeo. 

2 koroma 1. breathe heavily, pant; snore; groan, 
sigh; purr (like a cat). 2. (ma-) (also koromo) 
snore, snoring; groan, sigh; purr(ing). Cf. 
koromeo, kikoromeo, mkoromaji, mkoromo. 

koromeo (ma-) anat. 1. larynx. 2. esophagus, 
gullet. Cf. koroma. 

koromo (ma-) see koroma 2. 




ikorongo (ma-) see koongo. 

2 korongo (ma-) 1. heron, stork. 2. fig. long- 
legged person. 

^ororo, kololo (ma-) ornith. crested guinea 
fowl (Guttera pucherani). Cf. ^anga. 

-kororo (ma-) med. Basedow's disease, 
exophthalmic goiter. 

3 kororo sing, (sound of) heavy breathing, 
snoring. Cf. 2 koroma. 

korosho (ma-) cashew nut. Cf. mkorosho. 

korota* rare snore, pant. Cf. 2 koroma. 

korowai (-) korowai (a variety of rice). 

koroweza 1. confuse, embarrass, baffle, dis- 
concert, take aback. 2. rare seize, grasp 
(by the throat); catch (a ball, a thief). 3„ 
fig. rack one's brains (over something). 
Cf. makorowezo. 

offense; sin; lack, deficiency, tia kosani. 
blame, rebuke; accuse. Cf. kosefu, mako- 
sekano, mkosaji, ukosekano. 

kosa (_) kosa (sheaf of 60 cornstalks). 
kosakosa adv. almost, nearly. 

'Se. u uu'/. incorrect, erroneous; faulty, 
defective, kazi ni -. The work is defecth 
Cf. ^osa. 

kosha* [indj (_) (sweet) palm wine. 

koshi* Oers.] (ma-) slipper. 

kosi (ma-) anat. (nape of the) neck, cervical 
vertebra, coll. vun ja -. break one's neck. 
Cf. kikosi, ukosi. 

ikota (ma-) curve, bend, hook, crook. - la njia. 
bend in a road. 

2 kota (ma-), kikota (vi-) (sweet) millet-stalk 

(chewed like candy). 

korti* [Engl J ( ma .) see 2^ 3kota inf. of ota. 

^osa 1. err, be mistaken, make a mistake. 
nimekosa. I was mistaken, haikosi. undoubt- 
edly, doubtless. 2. do wrong; (rel.) sin, 
commit a sin. 3. lack, be wanting. 4. be un- 
successful, not achieve one's purpose. 
5. deviate, go astray; miss one's mark. - 
njia. lose one's way. pass, koswa. be with- 
out a means of escape, get into a cul-de-sac. 
ass. kosekana. be missing/lacking. 6. (ma-) 
error, mistake; blame, censure; wrong, 

kotama (-) short, curved knife (used for slash- 
ing the bark of palm trees in order to collect 
the sap for making palm wine). 

kote {loc. of -ote) adv. 1. everywhere. 2 always 
3. red. kotekote: kisu kinakata -. The knife 
cuts on both edges. 

2 koti* [Engl.] (ma-) coat, jacket; (women's) 
two-piece suit. 




^koti*, korti lEngl.j (ma-) lawcourt 

( = baraza, hakumu, sheria). — kuu, — rufaa. 
court of appeal, supreme court. 

*koto (— ) 1= arch, obligatory labor (of a slave). 
2. (also kotokoto ) extra earnings (from jobs 
outside of one's regular working-hours). 

koto (ma-) large fishhook (for catching 

kotokoto (— ) see *koto 2. 

kotwe (— ) (white-backed) duck (Thalassornis 

kovo (— , ma-) see kovu. 

kovu, kovo (— , ma-) scar, mwenye — . a person 
disfigured by a scar. 

kowana (— ) kowana (edible fish). 

koya rare be contented/happy. 

koza be bright, shine, rangi hii imekoza. This 

is a very bright color. 

Ikozi (-), kikozi (vi-) (species of) hawk, 

^kozi (— ) pinnule, fibrous sheath (of the 
coconut palm). 

krimu* {.Engl.1 (-) cream, salve. Cf. 

2.. . 

Kristo*, Kristu [.Port. ?] Christ. Yesu -. 
Jesus Christ. - Mfalme. Christ the King. 

Cf. kikristo, mkristo, ukristo; also masi- 

^kua grow, grow up; be increased/enlarged/ 
magnified, appl. kulia. caus. kuza. 1. 
raise, rear, cultivate; (fig.) increase, 
magnify, magazeti yaliikuza habari hii. The 
newspapers have magnified/blown up these 

reports. 2. phot, enlarge. — picha. enlarge 
i . _..i n r l i._.i = _.__ i. - 1 i - _ 

a (juuiugiap... ^;. n.uu, ^, ^.^u..u, 

mkulivu, mkuzaji, ukuaji, ukulifu, ukuzaji. 
^kua dial, for kuwa, q.v. 

kuaga, kuagana sing, parting, farewell. Cf. 

kuagana sing. see kuaga. 

kuamkia sing, greeting. Cf. amkia. 

kuba*, kubba, guba, kubla (— , ma-) 1. dome, 
cupola, vault. 2. geogr. gulf, bay. Cf. 

kubadhi* (ma-) see kubazi. 

kubali*, kabuli, kibali, takabali agree, consent; 
acknowledge; admit, approve, appl. kubalia. 
appl.-ass. kubaliana. be of one mind, be on 
good terms with each other, intr. kubalika. 
be acceptable, be deserving of recognition. 
caus. kubalisha. persuade, talk over, prevail 
on someone to agree to something. Cf. 

kubaza* LPers.'] puff up, swell, be inflated. 
Cf. kuba. 




kubazi*, kubadhi (ma-) sandal. (= kiatu, 
koshi, mtalawanda, ndara.) 

kubla* (_, ma-) see kuba. 

kubwa adj. 1. big, large, great, mji mkubwa. 
a big/large city. 2. fig. important, signifi- 
cant, influential. mtu mkubwa. an important/ 
influential personage. 3. essential, princi- 
pal; serious, weightv. npnr. _ a w e ;„v, ty 
utterance. 4. old, dignified, ndugu mkubwa. 
the older brother. 5. strong, heavy, mvua 
kubwa. a heavy rain. 6. loud, sema kwa 
sauti -. speak in a loud voice. 7. real, 
total, utter; regular, confirmed fused with a 
n. or another adj. simply to intensify its 
meaning, like the adv. sanaj. mwizi mkubwa. 
a regular thief. Mtu huyu ni mlevi mkubwa. 
This fellow is a confirmed drunkard. (= kuu; 
cf. also kua, tukuka.) Cf. makubwa, mkubwa, 

kubwebwe, kumbwebwe, kumbewe (ma-) sling. 
piga — . throw with a sling. 

kucha {inf. of 3 cha) 1. dawn, (early) morning 
(= pambauko.) 2. dark(ness). usika -. the 
whole night long, amelala -. He slept the 
whole night through. 

2 kucha (ma-) {augment, of ukucha) claw (of a 
lion, etc.), talon (of a bird of prey). 

kucheza sing. see mchezo. 
kuchi (— ) gamecock, fighting cock. 
kuchwa see chwa. 

kudhamini* sing, surety, security, bail. Cf. 

L-mJI... — .,„:* ( \ . . i— i 

v _, r ,„„. fila „ Ill c v - Komamanga,). 

Cf. mkudhumani. 

kudra* (_) see kudura. 

kudu (-) kudu (kind of fish). 

kudura*, kudra (-) rel. rare power, might. 
(= nguvu, uwezo.) - ya Mungu. the might 
of God. Cf. makadara. 

kuendesha sing, driving. - motokaa. automo- 
bile driving. Cf enda. 

kufa sing, dying, death. - ni kubaya. Dying 
is bad. Cf. fa. 

kufika (inf. of fika, used sometimes like a 
prep.) to, as far as. amesafiri -Tanga. He 
traveled to Tanga. 

^kueha pi. of ukucha. 

kuchanganya sing, (act of) mixing, mixture. 
— chokaa na mchanga. a mixture of mortar 
and sand. 

kufuli* (_, ma-) padlock. 

kufuru* 1. offend, injure. .2. rel. abandon a 
religion, turn apostate, appl. kufuria. intr. 
kufurika. caus. kufurisha. 3. (ma-, us. pi.) 
sacrilege, atheism. - sakramenti. sacrilege. 
Cf. kafiri, makufuru. 

kugesi (-) (also kigesi, kigezi, vi-) anklet. 




kuguni (— ) see kongoni. 

kuhani* (ma-) see kahini. 

kuhusiana* na... see husu, husiana. 

kuhusu* {inf. of husu used as prep.) con- 

kuingiza sing., econ. import(ing), importation. 
Cf. ingia. 

kujiendesha: —a — . adj. automatic. Cf. enda. 

kujitawala* sing. pol. self-government, 
autonomy, independence. Cf. tawala. 

kujitowa sing. — makosa. self-criticism. Cf. 
toa, kutowana. 

kujiua sing, suicide. Cf. ua. 

kuke, kuuke sing. 1. the female side (of a 
family), loc. kukeni. on one's mother's 
side, jamaa ya kukeni. relatives on one's 
mother's side of the family. 2. rare: mkono 
la — . left hand. Cf. ke. 

kuki (ma-) see mkuki. 

kuko adv. there, in/to that place. - huko. in 
that very/same place. 

Ikuku (— ) poultry, fowl, chicken, hen. mtoto 
wa — . chick. 

^kuku adv.: - huku. right there, in that very 

kukurika* 1. be excited/upset/distressed. 2 
be sad/depressed/melancholy. 3. fight, 
wrestle. Cf. kukuru. 

kukuru* (— ) 1. excitement, uneasiness. 2. 
distress, depression. 3. fighting, wrestling. 
Cf. kakara, kikiri, kukurika. 

kukusa be inattentive/careless/negligent/ 

kukuta 1. shake off (drops of water). 2. gasp 
for breath, breathe with difficulty, intr. 
kukutika. be shaken off, be dry /dried off. 

kukutaa be hard, be dried up (e.g., the ground 
by the sun). Cf. kukuta, kukutu. 

kukutu adv.: kauka — . be completely dry. Cf. 
kukuta, kukutaa. 

kukuu adj. see kuukuu. 

kula eat. Cf. la. 

kulabu*, kalubu (— ) hook, clamp. 

kulasitara* (-) ornith. (black) heron. Cf. la, 


kule adv. 1. that, in that place. 2. adv. there, 
in/to that place, red. kulekule. in that very 
place, kule-e-e! (in giving directions, etc.) 
Way over there! A long way off! 

kulea sing, upbringing, (traditional) education. 
Cf. lea. 

kuli* Llnd. ] (ma-) 1. dock-worker, longshoreman. 
2. fig. dock, wharf, shipyard. 




kulia (-) right side. pol. the right, right- 
wing, -a -. right, mkono wa -. the right 
hand. Cf. la appl. 

2 kulia appl. of kua. 

kulifu see kulivu. 

kulihali* adv. in any case, at all events. 

kuliko 1. than (in comparisons), mji huu 

mkubwa — ule. This city is larger than that 
one. 2. rare as to, as regards. 

kulingana na... according to... Cf. linga. 

kulivu, kulifu adj. 1. lacking perseverance/ 
grit, slack, indolent, apathetic. 2. oppres- 
sive, burdensome, troublesome. 3. tedious, 
boring. Cf. kua, ukulifu. 

kuliwi (— ) kuliwi (species of insect). 

kulia* see kila. 

kuludhu* (— ) see kiludhu. 

kulula* rare be superior, surpass, excel. 
( = shinda, pita.) 

kululu 1. (ma-) kululu (large kind of cowrie 
shell of very small value), 2. fig., adv. of 
little value, amepata — . He has received 
something utterly worthless. 

kululu (ma-) kululu (species of locust). 

kulungu, kuungu, kungu (— ) kulungu (species 
of antelope, bushbuck, Tragelaphus 
sylvaticus ). 

kuma (-) anat,., vulg. vagina (= uke). 

kumba 1. push, shove, jostle; butt. 2. destroy, 
do away with. caus. kumbiza, kumbisha. 
push someone aside; push something off on 
someone; force something on someone. 
kumbizia fulani kazi. push a job off on 
someone, ass. kumbana. push/shove each 
other; bump into each other, collide: hntt 
(each other), fight (cattle, etc.). Cf. ki- 
kumbo, * mkumbizi, ukumbaji. 

kumba 1. clear out/away, clean/sweep out; 
bail (water out of a boat; - 3 vua). 2. make 
a clean sweep of something, monopolize. 
appl. kumbia. pass, kumbwa. Cf. ^kumbo, 
mkumbizi, mkumbo, ^ukumbizi. 

' kumba, kumbakumba adj. mixed, miscella- 
neous, heterogenous. 

4 kumba (-) kumba (kind of fish). 

kumbakumba see kumba. 

kumbati, kombati (-) pole (used in building 

kumbatia embrace, take in the arms. intr. 
kumbatika. caus. kumbatisha. ass. kumba- 
tiana. mtoto alikumbatiana na mamaye. The 
child and its mother embraced each other. 

kumbe interj. expressing surprise. — ni yeye 
aliyevunja nyumba! So he is the one who 
broke into the house. Ah, — kila mtu ni 
tayari ila mimi! So everybody is ready except 

me ! 

Ikumbewe (ma-) see kubwebwe. 




^kumbewe (ma-) see kombeo. 

*kumbi, kutnvi (ma-) 1. vegetable fiber 

(usually from coconut palm leaves. 2. chaff. 

^kumbi (ma-) 1. circumcision hut (where boys 
stay before and after being circumcised). 
2. rare circumcision. 

''kumbi pi. of ukumbi. 

kumbikumbi (— ) winged white ant (especially 
when in the edible flying stage). 

*kumbo (ma-) destruction, devastation, annihi- 
lation, depopulation. Cf. kumba. 

^kumbo (ma-) see kikumbo. 

kumbufu adj.: mtu mkumbufu. a person with a 
good memory. Cf. kumbuka. 

kumbuka remember, call to/bear in mind; recog- 
nize, appl. kumbukia. caus. kumbusha. Cf. 
kumbufu, kumbuko, kumbukumbu, kumbusho, 
kikumbuko, mkumbufu, ukumbuko, ukumbusho. 

kumbuko (ma-) 1. memory, recollection, remem- 
brance. 2. reflection, consideration, thought. 
Cf. kumbuka. 

kumbukumbu (ma-, — ) 1. - kumbusho. 2. 

memory, ana — nzuri. He has a good memory. 
Cf. kumbuka. 

kumbusha caus. of kumbuka. 

kumbusho, kumbukumbu (ma-) 1. memory, re- 
collection. 2. memento, souvenir. 

3. memorial, monument, statue, jumba la 
makumbusho. museum. Cf. kumbuka. 

kumbwaya (— ) 1. kumbwaya (kind of drum which 
stands on legs). 2.: ngoma ya — . kind of 

kumbwe (ma-) coll. bite, taste, snack. — na 
kinyweo. food and drink. 

kumbwebwe (ma-) see kubwebwe. 

kumi 1. ten. —a — . tenth. 2. (ma-) decade (of 
a month). — la kwanza (kati, mwisho). first 
(middle, last) decade. 3. a tenth, tithe. 
Cf. kikumi. 

kumoja (— ) one (and the same) kind, uniformity, 
homogeneity. Cf. moja. 

kumpuni (— ) see kampuni. 
kumunta see kung'uta. 
kumunto (ma-) see kung'uto. 
^kumvi (ma-) see kum'bi. 
^kumvi pi. of ukumvi. 

^kuna there is/are in that place, shambani — 
minazi. There are coconut-palms in the 
plantation. — nini? What's the matter? 

''kuna scratch, scrape, grate. — nazi. remove 
the meat of a coconut from the shell, reft. 
jikuna. scratch oneself. Cf. kuno, mkuno; 
also kunyua. 




kunazi* [PersJ (ma-) kunazi (fruit of the 
mkunazi, jujube). Cf. mkunazi, kikunazi. 

kunda (ma-) kunda (a kind of vegetable 
similar to spinach). 

kunda see kunja. 

kundaa be small/underdeveloped/stunted/ 
J,.,„.r„j. -ill-, ... 

..^.u, omiiiji, smivti, mtu aiiyekundaa. 

dwarf, pygmy. 

kunde pi. of ukunde. 

kundi (ma-) 1. herd. _ la wanyama. a herd of 
cattle. 2. swarm, flock. _ la ndege (nyuki). 
a flock/swarm of birds/bees. 3. group, 
band, troupe, makundi makundi. in large 
groups/crowds. - la manowari. naut. 
flotilla, squadron. - la askari. mil. 
squadron. 4. an unregistered association; 
(rare) (political) party. - la mbele. comm. 

kundu (ma-) anat. anus. {- mkundu.) 

Ikunga fold, hem, seam, edge, trim (with tape). 
— nguo. hem/trim a garment. 

kunga 1. instruct, teach (especially in con- 
nection with the initiation of boys and girls 
when they reach sexual maturity). 2. (ma-) 
secret. Cf. kungwi, Imkunga, ukunga, 

3 kunga (-) : - ya uzazi. anat. umbilical cord. 

kunge (-) 1. wood-fiber. 2. center of a tree, 

kunge, kungu, kungugu (_) fog, mist. 

^ungu (ma-) kungu (edible kernel of the mkungu 
fruit). Cf. 2 mkungu. 

kungu (ma-) see jungu. 

3 kungu (-) see kulungu. 

4 kungu (-) see kunge. 

kungugu (-) see 2 kunge. 

kungumanga (-) nutmeg. Cf. mkungumanga; 
also basibasi. 

kunguni (-) 1. bug, bedbug. 2.: - mgunda. 
an insect which eats the roots of growing 

kunguru (_) ornith. (species of) crow (Corvus 

kunguru (ma-) blue and white checked cotton 

kung'uta, kumunta 1. shake, shake off. - 
mavumbi. shake off dust. 2. separate, sift, 
winnow. 3. check carefully, examine, 
scrutinize, reft, jikung'uta. shake oneself. 
Cf. kung'uto, mkung'uto. 

kung'uto, kumunto (ma-) winnowing or sifting 
basket. Cf. kung'uta. 

kunguwala see kungwala. 

kungwala, kunguwala stumble. 




kungwi (ma-) , ngungwi (-) 1. midwife. 2. 
assistant at initiation rites, fig. mimi ni 
— lako. I understand the matter better than 


you do. Cf. kunga. 

kungwia (-) kungwia (kind of dance). 

kuni pi. pf ukuni. 

kunja (dial, kunda) fold (up), close (e.g., a 
pocketknife), wind up (string, etc.); (naut.) 
furl, take in (sail), fig. — uso. wrinkle the 
forehead, make a face. — uzi. wind up yarn. 
coll. mkewe amemkunja. He is henpecked. 
prov. samaki mkunje yungali mbichi. Tie up 
the fish while it is fresh, refl. jikunja. 
crouch, cower, ass. kunjana. heal (wounds). 
stat. kunjama. s tat. -ass. kunjamana. be 
wrinkled, kunjamana uso. wrinkle the fore- 
head, frown, inv. kunjua. unfold, smooth 
out, spread out. kunjua uzi. unwind a ball 
of yarn, kunjua miguu. stretch out the legs. 
kunjua uso. smile, inv. -refl. jikunjua. be 
hospitable/obliging. Cf. kunjo, kunjufu, 
kikunja, kikunjo, mkunjaji, mkunjo, uku- 

kunjama stat. of kunja. 

kunradhi* interj. Excuse me! Pardon me! Cf. 

kunvnu (ma-) empty husk/spike (of grain). 
(- pepe.) — la mawele. empty /withered ear 
of millet. 

kunusa sing, sense of smell. Cf. nuka. 

kunyanzi (ma-) 1. fold, crease. 2. fig. wrinkle. 
Cf. kunja. 

kunyata press, squeeze, refl. jikunyata. 

1. embrace. 2. fig. be depressed, mbona 
umejikunyata sana? Why are you so depressed/ 
sad? Cf. kunja. 

kunyua 1. scratch/cut/hurt oneself. 2. warn, 
give a sign. appl. kunyulia. intr. kunyuka. 
Cf. kuna. 

kuo (ma-) 1. furrow; ditch, trench; hole, pit. 

2. hole for planting seed, bed. 3. cultivated 
plot/parcel of land, nyosha — . mark out a 

kuona sing, sensation, feeling. — kwangu. 
in my opinion. Cf. ona. 

kunjo (ma-) 1. fold, crease. 2. wrinkle. - la kupa* (ma-) side-piece of a pulley. 
nywele. lock of hair. Cf. kunja. 

kupanda sing, planting-time. ( = wakati wa — .) 
kunjua inv. of kunja. Cf. panda. 

kunjufu adj. serene, untroubled; frank, honest; kupasuliwa sing., : med. operation. — kwa 

friendly, cordial, obliging; cheerful, genial. moyo. heart operation. Cf. pasua. 

Cf. kunja (inv.), ukunjufu. 

kupe (— ) (cattle-)tick. 
kuno (ma-) 1. scraping, scratching. 2. product 

of scraping/scratching, that which has been kupia 1. wink, blink. 2. nod, doze, nap. 

scraped/scratched off. Cf. kuna. 




kupita 1. see pita. 2. than (in comparisons). 
nyumba hii knbwa - il e . This house is larger 
than that one. 

kuponi* [Engl.l (-) coupon. 

kupua 1. shake out/off; drop. _ nguo. throw 
off one's clothes, fig. _ ma li. waste/ 
squander property. 2. pour out, spill. _ 
maii. snill w»t»r ~->„7 I i.-_ . i 

- rr „ napuna. MU. KUpU- 

ka. 1. be shaken off; be an outcast/fugitive. 
2. fig. be depraved/infamous (in character). 
Cf. m4<upuo, mkupuzi. 

kura* (_) 1. lot, chance, piga (tupa) -. cast/ 
draw lots. 2. fate, destiny. - ilimwangukia 
yeye. Fate caught up with him. 3. pol. 
voting, balloting. - ya siri. secret voting, 
voting by ballot, piga -. cast a vote, vote. 
4. a vote (in an election), ballot, kwa - 
ayiflgi zai&u by majority vote. 

kurani* (-) see korani. 

kurasa* pi. of ukurasa. 

kurea (-) ornith. kurea (species of king- 

kuro (-) zool. kuro (species of antelope, 

kuru* (_) (solid) cylindrical object. Cf. 

kuruba* (-) curve, bend. 

kurubia see karibia. 

kurumbiza (-) see kurumbizi. 

kurumbizi, kurumbiza (-) ornith. golden oriole 
(Oriolus oriolus). 

kurunzi*, hurunzi (-) 1. flashlight, searchlight. 
2. (cigarette-)lighter. 

kurupuka be surprised/startled/frightened. 
caus. kurupusha. startle/frighten someone. 
refl.-caus. jikurupusha. rise with a start, 
iuuse oneseif. 

kurupusha caus. of kurupuka. 

kururu (-) kururu (white crab). 

kuruta smooth, make even. Cf. guruta. 

kurutu* [Engl.2 (-, ma-) recruit, trainee. 

kuruwiji (_) ornith. (species of) bulbul. 

kusa caus. of kuta. 

kusanya (double caus. of ^uta) collect, gather, 

assemble, pile up, accumulate. - mali. 

accumulate wealth. - jeshi. assemble an 

army. intr. kusanyika. ass. kusanyana. 

assemble, meet together. Cf. kusanyiko, 

mkusanya, mkusanyiko. 

kusanyiko, kusanyo (ma-) 1. gathering, assem- 
blage (without special purpose), crowd. 2. 
gathering-place. Cf. kusanya. 

kusanyo (ma-) see kusanyiko. 

kusha caus. of kuta. 

kushoto (-) left side. pol. the left, left-wing, 
-a -. left, mkono wa -. left hand, kutoka - 
kwenda kuume. from left to right. 




kusi*, kussi (— ) 1. south wind, south monsoon. 4^^ p / # f u lc U ta. 
2. period of the south-southwest monsoon. 

(May - October). 3. ioc. kusini. in/from the kutaa dry up, wither. (= nyauka, kauka. 

kusini* Ioc. see kusi. 

kussi* (— ) see kusi. 

knetnhnni*. kiistahini. kustubani (— ) see 

kusudi*, kasidi 1. intend, purpose, have in 
view, plan, propose, us. appl. kusudia. 
intr. kusudika. caus. kusudisha. 2. {also 
kasida) (ma-) intention, purpose, plan, aim. 
3. adv. intentionally, on purpose; in order to. 
amevunja makusudi. He broke it intentionally, 
amesafiri - akamwone. He traveled with the 
intention of seeing him (or: in order to see 
him). ( = shauri, maana, nia, mradi.) Cf. 

^kusuru* try hard, make an effort, do under 
difficulties/with great exertion. 

2 kusuru* shorten, lessen, reduce. Cf. kasa. 

Ikuta come upon, meet, run across (someone or 
something), ass. kutana. meet (each other). 
caus. kutisha, kusha, kusa. produce, create. 
kutisha mashaka. create doubts. Cf. kusanya, 
kutano, ^ikuti, mkutano, mkuto. 

kutana ass. of kuta. 

2 kuta appease, satisfy (hunger). (- shiba.) 
3 kuta: - mayai. lay eggs. (= taga.) 

kutano (ma-) {usually mkutano) 1. meeting, 
gathering (with a definite purpose). 2. 
assemblage, crowd. Cf. kuta. 

kutawala* sing, government, rule. Cf. tawala, 

kutayarisha* sing, preparation. Cf. tayari, 

kuti (ma-) leaf (of the coconut palm). Cf. ukuti. 

kutoingilia(na) sing., pol. non-intervention. 
Cf. ingia. 

kutoka prep, from, out of. - pale, from there. 
Cf. 2 toka. 

kutokana na... according to, as a result of. Cf. 
tokana ( i toa). 

kutokujua sing, ignorance, Cf. jua. 

kutoshambulia, kutoshambuliana sing., pol. non- 
aggression, mkataba wa — . non-agression pact. 
Cf. shambulia. 

kutota sing, degeneration. Cf. tota. 

kutowana sing.: - makosa. criticism. - makosa 
na kujitowa makosa. coram, criticism and self- 
criticism. Cf. 1 toa. 



kutu sing. 1. rust, ingia _. to rust. 2. (plant) 

kutua, gutua 1. jerk, cause a shock, pull (sud- 
denly). 2. fig. land (of airplanes), intr. 
kutuka. be shocked/startled/frightened. 
caus. kutusha. shock, frighten. Cf. mkutuo. 

kutuzi (-) (odor of) perspiration. (= kikwapa.) 

kutwa see chwa. 

kuu adj. 1. large; great, important; distin- 
guished, prominent, eminent, famous. 2. old, 
experienced. Cf. makuu, mkuu, ukuu; also 
kua, kubvva. 

kuuke sing. see kuke. 

kuukuu, kukuu adj. worn-out, old, useless. 
Cf. kikuukuu. 

kuume sing. 1. male/paternal side (of a 
family). Ioc. kuumeni. on one's father's 
side, jamaa ya kuumeni. relatives on one's 
father's side. 2. right side, —a — . right. 
mkono wa -. right hand. Cf. ume. 

kuuganisha sing, collectivization. Cf. 2 unga. 

kuungo (-) kuungo (oval stone, used to smooth 
the surface of pottery). 

kuungu (-) see kulungu. 

kuvu (— , ma-) mold, mildew, blight; fungus, 

kuvuli rare: mkono wa — . right hand. 

kuwa (dial, kua) conj. 1.: ya -. (so) that, (in 
order) that. 2.: kwa -. because. 

kuwadi* (_) see kawadi. 

kuwi (_) kuwi (a fish). 

kuwili adv. in two ways, in a double way. kisu 
chenye makali -. a double-edged knife. Cf. 

kuyu (-) wild fig. Cf. mkuyu. 

kuza caus. of kua. 

kuzaliwa sing, birth. Cf. zaa. 

kuzi (-, ma-) water-jug (with one or two 
handles). (= mtungi, chombo.) 

kuzika, kuzikani, kuzikwa sing., rare burial, 
funeral (= maziko). Cf. zika. 

kuzimu sing, realm of the dead, underworld; 
(rel.) limbo, amekwenda — (or: kuzimuni). 
He is dead. Cf. mzimu, wazimu, zimwe. 

kuzumburu (-) kuzumburu (species of bird, 
Colivus leucatis). 

k. v. abbr. of kama vile, that is, for example 

(i.e., e.g.). 

kwa prep. 1. with, by means of, by. safiri _ 
motokaa. travel by automobile, andika - 
Kiswahili. write in Swahili. 2. because of, as 
a result of. walikimbia - hofu. They fled be- 
cause of fear. 3. with, to (a person), at/to 
the home of... kaa _ fulani. live/stay with/at 




the home of someone, kwenda — fulani. go 
to (see, visit) someone. 4. in, for (a period 
of time), safiri — miaka mitatu. be away for 
three years. — mwezi miwili. in two months. 
5. according to. — maoni yao. in their 
opinion. 6. forming adverbs: — haraka. 
hastily, quickly. — siri. secretly, mysteri- 
ously, mara — mara. again and again. — 
moyo. by heart. — miguu. on foot. — kujua. 
deliberately. 7. forming conjunctions: — 
kiiwa. sincp Kprsnw, _ S2 babu («»). sir.ce, 
because. 8. interr. — nini? why? 9.: — heri! 
Good-bye ! 

kwaa (and refl. jikwaa) bump, stumble (against, 

over), slip. — na jiwe. stumble over a stone. 

fig. 1. be mistaken/wrong. 2. hestitate, 

falter. 3. be pugnacious/quarrelsome. 

amenikwaa. He is trying to pick a fight with 

me. caus. kwaza. Cf. kwao, kikwazo; also 

kwadragesima* [Lat. J (— ) see kwaresima. 

kwakura scratch the ground (with the claws). 

kwale, kware, kwara (— ) ornith. partridge. 

kwama 1. stick, be stuck/jammed, amekwamwa 
na mwiba wa samaki. A fishbone is stuck in 
his throat. 2. naut. run aground, be stranded. 
3. fig. be in a difficult situation, inv. kwamua. 
loosen, free, extricate, inv.-appl. kwamulia. 
Cf. kwaa. 

kwamba (also ya — ) conj. 1. that, in order that, 
in order to. alisema (ya) ... He said that... 
2.: kama — . as if. alisema kama — ana 
hakika. He talked as if he were sure. 3.: 
— ... — . whether ... or. — ni view an — ni 
ya vibaya. whether it is good or bad. 

kwamua see kwama (inv.) and kwamyua. 

kwamyua, kwanyna, kwamua, kwanna pick, 
pluck, tear off, break off (fruit, branches), 
appl. kwanyulia. intr. kwanyulsa. 

kwaje interrog. how? in what way? why? 

kwaju (— ) tamarind (fruit of the mkwaju). 

kwajuka fade, deteriorate, become ugly, 
shrivel up. 

kwake 1. see — ake. 2. loc. poss. 3rd pers. 
sing, to/with/at/from him (her), his/her 
house, enda — . go to him/her, go to his/her 

kwako 1. see — ako. 2. loc. poss. 2nd pers. 
sing, to/with/from you, to/at/from your 
house, ja — . come to you, come to your 

kwanga (— ) zool. rock rabbit (hyrax, coney). 

kwangu 1. see — angu. 2. loc. poss. 1st 
pers. sing, to/with/from me, to /at my 
house, kaa — . stay with me, stay at my 

kwangua clean, scrape, scour. 

kwani (< kwa nini) 1. conj. since, because. 
2. interrog. , si. (pronounced kwa' ) why, for 
what reason. ( = kwa satabu, kwa maana, 
kwa ajili, kwa kuwa.) 

kwanua see kwamyua. 



kwanyua see kwamyua. 
kwanyulia appl. of kwamyua. 

kwanza adv. first, at first, in the beginning. 
-a -. adj. first. Cf. anza. 

lkwao l - s " -ao. 2. loc. poss. 3rd pers. 
plur. to/with/from them, to/at/from their 

— . ctay v.Vlu inciii, siay at their 

Jin U «.» I,-- 

house. 3. (ma-) birthplace, home. 


kwao, kwazo (ma-) obstruction, impediment. 
njia ya -. a rough, stony road. Cf. kwaa. 

3 kwao (-) ornith. brown-headed parrot. 

kwapa (ma-) anat. armpit, chukua (futika) 
kwapani. carry something under the arm. 
Cf. kikwapa. 

kwapua see kwepua. 
kwara (-) see kwale. 
^warara (-) ornith. (species of) ibis. 
kwarara pi. wild fruit. 
Ikware (-) see kwale. 

kware adj. lascivious, lewd, prurient. Cf. 
mkware, ukware. 

kwaresima*, kwadragesima [Lat.'] (-) rel. 

kwaru (-) ornith. Grosbeak weaver (= yombi- 
yombi, katadole). 

kwaruza 1. scrape, scratch. 2. be rough/gritty/ 
uneven/bumpy. Cf. kwaruzo, mkwaruzo. 

kwaruzo (ma-) file, rasp. Cf. kwaruza. 

kwasi rare 1. be rich/wealthy/affluent. 2. adj. 
rich, wealthy; extravagant, wasteful. 
(- tajiri.) Cf. mkwasi, ukwasi. 

^kwata 1. (also kikwata) adv. on foot. 2. (-) 
mil. drill, review, parade, maneuver. Cf. 
kiatu, kwato, liwato. 

2 kwata (-): _ jeupe (jekundo). white (red) 
sweet potato. 

kwato (ma-), ukwato (kwato), kikwato (vi-) hoof 
(of an animal). Cf. kwata. 

kwatua clean. _ shamba. clear a field, pull 
weeds, refl. jikwatua. clean/spruce oneself 

kwaya* [Engl.] (-) choir, chorus; choral 
music, anthem. 

kwaza caus. of kwaa. 

kwazi (-) ornith. kwazi (variety of fish-eating 

kwazo (ma-) see kwao. 

kwea 1. climb up on, get on top of, mount. - 
mnazi. climb a coconut palm. - meli. go on 
board a ship. 2. mount, cover, copulate with 
(of a male animal). 3. go up, rise, become 
higher, appl. kwelea. rare: mawimbi ya 
kwelea. surf, high seas, appl.-intr. kweleka. 
caus. kweza. raise, increase, kweza bei. 
raise prices, kweza mashua. pull a boat 




onto the beach, refl.-caus. jikvveza. 
exalt oneself, boast, brag. Cf. ^kweleo, 
kwezi, tnkweo, mkwezi, ukwezi. 

kweche (ma-) old, worn-out vehicle. 

kwechi (— ) ornith, bishop bird. (= chekechea.) 

kwekwe (— , ma-) weed. 

kweleka appl.-intr. of kvvea. 

^kweleo (— , ma-) see koleo. 

^kvveleo (ma-) peg (or notch) in a tree-trunk 
(to facilitate climbing). Cf. kwea. 

kweli 1. (— ) truth; truthfulness, honesty, 
candor, colt. — inauma. The truth hurts. 
— ikisimama, wongo hujitenga. Where truth 
is, falsehood must yield. 2. adv. indeed, 
truly, honestly, really. 3.: —a — . adj. 
true. Cf. ukweli. 

kwembe (ma-) 1. ornith. crowned hornbill 

(Lophoceros melanoleucos ). — maji. African 
woolly-necked stork (Dissoura episcopus). 
2. fig.: domo la — . a walking-stick with a 
handle shaped like the bill of the kwembe. 

kweme (— ) kweme (seed of the mkweme plant). 

kwenda prep, (going) to. amesafiri - Tanga- 
nyika. He traveled to Tanganyika. — baharini, 
sea-going (vessels). Cf. enda. 

kwenu 1. see -enu. 2. loc. poss. 2nd pers. 
plur. to /with you, to/at your home, 

kwenye see enye. 

kwenzi (— ) ornith. starling. 

kwepua, kwapua take/snatch away, steal. Cf. 

kwesha fix, fasten. 

kweta flounder, flop, struggle. 

kwetu 1. see -etu. 2. loc. poss. 1st pers. 
plur. to/with us, at our home. 

kweu (— ) see kvveupe. 

kweupe, kweu (— ) light, brightness; bright sky, 
good weather, leo ni — . There is fine weather 

kweza caus. of kwea. 

kwezi adj. climbing, twining (of plants). Cf. 

kwikwi (— ) hiccup, sobbing. 

kwingineko adv. elsewhere. Cf. ingine, 

kwini* LEngl.J (— ) queen. 

kwinini*, kinini LEngl.J sing., pharm. quinine. 

kwisha 1.: —a — . last, final. 2. adv. then, 
subsequently, alikula chakula — akaenda 
zake. He ate his meal, then he went away. 
Cf. ^sha. 

kwiu (— ) (pangs of) hunger, craving (for meat). 
Cf. kiu. 

k.w.k. abbr. of kadha wa kadha and so forth, 



la 1, eat. 2. eat up, devour, consume; use up. 
fig., dial, itakula siku nyingi. It will last for 
many days. 3. eradicate, destroy, fig. — 
fedha. spend money, appl. lia. lia viapo. to 
take oaths, {lit. to 'eat' oaths, since various 
tribes contract oaths by eating sacrificial 
foods as uie flesh of sheep, cow's 
blood, etc.). mwiko wa kulia. spoon, intr. 
lika. be edible; be eaten (up), be consumed. . 
tunda hili haliliki. This fruit is not edible. 
caus. lisha. 1. cause to eat, feed, pasture, 
lisha ng'ombe. put cattle out to pasture. 2. 
fig. bribe, corrupt, pass. liwa. ass. Jana. 
rare. ,eat together/in company, usually 
appl. -ass. liana, refl.-appl. jilia. be 
selfish; (wilfully) waste, squander, double 
caus. lishisha, lishiza. nourish, support, 
care for. Cf. chakula, kilaji, malaji, ma- 
lisho, m lisha, mlisho, mla, mlaji, mlo, 
ulaji, ulio. 

^la* no, not so. ( = siyo, sivyo, hakuna, 
hapana, hasha.) 

la conn, ji- cl.: tunda — mti. fruit of the tree. 
laabu* amuse, entertain (oneself). 

laana*, lana (ma-) curse, imprecation; (rel.) 
damnation, ana — la wazee wake. He has 
been disowned by his parents, Cf. laani, 
laanifu, maleuni, mlaanifu, ulaatiifu. 

laani*, lani curse, damn, execrate, swear at. 
intr. laanika. caus. laanisha. pass, laa- 
niwa. Cf. laana. 

iaanifu* rare, 

accursed, damned. Cf. 

labda*, labuda adv. perhaps, possibly, 

iabe* see labeka. 

labeka*, lebeka, labe, bee, abe, ebee! inter j. 
At your service! Yes, sir (ma'am)! (formerly 
used by slaves). 

labuda* see labda. 

ladha*, laza, ludha (— ) 1. odor, aroma, fra- 
grance (used for either pleasant or unpleas- 
ant odors, but rarely for unpleasant; - onja, 
harufu). — ya kahawa. the aroma of coffee. 
2. taste. 

ladu* und. J (— ) a confection made of peanuts 
and sugar or meal and syrup. 

lafidhi* (— ) see lafudhi. 

lafua 1. be greedy /voracious. 2. be very 
hungry, intr. lafuka (in an int. sense), be 
insatiable. Cf. lapa, mlafi, ulafi. 

lafudhi*, lafuzi, lafidhi (— ) 1. pronunciation, 
accent. 2. style, manner of speaking. 3. 
excuse, evasion. 

lafuzi* (— ) see lafudhi. 

laghai*, raghai, ragai 1. deceive, cheat; con- 
fuse. 2. (ma-; also mlaghai, wa-) cheat, 
swindler. 3. adj.. false, fraudulent. Cf. uragai. 




laha* (— ) rare piece/sheet of paper. 
( = ukurasa.) 

laika, ulaika (ma-) 1. body hair (on the hands, 
arms; cf. vuzi). 2. down (of birds). 

laiki* 1. be suitable/appropriate/proper. 2. 
(— ) suitability, appropriateness, what is 
fitting/proper. 3. adj. suitable, appropriate, 
proper (usually in reference to actions /be- 
h.airinr). maipnrln vaL "snam'.sik:. His 
actions are just what you would expect of 

laini*, leini, lainifu adj. 1. delicate, soft, 
fine, smooth, thin, pliable. 2. fig. gentle, 
good-natured. Cf. lainika, ulaini. 

lainifu* see laini. 

lainika* be soft/delicate/smooth, fig.: 1. be 
soothing/reassuring. 2. be spoiled/pam- 
pered. 3. be gentle/good-natured, caus. 
lainisha. soften, smooth; (fig.) ease, alle- 
viate, pass, lainiwa. Cf. laini. 

lainisha* caus. of lainika. 

Iainzimani* [Engl. J (ma-) sport linesman. 

laisensi* (— ) see leseni. 

laiti* interj. would that..., if only... — 
angalikuja. If he would only come! 

laka* {.Germ. Lack? J (— ) sealing wax. tia 
— . seal. Cf. lakiri. 

lake pass. pron. 3rd pers. sing, ji- cl. 
see -ake. 

Maki*, lakki [lnd.~] (-) 1. hundred thousand. 
2. great number. 

z laki* (go to) meet, greet, welcome. 

lakini*, walakini, ilakini conj. but, however, 

lakiri*, lakri [.Port. J (— ) sealing wax. 

lakki* (— ) see laki. 

lako poss. pron. 2nd pers. sing, ji- cl. see 

lakri* (— ) see lakiri. 

lala 1. lie, lie stretched out, be horizontal; lie 
down. — macho, lie awake, mstari uliolala. 
horizontal line. 2. sleep, go to sleep. — 
usingizi. sleep soundly. 3 fall down, col- 
lapse. 4. tr. sleep with, have sexual inter- 
course with (a woman), appl. lalia. sleep 
on (in, etc.). intr. lalika. kitanda hiki 
hakilaliki. This is not a good bed to sleep 
in. caus. Ialisha, laza. put to bed, put to 
sleep; (fig., sport) defeat, beat, timu hii 
imewalaza kwa mabao matano. The team has 
beaten them by five goals, ass. lalana. 
sleep with each other, have sexual inter- 
course, refl.-caus. jilaza. rest, take a rest. 
amejilaza apumzike. He is lying down to 
take a rest. Cf. kilalio, kilalo, malale, ma- 
lalo, mlalaji, mlalavi, mlazi, lulalo, 2 u l a l , 

lalaika rare complain, groan (from hunger, 
pain). Cf. lalama. 

lalama (and intr. lalamika) 1. groan, complain, 
lament, wail, cry out. 2. beg for mercy/ 



forgiveness. appl. lalamia. caus. lalamisha. 
pass, lalamiwa. Cf. Ialamiko, mlalamishi, 
ulalamishi; also lalaika. 

lalamika see lalama. 

Ialamiko (ma-) (usually malalamiko) appeal, 
entreaty, supplication; request, petition. 
Cf. lalama. 

iamba, ramba lick. appl. lambia. intr. la- 
mbika. caus. lambisha. give someone a taste 
of something, arouse someone's desire for 
something, appl. -cont. -appl. lambitia. make 
someone's mouth water, arouse strong desire. 
Cf. mlamba, lambilambi, ulambilambi. 

lambilambi adj. soft (of something that can be 
licked off). Cf. Iamba. 

lambitia appl.-cont.-appl. pf Iamba. 
lambo (ma-) weir, dam, dike. 

lango (ma-) (augment, of mlango) 1. large 
door, gate, portal. 2.: malango. initiation 
(of boys and girls at puberty; cf. kunga, 
jando, unyago, mizingu;. 

langu poss. pron. 1st pers. sing, ji- cl. 
see -angu. 

Iani* s ee laani. 

lao poss. pron. 3rd pers. pi. ji- d. see 

lapa eat greedily/hastily, be famished. Cf. 
Iafua, mlafi, ulafi. 

lapulapu (-) sandals. 

lasi* [Pers J (-) lasi (kind of silk cloth: 
pongee, shantung). 

latamia 1. see atamia. 2. fig. rear, bring 
up (a child). 

lami*, lammi (-) 1. g l ue . 2 . pitch, tar. bara- 
bara ya -. asphalt street, paka _. tar some- 

lammi* (-) see lami. 

lana* (ma-) see laana. 

^anda, randa rare be like/similar, resemble. 
- baba yake. He looks like his father, ass. 
landana. resemble each other, look alike. 
(= fanana, Iingana, -a sawasawa.) 

2 Ianda* (-) see 2 randa. 

latifu* (-) goodness, kindness, gentleness. 
latitude* [Engl.} geogr. (_) latitude. 
lauka intr. of Iawa. 

laula* rare: kama -. if not , unless. Siwezi 
kumaliza kazi hii - kama nitapata msaada. 
I cannot finish this work unless I get help. 
( = isipokuwa, ila.) 

laumu* 1. criticize, reproach, blame, accuse. 
(= karipia, kemea, suta, shtaki, hatia, 
nenea.) appl. Iaumia. intr. laumika. caus. 
laumisha. (also w. int. force:) scold some- 
one, pass, laumiwa. refl. jilaumu. reproach 
oneself, blame oneself. 2. (ma-) see lawama. 


launi* (-) rare. 1. resemblance, similarity. 
2. form, shape, 3. expression (of the face). 

dauni* \_Engl. (make the) rounds] rare walk/ 
stroll around. 

launilauni* adv. different, various. Cf. 

(— ) vanilla. 

lavya cans, of lawa. 

Iawa rare go out. re/7, jilawa and intr. lauka. 
get up/leave one's house early in the 
morning, intr.-appl. laukia. get up early for 
someone {or to surprise someone), caus. 
lavya. fig. disclose, reveal. 

lawalawa, lovulovu (— ) (kind of) candy, dessert. 

lawama* (ma-) 1. criticism, fault-finding, 
reproach, reprimand, accusation. 2. risk of 
criticism, responsibility, hatutajitia — 
kuandika mambo hayo. We are not running 
the risk/taking the responsibility of writing 
on those matters. Cf. laumu. 

_ 2 
lawiti* practice sodomy /pederasty. (- fira.) 

Maza caus. of lala. 

2laza* (— ) see ladha. 

lazimu* must, have to, be obligated; be 
necessary, maneno yamemlazimu. The 
words have obligated him. appl. lazimia. 
intr. lazimika. pass. lazimiwa. caus. 
lazimisha (also w. int. force)* force, 
compel, obligate; punish, refl.-caus. 
jilazimisha na... take an interest in/devote 
oneself to something, take full responsi- 
bility for something. Cf. lazima. 

Ie dem. pron. that, those, watu wale, those 

Ie ( < lake) poss. pron. his/her. jinale. 
his name. 

lea rear, bring up, educate; care for, tend. 
prov. mwana umleavyo ndivyo akuavyo. As 
one rears a child, so it grows (As the twig 
is bent, so the tree inclines), appl. lelea. 
pass, lelewa. amelelewa na shangazi yake. 
He was brought up in his aunt's house. Cf. 
malezi, mlezi, ulezi. 

leba* (— ) rare lie, falsehood, deception. 
Cf. lebu. 

leba* \_Engl. J (— ) rare labor, waziri vva — . 
minister of labor. 

Iebasi*, libasi .(— ) clothes, clothing. 
(- mavazi, ■ nguo.) 

lebeka* see labeka. 

lazima* 1. (— ) necessity, obligation, respon- , , .„ i- j • i . rt \ u 

' ' n > r lebu- rare he, deceive, cheat. Cf. leba. 

sibility. chukua — . assume a responsibility, 

be responsible for, vouch/go bail for. 2. lefti* [_Engl.~\ sing./adj.,, sport left (= kushoto). 

adv. irrevocably, necessarily. Cf. lazimu. insaidi wa — . inside left (football). 



lega, rega, legalcga, rcgarega 1„ waver, be 
unsteady, oscillate, swing, totter. 2. be 
loose. 3. be indefinite, uncertain, siku ya 
safari yangu inalega (legalega). The day of 
my departure is indefinite. 4. be slack/ 
limp; (fig.) be negligent/careless/idle. 
appl. legea. caus. legeza. loosen, slacken, 
relax, ease tension; cause to waver/fluctu- 
ate. Cf. legevu, mlegevu, ulegevu. 

legalega see lega. 

legeni* (_) legeni (large metal cooking pot). 

legevu adj. loose, slack, limp, relaxed; (fig.) 
idle, easy-going. Cf. lega, mlegevu, ule- 

legeza caus. of lega. 

Legiko* see Lejiko. 

lehamu* see lehemu. 

lehemu*, lehamu, lahamu, lihamu 1. solder. 
appl. lehemia. nyundo ya kulehemia. 

soldering iron. intr. lehemika. caus. 
lehemisha. pass, lehemiwa. 2. (-) solder, 
soldered joint, soldering, tia -. to solder. 

leini* see laini. 

Lejiko*, Legiko [Engl.] Legico (abbr. of 
Legislative Council). 

lekea see elekea. 

lekevu adj. see elekevu. 

Ida*, leli (-) rare night. (= usiku.) 
lde* (ma-) augment, of kilele. 
leli* (-) see Ida. 

lema (_) dial, fish trap (of basketwork). 

dema exorcise a spirit. 

lemaa 1. be disfigured/deformed/maimed/ 

mutilated/crippled. 2. he diseased/paralytic; 
be addicted, mwenye kulemaa maungo. a 
paralytic, amelemaa kwa kuvuta. He is 
addicted to tobacco, caus. lemaza. dis- 
figure/maim/cripple. 3. (-) defect, blemish, 
deformity, mutilation. Cf. kilema. 


see remba. 

demba (ma-) see l kilemba. 

lembea hand/pass something down to someone 
(fruit from- a tree, etc.). 

lemea, demea I. press/weigh down, oppress, 
crush, overwhelm, mzigo huu unamlemea. 
This load weighs him down. 2. push forward, 
impel. 3. be burdensome/troublesome/ 
annoying, pass, lemewa. ass. lemeana. 
caus. lemeza. pile on, load up. 

lenga, linga aim, take aim. - shabaha. take 
aim at a target, appl. lengea. 

-lenga cut up into pieces/slices/strips; clip, 
crop, dock. appl. lengea. ass. lengana. 



lengalenga be on the point of crying, be tear- 

lengelenge (ma-) med. blister (from a burn); 
scar, weal, welt; pockmark. 

lengo (ma-) aim, target; (fig.), goal, objec- 
tive. Cf. Ienga. 

lensi* (— ) see lenzi. 

lenu poss. pron. %ndpers. pi. ji- cl. see — enu 

lenye see — enye. 

lenyewe see — enyewe. 

lenzi*, lensi [.Engl. J (— ) opt. lens. 

leo 1. (— ) the present day /time. prov. juzi 
najana si kama — . Day before yesterday 
and yesterday are not like today, coll. 

— ni — . today is today. 2. adv. today, 
si — . a long time ago. ukoloni mambo — . 

lepe (ma-) rare sleepiness, drowsiness. 
(usually — la usingizi; = usingizi, uzito, 

lesani*, lisani (— ) rare tongue, voice, lan- 
guage. ( = ulimi, usemi, lugha.) 

leseni*, laisensi, lesensi [Engl. J (— ) 

1. license, permit, — ya udereva or — ya 
kuendeshea motokaa. driver's license. 

— ya bunduki. gun-license, omba— . ap- 
ply for a license. 2. rare patent. 

lesensi* (— ) see leseni. 

leso* L Port. J (— , ma-) 1. leso (woman's 
kerchief or shawl). 2. rare handkerchief. 
3. scarf, sash. 

leta 1. bring, go and get, fetch. — kiti. pull 
up a chair. 2. fig. produce, bring about, 
result in. vita inaleta uharibifu. War pro- 
duces destruction. — baina. prove, ass. 
(rare) letana. appl. letea. appl.-ass. 
leteana. leteana barua. correspond (with 
each other). Cf. mletaji, uletaji. 

letu poss. pron. lstpers. pi., ji- cl. see — etu. 

levi adj. drunk(en), intoxicated. Cf. levva. 

levuka (inv.-intr. o/Iewa) sober up, become 

levya caus. of lewa. 

levyesha double caus. of lewa. 

lewa 1. be/become drunk. 2. (also red. lewa- 
lewa) stagger, reel. appl. lewea. caus. 
levya, lewesha. make someone drunk, refl.- 
caus. jilevya get drunk, double caus. 
levyesha. fig. confuse, turn someone's 
head, pesa nyingi zimemlevyesha. All that 
money has turned his head. Cf. kileo, 
mleo, levi, mlevi, ulevi, uleoleo. 

lewalewa red. of lewa. 

lewesha caus. of lewa. 

li aux. v., arch. be. wewe uliye mwalimu. 
You who are a teacher. 



lia make a sound/noise (in gen. , animate 
or inanimate; = toa/paaza sauti, vuma, 
nguruma, imba, etc.): 1. weep, cry. 
mtoto analia. The child is crying. 
2. sing, twitter, ndege analia. The bird 

is singing. 3. make a loud noise, go bang. 
bunduki imelia. The gun is fired, appl. 

lilia. weep/mourn for someone, refl.-appl. 

jililia. be sorry for oneself, caus. liza. 

iiza bunduki. tire a gun. pass, liliwa. 

ass. liana. Cf. lio, kilio, malizano, ma- 

lizi, mlia, mlio, mlizi, ulizi. 

lia appl. of la. 

libasi* (-) see lebasi. 

licha (or - ya) ... hata... conj. not only... 
but (what is more important)... _ ya Said 
hata Musa amekuja. Not only Said but 
also Musa has come (Musa being a more 
important personage). 

liga rare 1. (ma-) poison. 2. to poison. 
( = sumu, sumisha.) 

ligi*, ligu [EngLl (-) league, club, asso- 

ligu* (-) see ligi. 

lihamu* (-) see lehemu. 

lijamu*. luguamu (-) bit (part of a bridle). 

lika intr. of la. 

likiza dispose of something quickly, finish, 

likiza rare 1. g i ve a holiday to someone, 
let go. 2. dismiss, send away. 3. fig. 
wean (a child). (= acha, ondosha, ruhusu.) 
Cf. likizo. 

likizo (ma-) holiday, vacation. Cf. 2 likiza. 
likwama (ma-) handcart, wheelbarrow. 

lilamu*. lilam llnd.?] (_) public sale, 

lile dem. pron. ji- cl. see le. 

lima 1. hoe, cultivate land. 2. plow. appZ. 
limia. jembe la kulimia. a hoe. intr. li- 
mika. be arable, caus. limisha. Cf. li- 
maji, kilimia, kilimo, malimo, makulima, 
mkulima, mlimaji, mlimo, ukulima, ulimaji. 

2 lima* (-) wedding feast. 

limaji adj. engaged in agriculture, agri- 
cultural. Cf. ^lima. 

limao* [PersJ (ma-) see limau. 

limatia, lumatia dial, hesitate, delay, stay 

behind; be late. caus. Iimatisha. pass. 

limau*, limao [PersJ (ma-) lemon. 
Cf. mlimau. 

limbika 1. wait for something to grow/ripen. 
- nywele (kucha). let the hair (fingernails) 
grow. — ndizi. let bananas ripen. 2. save, 
store up. 3. fig. be indulgent/patient. Cf. 



limbiko (ma-) see mlimbiko. 

limbua, rimbua 1. eat the first fruits of a new 
harvest. 2. use for the first time. caus. 
limbusha. intr. Iimbuka. taste, try out; 
enjoy an anticipated pleasure, Cf. limbuko. 

Iimbuka intr. of limbua. 

limhllWn (m»- ; ;, ? pM t m.!;~b»ko (^.: ) 

1. first fruits/benefits. 2. anticipated en- 
joyment/pleasure. Cf. limbua. 

limi adj. talkative, loquacious. Cf. kilimi, 
mlimi, ulimi. 

limuka* 1. be sly/cunning. 2. be underhanded/ 
treacherous, cans, limusha. (= danganya, 
hila, hadaa.) Cf. elimu, limuko. 

limuko* (ma-) cunning, craftiness, deceit. 
Cf. limuka. 

linda watch over, guard, protect. — shamba 
(nyuinba). guard a field (house), mil. — 
doria. to patrol, refl. jilinda. 1. protect/ 
defend oneself. 2. watch out, be on one's 
guard. Cf. Undo, kilinda, kilindo, mlinda, 
mlinzi, ulinzi. 

lindi, dindi (ma-) pit, hole; cesspool, drain. 
— la kupanda mbegu. hole for planting seed. 
kitovu cha — . navel. — la choo. cesspool. 
Cf. kilindi. 

Undo (ma-) lookout, guard-post. Cf. linda. 

^lindo (ma-) lindo (a cylindrical box made of 

*linga rare make equal/harmonious, adapt, 
accommodate, usually ass. lingana. fit, 
suit, match; be similar; harmonize, agree. 
kulingana na ... according to ... appl. 
lingania. caus. linganisha, linganya. 
compare; effect agreement/harmony; (mus.) 
tune (instruments); check, collate. Cf. 
linganifu, linganisho, ^kilingo, mlingano, 
ulinganifu, ulinganisho, ulingano. 

"Minga see Menga. 

linganifu, linganyifu adj. fitting, suitable, 
homogeneous, agreeing, harmonious, sym- 
metrical. Cf. linga. 

linganisho (ma-) comparison. Cf. linga. 

linganyifu see linganifu. 

lingo pi. of ulingo. 

lingwa be tangled up/caught in something; 
(fig.) become confused, be perplexed/ 

lini interrog. when? at what time? 

lio (ma-) augment, of mlio. 

lipa 1. pay, pay for. fig. nitakulipa. 

I will pay you back (= get even with you). 
2. makeup for, compensate, indemnify. 
caus. lipisha, lipiza. refl.-caus. jilipiza. 
jilipiza kisasi. take revenge. Cf. lipizi, 
lipo, kisicholipwa, majilipo, mlipa, mlipizi, 




lipizi ( ma -; us. pi.) L demand for payment 
of a debt. 2. extortion, blackmail. 3. re- 
taliation, revenge. 4. rel, atonement, 
penance. Cf. lipa. 

lipo (ma-; us. pi.) 1. payment. 2. compen- 
sation, reparation. Cf. lipa. 

lipu* [lnd.l (_) plaster, stucco. 

lipuka, ripuka flare up, burst into flames; ex- 
plode; (ft g .) fly into a rage. caus. li- 
pusha. explode (something), pass, li- 
puliwa. Cf. mlipuaji, mlipuko. 

^isani* (-) lisani (flap under the opening of 
a kanzu). 

2 lisani* (_) see lesani. 

lisha caus. of Ma. 

lishiza double caus, of ^la. 

livu* [EnglJ (-) leave, leave of absence; 
break for rest. 

liwa*. luva (-) liwa (variety of sandalwood). 
Cf. mliwa, msagaliwa. 

liwaa rare forget. 

liwado (-, ma-) see liwato. 

liwali*, luwali, wali (ma-) liwali (administra- 
tive official, headman; generally an Arab 
appointed by the government to handle re- 
lations with the Moslem community). 

Mwata step/tread on. Cf. ^wata, liwato. 

liwato, liwado (-, ma -) 1. flattened grass. 
2. spoor, trail (of an animal). 3. butt end 
of something (i.e., the part put on the 
ground). Cf, ^wata, liwata. 

liwaza comfort, calm, reassure; condole, ex- 
press sympathy. Cf. liwazrv m a !;,.. 220 . 

liwazo (ma-) rare anything that soothes: 
comfort, sympathy, condolence. Cf. li- 

Iiza (-) see riza. 

lo det. ji- d.: - lote. indef. relat. what- 
ever, no matter what. w. neg. (nothing) at 
all. hakufanya (neno) - lote. He did 
nothing at all. 

lo see loo. 
loa see Iowa, 
lodi (-) see rodi. 

Ioga, roga arch, enchant, place under a spell. 
inv. logoa. free from a spell. Cf* m \oz\, ulozi. 

loja see roja. 

lokalaizesheni* [Engl J sing, localization. 

lokeshen* tEngl.~} ( ma -) location, native 
settlement area. 

loma (— ) ant-bear. 




londea, rondea 1. hunt/look for something, 
want. 2, sponge, live at someone else's 
expense, caus. londesha. pass, londewa. 

longitudo L Engl. J (-) geogr. longitude. 

lonjo, ronjo adj., rare big, tall (of persons). 
Cf. ml on jo. 

lozi* (ma-) almond. Cf. mlozi. 

luanga (-) luanga (kind of bird). 

ludha* (— ) see ladha. 

lugha* (— ) language, dialect, maarifa ya — . 

lonyo i.. k—i snow, presentation, demonstra- 
tion; ostentation, showing off, bragging. 
2. adj. fine, grand, splendid; pretty, smart, 
chic (of clothes). Cf. ona. 

loo, lo inter j. of joy or amazement oh! well! 

lopoka see ropoka. 

lori* L Engl. J (ma-) 1. lorry, truck. 

2. railw. (open) freight car. 

lote see ote. 

lovulovu (— ) see lawalawa. 

Iowa, loa be wet/moist/damp; get wet, be 
soaked/saturated, intr. loweka. 1. = 
Iowa. 2. make wet, douse, soak, immerse. 

3. be confused/at a loss/perplexed, non- 
plussed, stat. lowama. be in a condition 
of dampness, be wet/soaked. Cf. lowefu. 

lowama stat. of Iowa. 

lowefu adj., rare wet, damp. Cf. Iowa. 

lowela settle, establish oneself, remain (in a 
certain place). Cf. mlowezi. 

iuguamu~ \—> see niamu. 

Muja* (— ) rare thief, robber. (= mwizi, 

^luja* sing., rare deep thought. (= mawazo, 
fikira.) yumo katika — . He is deep in 

lukuki* Llnd.J (— ) countless number, myriad. 

lukuma* (— ) 1. bite, morsel. 2. fig. in- 
ducement, quid pro quo. — yako, basi ni- 
fanyizie hivi. Here is something for you, 
so you do such-and-such for me. 

lulu* (— ) pearl, ubamba wa — . mother-of- 
pearl (= lulumizi). 

lulumizi* (— ) mother-of-pearl. 

lumatia see limatia. 

lumba 1. rare question. 2. talk, speak; re- 
port; give a (serious, formal) talk/speech. 
( = simulia, hadithia, hoji.) Cf. malumba- 
no, mlumbaji. 

lumbui (— ) see lumbwi. 




lumbwi, lumbui (_) chameleon. (= 2 kinyo- 
nga, kigeugeu.) 

lundika, rundika 1. be piled up, be stored. 
2. gather, assemble, store up, accumulate. 
Cf. lundo. 

Iundo (ma-) pile, heap, stack. Cf. lundika. 

lungo arch. = 2 ungo. 

lungu see rungu. 

lungula, rungula 1. take by force, rob. 
2. threaten, extort. Cf. mlungula. 

Lusiferi* [Engl.1 rel. Lucifer. Cf. She 
tani, Ibilisi. 

lusu* (-) rare thief, robber. (= ll„j a .) 

luva* (_) see liwa. 

luwali* ( ma -) see li wa li. 

luzu* [.?] coil, broke, on the rocks. 

maabadi* sing., rel. place of worship. 
Cf. abudu. 

maabudu* sing., rel. 1. reverence, worship, 
religious observance/service. 2. object 
of worship. Cf. abudu. 

maadam* 1. conj. when, while, since, as 
long as. 2. conj. since, because. _ 
umekuja, nitakuambia. Since you have 
come, I will tell you. 3.: - ya ... prep. 
according to, in consequence of. 

maadili* pi. see adili. 
maadini* (_) see madini. 
maafa* pi, see afa. 

maafikiano*. maafikano pi. mutual under- 
standing; agreement, settlement, contract, 
treaty. Cf. afiki. 

maagano pi. see agano. 

maagizo pi. see agizo. 

maaguzi pi. see 


maakuli*. makuli pi., arch, food, victuals, 
provisions, provender (= chakula.) 

maal U m*,maal U mu 1. adj. well-known, fa- 
mous, acknowledged, esteemed, distin- 
guished. 2. adj. special, particular, 
characteristic, mwandishi -. specialist, 
expert. 3. adv. definitely, certainly; 
regularly, permanently, leo atakujaSaid? 
-. Is Said coming today? Definitely. 


hana — ya kuja hapa. He does not come 
here regularly. Cf. elimu. 

maalumu* see maalutn. 

maambukizo ph see ambukizo. 

maamkiano ph see maamkio. 

maamkio, maamkiano, tnaamkizi pL greeting, 
salutation, bow. Cf. amka, amkia. 

maamkizi pi. see maamkio. 

maamuma*, mahamuma (— ) stupid person, 
simpleton, fool. (= mjinga, baradhuli.) 

maamuzi pi. decision, judgment, verdict. 
Cf. J amua, 

maana* (— ) 1. meaning, significance, ma- 
neno ya — . meaningful words. 2. reason, 
cause, purpose, intention, objective. 
3. {also — ya) conj. since, because, in 
order that. — yake. namely, that is to say. 

maandalio ph preparation (of food, etc.). 
— yamkutano. preparations for a meeting. 
Cf. andaa. 

maandamano pi. see andamano. 

maandamizi pi. see andamizi. 

maandazi ph see andazi. 

maandikio pi. see maandiko. 

maandiko ph 1. writing, document; (poh) 
(written) statement, communique. — Mata- 
katifu. 2. reh Holy Scriptures. 3. {also 
maandikio) preparation, serving (of food). 
Cf. andika, andiko. 

maandishi ph 1. literature. 2. content, 
significance, idea (of a literary work). 
3. theory (in gen.). 4. rare (style of) 
handwriting. 5. = maandiko 2. 6.: —a — . 
adj. theoretical. Cf. andika, mwandishi. 

maangalio ph 1. observation, inspection. 
2. examination, investigation. Cf. angaa. 

maangalizi ph 1. attention, attentiveness. 
2. observation, supervision, care. 3. rare 
visit. Cf. angaa. 

maangamizi ph destruction, ruin, decay, de- 
cline, downfall. Cf. angamia. 

maangamizo ph accident, casualty. Cf. 

maanguko ph see anguko. 

maanzilisho ph organization, foundation, 
establishment, introduction. Cf. anza. 

maao ph see maawio. 

maapizo ph see apizo. 

maarasi* (— ) rare carrying-pole (a pole 
carried on the shoulder with water in tins 
hanging from either end). (= mzegazega, 





^arifa* ph 1. knowledge, information, 
scence. - ya lugha. linguistics. 2. un- 
derstanding, insight, discernment, erudi- 
tion. Cf, arifu. 

maarubu* ph, rare (concealed) purpose, (ul- 
terior) motive (but not necessarily bad). 

maarufu* adj. 1. well-known, famous, es- 
teemed, distinguished. 2. coll. enthusi- 
astic, inveterate, untiring, msikilizaji - 
wa redio. an inveterate listener to the 
radio, a great radio fan. Cf. arifu. 

maanisi* ph bride and bridegroom, coll. 
msiende kama -. Hurry up! {lit.: Don't 
walk like a bride and bridegroom). 

maasi* P h 1. disobedience, insubordination, 
recalcitrance. 2. revolt, rebellion, insur- ' 
rection. 3. mil. desertion. Cf. asi. 

maasum* (wa-) see mwasi. 

maawio, maweo, maao ph 1. (also - ya jua) 
sunrise. 2. east. Cf. 2 wa ^ 

maazimio* ph 1. intention, purpose, aim, 
decision. 2. plan, project, program. Cf. 

maazimo ph loan, debt. Cf. azima. 

mabadili*, mabadiliko ph see badiliko. 

mabaki pi. see baki. 

mabao ph sport score. Cf. bao. 

mabaya ph 1. badness, wickedn 


ess; spite- 

ess, malice. 2. bitterness, embitter 
ment. Cf. baya. 

mabembelezo, mapembelezo ph caressing, 
coaxing, flattery, cajolery. Cf. bemba.' 

mabishano pi. 1. quarrel, dispute, alterca- 
tion. 2. contradirti'™ ro ;„;_j,_. r- r 

mabotea pi. plants which come up by chance/ 
unexpectedly (without seeds having been 

Mabruki* pr. n. masc. 

maburudisho*. maburudu ph 1. distraction, 
diversion. 2. refreshment, recreation. 
3. relief, alleviation, comfort; (fy.) re- 
pairs. Cf. burudi. 

maburudu* ph see maburudisho. 

maburuzo, maburuzu pi. 1. d raft> current 
(of air). 2. track, rut (left by something 
dragged over the ground). Cf. burura. 

machachari, macharichari ph 1. restless- 
ness, sleeplessness. 2. awkwardness, 
clumsiness, ineptitude. 3. harmfulness, 
destructiveness. Cf. chachari. 

machafuko ph 1. disorder, confusion. 
2. violation, infraction (of a rule or law). 
Cf. chafua. 

machaguzi ph see uchaeuzi. 




machangamano pi. see changamano. 

machanganyiko pi. mixture. Cf. ^changa. 

machanganyo pi. mixture, mixing up. Cf. 

macharichari pi. see machachari. 

mauiiu£ti pi. icilovci nuc \\tum trie evening 

macheko pi. see kicheko. 

machela* LPort.J (— ) 1. litter, stretcher. 
2. hammock. 

macheleo pi. 1. fear, anxiety. 2. trembling, 
quivering. Cf. ^cha. 

macheo pi. 1. sunrise, dawn. 2. east. 
Cf. 3 cha. 

iMachi*, Marchi [£ngZ.] (month of) March. 

^machi* I Engl. J (— ) march, march-music, 
enda — . to march, piga — . play march- 

machinjioni pi. see machinjoni. 

machinjo pi. chinjo. 

machinjoni, machinjioni pi. (rare chinjoni) 

1. (cutting) edge (of a knife; cf. mafutuni). 

2. slaughtering place, slaughterhouse. 
Cf. chinja. 

machipukizi pi. see chipukizi. 

macho pi. see jicho. 

machozi pi. see chozi. 

machugachuga pi. unrest, excitement, rest- 
lessness. Cf. chugachuga. 

machukio, machukizo pi. see chukio. 


l • _L..l.. .S-L..U...: 

matubwitubwi pi. med. mumps. 

machunga, machungani pi. pastureland, 
pasturage. Cf. 2 c hunga. 

machungu pi. see uchungu. 

machwa, machweo pi. 1. sunset, dusk. 
2. west. Cf. chwa. 

machweo pi. see machwa. 

madadi*, madati (-) opium ball (prepared 
for smoking). 

madaha* pi. self-importance, complacency; 
boasting, bragging; presumption, arrogance. 
ana — . He is conceited, fanya/piga — . 
show off. 

madahili* see dahili. 

madahiro* (-) rare 1. politeness, grace, 
charm. 2. elegance, distinguished manner. 

madai* pi. see dai. 

madakata pi. dry leaves (fallen or ready to 




madanganyo pi. see danganyo. 

madaraja* pi. steps, (flight of) stairs, stair- 
way. Cf. daraja. 

madaraka pL see daraka. 

madarasa* pL 1. see darasa. 2. rare 
school, academy. 

madati* (-) see inadadi. 

madenda pi. saliva (which flows from the 
mouth during sleep). 

madende pi. rare trill. 

madevu pi. see udevu, devu. 

madhabahu* (-) 1. place where sacrifices 
are performed, altar. 2. rare slaughter- 
house. Cf. dhabihu. 

madhabuha* (-) rel. sacrifice, victim. 
Cf. dhabihu. 

madhali* conj. if, in case that; since, be- 
cause; when, while, since. Cf. mithili, 
medial i. 

madhehebu* pi. 1. custom, usage; principle, 
tenet. — ya awali. basic principle. 
2. rel. creed, denomination, sect. U pe- 
ndaji wa — , sectarianism. 

madhilifu* pi. difficulty, confusion; mis- 
fortune. Cf. dhili. 

madhubuti* adj. firm, strict; reliable; accu- 
rate, precise; (fig.) honest, upright. Cf. 

madhumuni* (-) intention, purpose, aim. 

madini*. maadini (-) 1. mineral, metal, ore. 
- ya chini. low alloy. 2. metallurgy. 

madoadoa 1. pL spot, blot. 2. adj. spotted, 
dappled; varicolored. Cf. doa. 

madoido pi. decoration, ornament, embellish- 
ment. — ya muziki. trill. 

madole pl. : - matano hot. (variety of) fern 
(P olypodium phymtodes). 

maduhuli* (_) pay, wages; income, revenue. 

maduyuni* pi. see mdeni. 

maelekeo pi. 1. effort, endeavor. 2. ten- 
dency, inclination; talent, gift. _ ya maono. 
feeling, ideal. Cf. elea, elekea. 

maelezi pi. rare, naut. anchorage. Cf. elea. 

maelezo pi. explanation, description, Cf. 

maendeleo pi. see endeleo. 

maendelezo pi. see endeleo. 

maeneo pi. see eneo. 

maenezo pi. tendency, trend. Cf. enea. 

mafa, mava pi. burial place, graveyard, 
cemetery, Cf. fa. 

mafaa, mafao pi. benefit, profit, privilege, 
advantage. Cf. faa. 




mafafanusi pi. see ufafanusi. 

mafamba pi. secret/underhanded dealings. 

mafanikio* pi. prosperity, success. Cf. fa- 
naka, fanikia. 

mafao pi. see mafaa. 

maficho pi. 1. hiding place, ambush. 2. dis- 
guise. Cf. ficha. 

mafieko pi. see mafyeko. 

mafinyo pi. see finyo. 

mafu: map -. neap tide. coll. leo maji -. 
Today was not a good day for fishing. 
Cf. fa. 

mafua pi. med. bronchitis, congestion of the 
upper respiratory tract, pains in the chest. 
ana— He has a bad cold. Cf. kifua. 

mafuatano pi. 1. following, escort; accom- 
paniment. 2. succession, series. - ya 
sauti. mas. melody. Cf. fuata. 

mafukizo, mavukizo pi. see mfukuto. 

mafunde pi. see mavunde. 

mafundisho pi. 1. teaching, instruction, 
doctrine. 2. instructions, directions (for 
taking medicine, using a device, etc.). 
Cf. 2f U nda. 

mafungia pi. closing, locking, fastening. 
Cf. !funga. 

mafungulia pi. (also - ng'ombe) time when 
cattle are driven out to pasture (8-9 A.M.). 
Cf. Ifunga. 

mafunjo pi. reeds, sedge, papyrus. 

mafunuo pi. revelation. Cf. funua. 

mafuriko pi. 1. rising (of water). 2. flood, 
inundation. (= gharika.) 3. naut. flood- 
tide. Cf. fura. 

mafusho pi. mafusho (something burned in 
order to drive out an evil spirit). Cf. fuka. 

mafuta pi. 1. fat, oil, grease, salve, lubri- 
cant. - Ulaya, - ya taa. petroleum, kero- 
sine. - ya motakaa. gasoline. - ya uto. 
sesame/semsem oil. tia -. fill up, refuel. 
2. fig. ingratiating/oily manner. 

mafutu pi. anger, rage, fury. 

mafutuni pi. back of a knife blade (as opposed 
to the edge). 

imafuu pi. folly, stupidity. 

2 mafuu pi. of fuu. 

mafya pL of jifya. 

mafyeko, mafieko pi. I. clearing land, pre- 
paring ground for cultivation. 2. weeding. 
Cf. fyeka. 

Imagadi pi. soda. 

2 m agadi* pi. of Igadi, 2 gadi. 



magamaga 1. walk with the legs wide apart, 
straddle, waddle. 2. walk fast. Cf. ki- 

magangao, magaogao pi. 1. devastation, 
destruction. 2. ruin, decay, downfall. 

magaogao pi. see magangao. 

magendo pi. sellingof crops or other merchan- 
dise without keeping records of profits and 

magombano pL quarrel, dispute. Cf. gomba. 

magombezi, magombezo pi. 1. contradiction, 
rejoinder, retort. 2. prohibition. 3. en- 
mity, hostility, antagonism. Cf. -gomba. 

magombezo pi. see magombezi. 
magoti pi. see goti. 

when entering a city). Cf. gubika. 

magengo pi. contingency (something that will m 

happen if...); tit for tat, quid pro quo; 
clandestine bargain, illegal transaction; 
threat, blackmail, kwa — . on the black 
market, siasa ya — ya kiini. policy of nu- 
clear blackmail. 

mageuko pi. see mageuzi. 

mageuzi, mageuzo, mageuko pi. change, 
fluctuation, mageuzi makuu. revolution. 
Cf. geua, mgeuzo. 

mageuzo pi. see mageuzi. 

maghaibi* (— ) see magharibi. 

magharibi*, maghaibi, mangharibi, ghurubu (— ) 
1. time of sunset. 2. west. — ya kusini. 
southwest, nimemtafuta mashariki na — . 
I have hunted for him everywhere (lit.: in 
the east and in the west). 3. Isl. evening 

maghofira* (— ) rel. forgiveness, remission. 
Cf. ghofira, ghofiri. 

agugu pi. weeds; bush, jungle. 

mahaba*, mahuba (-) affection, devotion, 
inclination, attachment, sympathy, prov. 
- hayanadawa. There is no cure for love. 
Cf. 2 haba. 

mahabusi*, mahabusu 1. (-) prisoner, con- 
demned person. 2. (-) rare prison, jail. 
(= korokoroni.) 3. adv.: amefungwa -. 
He has been given a jail sentence. 

mahabusu* (— ) see mahabusi. 

mahakma* (-) rare place of judgment, 
court, Cf. hukumu, hakimu. 

mahala* (-) see mahali. 

mahali*, mahala (-) place (in gen.), situa- 
tion; area, district, si ... - (po pote). 
nowhere. - hapa. there, kila -. every- 
where. - pa. instead of. - pa kufanya 
kazi. place of employment. - pa kanuni 
pa kukaa nakulala. permanent place of 
residence. - pa kupigia kura. electoral 
precinct. Cf. pahali. 



mahame, tnahamo pi. deserted place. 
( = hame, kihame, tongo.) Cf. hama, 

mahameli* (— ) see bahameli. 

mahamia* pi. protectorate. Cf. hami. 

mahamo pi. see mahame. 

mahamuma* (— ) see maamuma. 

ntaharagwe pi. see haragwe. 

maharazi* (— ) awl, bradawl. 

mahari* (— ) bride-money, marriage settlement, 
dowry, mice huyu nimeozwa bure, sikulipa 
— . I married this woman without making a 
marriage settlement. 

maharimisho* pi. ban, prohibition. - ya si- 
laha. disarmament. Cf. harimu. 

maharimu* pi. blood-relatives (who are for- 
bidden to marry). Cf. harimu. 

mahashumu*, mahushumu (— ) respectable/ 
honest person, person of good repute. 
Cf. heshima, heshimu, muhashamu. 

mahati* (— ) scriber, style; (carpenter's mark- 
ing) gauge (for scribing lines parallel to the 
edge of a board). 

mahazamu* pi. belt, girdle, sash. 

mahindi* pi. (grains of) corn/maize, unga 
wa — . cornmeal. Cf. * muhindi. 

mahiri* adj. 1. skilful, adroit, nimble, 
agile, dexterous; clever, quick-witted, 
capable. 2. fig. sly, crafty, deceitful. 
Cf. umahiri. 

mahitaji* pi. see hitaji. 

mahluki*, mahluku (-) rare human being. 
Cf. hulka. 

mahoka, masoka pi. 1. spirit of an ancestor, 
evil spirit, ibada ya — (or mizimu). an- 
cestor worship. 2. delusion, mania, mad- 
ness. 3. joke, jest, maneno yake yasiku- 
tishe, yeye ni mtu wa — sana. Don't be- 
lieve what he says, he is a wag/joker. 

mahonyo adv. for nothing, gratis, free. 

msilematundayangu -. Don't eat my fruit 
without paying. 

mahsai* (-) see maksai. 

mahsusi*, maksusi adj. /adv. special, par- 
ticular, precise, mkutano — . special/ex- 
traordinary session. Cf. husu, hususa. 

mahushumu* (-) see mahashumu. 

mahututi* adj. serious, difficult, ugonjwa -. 
a serious illness. 

maige* \.Pers.~\ (-) young locusts. 

maili* I Engl.'] (-) mile. 

maingiano pi. society, social life. Cf. ingia. 




maingilio, maingiliano pi. 1. approach. 2. in- 
terference, intervention. — ya kivita. 
armed intervention. Cf. ingia. 

maisha* pi. life, lifetime, nitakaa hapa — . 
I will live here forever (my whole life). 
— pamoja kwa salama. peaceful coexist- 
ence. Cf. ishi. 

maishilio* pi. 1. livelihood, subsistence. 
2. work, occupation, job. Cf. ishi. 

majaribu* pi., rel. temptation. Cf. jaribu. 

najembe pi., naut./av. screw, propeller 
(= rafardha). Cf. jembe. 

majengo pi. see jengo. 

najenzi pi. see ujenzi. 

najeruhi* rare 1. (— ) wounded person. 
2. adj. wounded. Cf. jeraha, jeruhi. 

2 maishilio pi. end, limit, goal. Cf. ^sha. m ajeshi* P^ armed forces. Cf. jeshi. 

maiti*, mayiti (— ) dead body, corpse, cadaver. 
Cf. mauti. 

maiza* (— ) (mark of) respect, honor, distinc- 

maizi* coll. know, be acquainted with, under- 
stand; recognize, ascertain, determine. 

majadi* pi. 1. effort, exertion. 2. yearning, 
longing, (strong) desire, passion. Cf."jadi. 

majahaba* (-) see majahabu. 

majahabu*, majahaba (— ) naut. wharf, dock. 
(- gudi.) Cf. jahabu. 

majaliwa pi., rel. 1. mercy, grace, favor, aid. 
2. ( grace of) God. 3. pr. n. masc. Cf. 

majani pi. grass; leaves, herbage, foliage; 
weeds. — ya mwaka. kind of vegetable. 
rangi ya— . green (color), anavuta — ma- 
bichi. fig. He smokes opium. Cf. jani. 

maji pi. 1. water, liquid. — ya kunywa. 
drinking water. — ya mvua. rain water. 

— chumvi (bahari). salt water, brine, 
mwana — . sailor. — makuu. spring tides. 

— mafu. neap tides. — kujaa. high tide. 

— kupwa. low tide. 2. med. secretion, 
discharge. 3. —a — (or majimaji). adj. 
watery, damp; (techn.) hydraulic, mka- 
ndamizo wa majimaji. hydraulic press. 
Cf. kimaji, umaji. 

majibizano* pi. 1. question and answer, 
assertion and contradiction, give and take. 
2. press conference. Cf. jawabu, ljibu. 

majilio pi. see jilio. 

majilipio pi. see majilipo. 

majilipo, majilipio, majilipizi pi. 1. repay- 
ment, amortization (of a loan, debt). 2. re- 
venge, retaliation, reprisal, satisfaction. 
Cf. lipa. 

majilisi pi., rare reception room, waiting 
room, lounge. Cf. jilisi. 



majimaji see maji 3. 
majinuni* pi. see majununi. 

majira* (— ) 1. (point of) time. — ya saa. 
clock-time, 2. watch, clock, saa yangu 
haishiki — . My watch is not keeping good 
time. 3. period, season. — ya masika. 
the great rainy season. 4. naut. course. 

majirani* pi. 1. neighborhood. 2. environ- 
ment, environs. Cf. jirani, ujirani. 

majisifu* pi. self-praise, conceit, egotism, 
bragging, showing off, arrogance. Cf. 
sifa, sifu, mjisifu. 

majivu 1. pi. ashes. Cf. jivu. 2.: —a — . 
adj. gray, rangi ya — . of a gray color. 
Cf. kijivu. 

majivuno pi. self-praise, conceit, boasting, 
showing off, pride, arrogance, anapotembea 
ana — sana. The way he walks shows that 
he is arrogant. Cf. vuna. 

majonzi*, mayonzi L^r.Pj pi. sadness, 
sorrow, grief, fanya/ona — . be sad. 

majuni* (— ) majuni (a narcotic confection 
made of opium or hemp and sugar). 
( = afyuni, madadi, kasumba.) 

majununi*, majinuni (— ) 1. madman, lunatic. 
2. clown, buffoon. 3. foolish/silly talk 
(causing amusement or provoking ridicule). 
4. adj. insane, mad, crazy. 

majuto pi. regret, contrition. Cf. juta, ^juto. 

majuzi, juzijuzi adv. a few days ago. Cf. 

*Maka* Mecca. 

maka 1. be surprised/astonished/amazed. 
9. nttpr a n evcl?.mstio!<. of surprise. C f . 

makaa pi. 1. coal, charcoal. 2. embers, 
cinders. Cf. ^kaa. 

makaakaa pi. see kaakaa. 

makaburi* pi. graveyard, cemetery. Cf. ka- 

makadara*, makadari pi. 1. rel., rare might, 
power, omnipotence (with ref. to God; - 
nguvu, uwezo). 2. Makadara (name of a 
section of Nairobi). Cf. kudura. 

makadari* pi. see makadara. 

makadirio* pi. bill, estimate (of cost), 
evaluation. Cf. kadiri. 

makala* pi. treatise, article, essay. 

makali pi. 1. edge, point (of a knife, sword, 
spear, etc.: the sharp part). 2. fig. dar- 
ing, bravery. 3. fig. fierceness, cruelty; 
harshness, severity. Cf. kali. 

makamo* pi. makamu. 

majusi* pi. see ^mjusi. 




makamu*, makamo pi. 1. rank, status, dignity, 
social position. 2. age-class (of a person). 
3. substitute, deputy. - wa rais. vice- 
president (Tanzania). Cf. Ikaimu, ukaimu. 

makani*, maskani, masikani (_) residence, 
home, settlement. Cf. ^sakmi. 

makanika* [Engl.] (-) 1. mechanic. 
2. yh-ys. mechanics. Cf. umakanika. 

makao pi. (place of) residence, home. 
- makuu. headquarters. Cf. 'kaa. 

makapo pi. chaff. Cf. ^kapi. 

makasi* pi. (pair of) scissors. (= mkasi.) 

makataa* 1. pi. (final) arrangement, settle- 
ment, decision, conclusion. 2. adv. defi- 
nitely, categorically; firmly, resolutely. 
Cf. kataa. 

makazi pi. 1. residence, settlement; environ- 
ment. 2. mode of life; condition, situation. 
3. occupation, activity. Cf. ^kaa. 

makeke pi. 1. excitement, disturbance. 

2. annoyance, vexation. 3. exaggeration, 

makengeza pi. squinting, macho ya-. 
squinting eyes, tazama kwa -. look 
askance at, frown on (someone). Cf. 

maki* pL 1. thickness, nguoya-. thick 
cloth. 2. stoutness, heaviness, corpulence. 
ana — . He is heavy (and strong). 

makini* 1. pi. strength of character, dignity, 
composure; calmness, attentiveness. siki- 
liza kwa -. listen attentively. 2. adj. 
quietly, calmly, deliberately, with dignity. 

makiri* (-) cleat (for fastening a rope, etc.). 

makisi*, makisio pL guess, conjecture, sup- 
position; estimate, approximation; proposal. 
Cf. ikisi. 

makeruhi* see makuruhi. 

makisio* pi. see makisi. 

makiwa pi. expression of sympathy, condo- 
lence, makiwani! Condolences! (formula 
of greeting when one enters a house where 
a death has recently occurred), hapa pana 
— . There has been a death here (in this 
house). Cf. kiwa, ukiwa. 

makohoo, makohozi pi. see kohozi. 

makoko pi. crust (esp. on cooked rice). 
Cf. ukoko. 

makolokolo pi. 1. bundle, pack, baggage. 
2. equipment, utensils. 3. goods, chattels, 
property. (= vikorokoro.) 

makomba pL millet gruel (also used in the 
preparation of beer). 

makombo pi. see Ikombo, 2 kombo, 3 kombo. 



makombozi pi. see ukombozi. 

makopa pi. dried manioc. 

makoroa* (— ) naut. knot tied in an anchor 
cable. ( = mangrini.) 

makororo pi. 1. med. swelling of the tonsils. 
2. heavy /difficult breathing; death rattle, 
vuta — . breathe with difficulty; have the 
death rattle. 

makorowezo pi. 1. confusion. 2. work 
poorly done, botchwork. Cf. koroweza. 

makosekano pU fault, defect; mistake, over- 
sight. Cf. *kosa. 

makoza* pi., rare, anat. testicles, scrotum. 

Anakoza pi., rare ivory bracelets. 

maksai*, mahsai (— ) castrated animal, 
ng'ombe — . bullock, ox. farasi — . geld- 
ing. Cf. hasa, hasi. 

maksi* [ Engl. J (— ) mark, grade (in a class 
or course). 

maksusi* see mahsusi. 

maktaba* pi. library, reading room. Cf. ki- 

makubadhi* pi. see makubazi. 

makubazi*, makubadhi pi. leather sandals 

makubwa pi. importance, important matter. 
Cf. kubwa. 

makucha pi. see ukucha. 

makufuru* pi., rel. unbelief, atheism; sacri- 
lege, blasphemy. Cf. kafiri, kufuru, 

makulaji ph., coll. food, provisions, victuals. 
Cf. la, chakula. 

makuli* pi. see maakuli. 

Anakuli* pi. see kuli. 

makulima pi. agriculture. Cf. lima. 

makupwa pi. beach, sandbank, rock (exposed 
at low tide). Cf. pwa. 

makuru* (— ) 1. salve, ointment. 2. (ad- 
hesive) plaster. 

makuruhi*, makeruhi adj. bad, offensive, dis- 
gusting, abominable, nasty. Cf. karaha. 

makusudi* pi. see makusudio. 

makusudio*, makusudi pi. aim, intention, 
purpose, —a makusudi. intentional, de- 
liberate, kwa — . intentionally, on purpose. 
bila — . unintentionally. Cf. kusudi. 

makutano pi. see kutano. 

makuu pi. 1. pride, arrogance, vanity, con- 
ceit. 2. ambition. Cf. kuu. 




ma kwa pi. 1. support, prop, post, pillar. 
2. notch, groove (in wood). 

Jmalaika* (-) 1. rel. angel, messenger. 
— mkuu. archangel. — mlinzi. guardian 
angel. 2. small child, baby, huyu ni — . 
This child is still a baby. 

Analaika pi. body hair (usually on the arms 
and legs). Cf. laika. 

malaji pi. 1. food, foodstuffs. 2. diet, 
fare. Cf. ha, kilaji. 

malale pi.: ugonjwa wa — . med. sleeping 
sickness, encephalitis. Cf. lala. 

malalo, malazi, malazo pi. 1. sleeping- 
place, bedding, bed; lair, den (of animals). 
2. rec. housing. Cf. lala. 

maiango pi. initiation (of boys and girls at 
puberty). Cf. lango. 

malaya* (-) prostitute. Cf. 2 umalaya. 

malazi, malazo pi. see malalo. 

malele (-) hot. litmus, orchilla (Rocella 
Montagnei, Rocella tinctoria). 

maleleji, malelezi pi. period between the 
southwest and northeast monsoons, i.e., 
approx. late March to early April and late 
November to early December. Cf. lala (?). 

malendalenda, marendarenda pi. 1. mucus 
(discharge). 2. med. mucus-like or 
watery feces. 

malenga (wa-) 1. professional singer, leader 
of singing (at dances). 2. unfermented 
beer. (- togwa.) 

maleuni*, maluuni 1. (— ) accursed/damned 
person. 2. (-) rel. Satan. 3. (-) good- 
for-nothing. 4. adj. accursed, damned, 
mtoto huyu ni — sana. This child is a 
good-for-nothing. Cf. laana. 

malevi pi. see ulevi. 

malezi pi. (home) education, upbringing. 

— mabaya. poor upbringing, bad manners. 
Cf. lea. 

malhamu* (— ) see marhamu. 

mali* (— ) possessions, property, goods. — ya 
kusafirisha. export goods. — inayoondoka. 
movable possessions, goods and chattels. 

— isiyoondoka. real estate. 

malidadi*, mmalidadi, maridadi, mardadi [? j 

1. (— ) person dressed in up-to-date style. 

2. (— ) showily dressed person, fop, dandy. 

3. adj. & adv. modern, stylish; vain, con- 
ceited. Cf. kimalidadi, umalidadi. 

^maliki* (-) see malki. 

^maliki* begin/start something, set to work 
on a job, do the spadework of a project. 

malimati*, maliumati (— ) Isl. 1. ceremony 
in commemoration of the dead. 2. meal 
served after the memorial ceremony. 

malimbiko pi. see mlimbiko. 




malimo pi. field work, agriculture. Cf. 
l|ima, makulima, ukulima. 

malimwengu pi., rel. worldly things, mundane 
matters. Cf. ulimwengu. 

*malindi pi. malindi (small apron of beads 
worn by women). 

■^malindi pi. of lindi. 

malipizi pi. see lipizi. 

malipo pL see Iipo. 

malisaa*, malisao (— ) see marisaa. 

malisha pi. see malisho. 

malisho, malisha, malishoni pZ., 1. pasture, 
pasturage. 2. fodder. Cf. la. 

malishoni pi. see malisho. 

maliumati* (— ') see malimati. 

maliwato pi. 1. bathroom (inside a house). 
2. a small open area adjoining a house 
where one may wash one's hands, face, 

maliwazo pi. comfort, sympathy, aid. 
Cf. liwaza, liwazo. 

maliza 1. end, conclude, finish, complete. 
— kazi. complete a job. — deni. pay/ 
settle a debt. 2. consume, polish off 
(food). - chakula. completely consume a 

meal. 3. destroy, exterminate, ugonjwa 
huu umewamaliza watu wengi. Many people 
have fallen victim to the disease, appl. 
malizia. intr. malizika. caas. malizisha. 
ass. malizana. 

malizano pi. lamenting, sobbing, weeping, 
wailing, Cf. lia. 

malizi pi. rustling, crackling, rattling. 
Cf. Ilia. 

malki*, maliki (-) ruler, monarch, king. 
Cf. %iliki, milki. 

malkia* (-) queen. Cf. malki. 

malu (— ) malu (species of antelope, Strepsi- 
ceros strepsiceros). 

malumbano pi., jur. cross-examination. 
Cf. lumba. 

maluuni* (— ) see maleuni, 

mama (— ) 1. mother, mamangu ( < mama 
yangu). my mother. 2.: — mkubwa. aunt 
(older sister of one's mother). — mdogo. 
aunt (younger sister of one's mother). 
3.: — wakambo. stepmother. 4. a term 
of polite address used by younger men or 
women to older women or by older men in 
positions of authority to younger women 
who are their subordinates (in an office, 
etc.). Cf. umama. 

mamanua open, loosen, separate, break -apart. 




mamba (-) 1. crocodile. 2. kind of poison- 
ous snake. 3. rare leech (= mruba). 

mambo pi. of *jambo. 

mambo pi. of uwambo. 

mamboleo adj. modern, present-day. ukoloni 
— . neo-colonialism. Cf. ^jambo, leo. 

mamlaka* (-) 1. power, rule, government. 
- ya kujitawala. rare self-government. 
2. jur. jurisdiction. 3. right of owner- 
ship, property right, possession, wa na -. 
have the right of possession over a thing. 
4. (official) position, capacity, status. 
Cf. Imiliki, malki. 

mamoja adv. one and the same, all the same, 
immaterial, ukija usije, kwangu ni — . 
Whether you come or not is immaterial to 
me. Cf. moja. 

mamsahib*, memsahib [llind.-Ar.-Engl.^ 
(-) lady, mistress. Cf. sahibu, suhubi- 

mamwana pL of mwana 2. 

man* (-) see mani. 

manamba* [Engl.'] pi. crow A (of people ). 
Cf. namba. 

manane pL: usiku wa -. the dead of night, 
the small hours (about 2:00 A.M.). (lit. 
'the eighth hour of night'; cf. nane.) 

manani* sing., rel. Benefactor, the Bene- 
ficent (a title of God). 

manati* (-) sling, catapult. 

manawa (-) med. skin disease, herpes 

(affecting especially the hands). Cf. nawa. 

manda (_) manda (a pastry made of rice-flour 
and grated coconut). Cf. kimanda. 

mandari* (_) entertainment, revel, dance. 
Cf. mandhari. 

mandhari* (-) (external) appearance, view, 
scene, sight; prospect, landscape. 

mandusi* (-) 1. box, chest (= ndusi). 
2. trunk, suitcase. 

manemane* (_) myrrh (Commiphora abyssini- 

manena pi., anat. groin. (= kinena.) 
maneno pi. see neno. 

maneva* [Engl, maneuver?] (-) pleasure 
trip, excursion, tunakwenda -. We are 
going on an excursion. 

manga eat food plain (without relish, gravy, 
etc.). Cf. lumanga. 

2 Manga* (-) 1. Arabia. (= Uarabu.) 2. an 
object of Arabian origin (= Mwarabu, Ara- 
buni). pilipili _. black pepper, mkoma -. 
pomegranate tree, njiwa -. (species of) 
pigeon, wanja wa -. antimony, kohl. 
Cf. Kimanga, Mmanga, Umanga. 

mang'amung'amu, mang'ang'amu pi. mental 
derangement; confusion, dismay. Cf. 




manganja pi. 1. rattle/bell worn by dancers 
on the legs. 2. child's rattle. 

mangazimbwe pi. optical illusion, mirage. 
( = mazigazi.) usiku — . dark night. 

mangharibi* (— ) see magharibi. 

mangili* (— ) naut, device (cathead) for se- 
curing a cable/anchor (on native boats). 
Cf. mangrini. 

mango (— ) (augment, of kimango) millstone 
(upper part of a stone mill). 

mangrini* (— ) naut. knot tied in an anchor 
cable. (= makoroa.) Cf. mangili. 

mang'ungumu adv., rare secretly, surreptiti- 
ously, on the sly, confidentially. (- siri.) 

mangwaji pi. ostentation, vanity. 

mani*, man (— ) man (unit of weight: three 
pounds, 1.4 kg). 

manii* (— ) phy. semen, sperm. (= shahawa.) 

manisipaa*, manisipali, (-) see munisipali. 

manja (— ) ornith. Pemba white-eye. 
( = shige la manjano.) 

manjali* (-) naut. rope of the front sail 
(of a native boat). 

manjano (-) 1. turmeric. 2.: rangi ya -. 
yellow pigment, rangi ya— mabivu. orange 
pigment. Cf. kimanjano. 

manjorinjori pi. see ujorinjori. 

manju (— ) leader of singing (at dances). 

manoari* L Engl. J (— ) see manowari. 

manoleo pi. 1. metal ring between the blade 
and handle of a knife. 2, back of a knife 
blade (as opp. to the edge; ~ mafutani). 
Cf. noa, noleo. 

manong'onezo, manong'ono pi. 1. whisper- 
ing. 2. rumor, gossip. 3. prophecy, pre- 
diction. Cf. nong'ona, mnong ono. 

manong'ono pi. see manong onezo. 

manowari*, manoari L Engl. J (— ) man-of-war, 
warship, naval vessel, kundi la — , flotilla, 

mansuli* (— ) (kind of) woolen cloth, blanket. 

manufaa* (— ) 1. necessary /useful thing. 
2. use(fulness), profit, benefit, advantage. 
Cf. nafuu. 

manuku* (-) see manukuu. 

manukuu*, manuku (-) rare 1. copy, tran- 
script. 2. imitation. 3. translation. 
Cf. nakili, nakala. 

manuwio*, manuwiyo pi., rare intention, aim, 
purpose (especially in respect of a visit to 
a witch doctor or the use of acharm). Cf. 
nuia, nuio. 

manuwiyo pi. see manuwio. 




manyago pi. initiation ceremony (for chil- 
dren). Cf. kinyago. 

manyatta* tMaasai] (-) compound. 

manyonyota pi. fine rain, drizzle. Cf. nyo- 

manyoya pi. fur, feathers, wool (of an animal). 

manza (— ) 1. crime, offense, delict, outrage. 
2. legal action, trial. 

manzili*, menzili (— ) rel. something sent by 
God, revelation. 

maokozi pi. rescue, deliverance (from a 
personal difficulty). Cf. okoa. 

maombezi pi. see maombi. 

maombi, maombo, maombezi, maomvi pi. 

1. request, entreaty, petition, appeal. 

2. mediation, intercession. Cf. omba. 

maombo pi. see maombi. 

maombolezo pi. 1. wail(ing), lamentation. 
2. groaning, moaning. 3. (sound of) 
mourning, dirge. (= kilio.) Cf. omboleza, 
ombolezo; also omba. 

maomvi pi. see maombi. 
maondokeo pi. see ondokeo. 

maondoleo pi. 1. removal, elimination. 
2. rel. forgiveness, absolution. — ya 
dhambi. forgiveness of sins. Cf. ondoa, 

maonevu pi. see uonevu. 

maonezi pi. oppression. Cf. ona, uonevu. 

maongezi pi. 1. conversation, chat, weka - 
begin a conversation. 2. pastime, amuse- 
ment. Cf. 2ongea. 

maongozi pi. 1. order, arrangement, regula- 
tion. — ya siasa. political platform. 
2. repair, restoration. 3. management, 
administration. 4. rel. guidance, provi- 
dence. — ya Mungu. God's providence. 
Cf. ongoa. 

maoni pi. view(s), opinion. — ya wananchi. 
public opinion. Cf. ona, ono. 

maono pi. thought, feeling, sensation, per- 
ception. Cf. ona, ono. 

maonyesho pi. exhibition, demonstration. 
— ya ukulima. agricultural exhibition. 
Cf. ona. 

maonyo pi. warning; sign, hint. Cf. ona. 

maoteo pi. hiding-place, ambush. Cf. n>ta. 

maovu pi. 1. evil, wickedness. 2. malice, 
spite, 3. unfairness, injustice. Cf. ovu, 

maovyo pi. trash, rubbish. Cf. ovyo. 

maowidha* pi. see mauidha. 

maozi pi. marriage arrangements. Cf. oa. 

mapacha pi. twins. — watatu. triplets. 
Cf. pacha. 




mapakio, tnapakizi pi. 1. loading-platform; 
(naut.) loading-crane, 2. naut. freight, 
cargo. 3. freightage. Cf. ^pakia. 

mapakizi pi. see mapakio. 

mapalilio pi. see mapalio. 

mapa!io t mapalilio pi. hoeing, weeding. 
Cf. x paa. 

mapambano pi. 1. contact; impact, colli- 
sion. 2. meeting, (close) touch (with a 
person). 3. sport contest, match, ka- 
tika — ya timu mbili hizi, Brazil wata- 
shinda Chile. In the contest between the 
two teams Chile was defeated by Brazil. 
Cf. pambana. 

mapana pi. 1. width, breadth. 2. diameter. 
Cf. Ipana, upana. 

mapatano pi. see patano. 

mapatilizo pi. see upatilivu. 

mapato pi. see pato. 

mapayo pi. delirium. Cf. payo. 

mapema adv. early, in good time, asubuhi 
na — . early in the morning. — mwaka. at 
the beginning of the year. 

mapembelezo pi. see mabembelezo. 

mapendano pi. (reciprocal) affection, fond- 
ness. Cf. penda. 

mapendeleo, mapendo pi. inclination, liking, 
partiality, preference, predilection, favor. 
Cf. penda. 

mapendezi pi. friendliness, kindness, polite- 
ness, obligingness. Cf. penda. 

mapendo pi. see mapendeleo. 

mapenzi pi. see penzi. 

mapepe pi. 1. chaff, grain-husks. 2. empty/ 
barren ears of grain. 

mapepeta pi.: — ya mpunga. unripe grains of 
rice (roastedX Cf. pepeta. 

mapesa* L Port. J pi. money. — taslimu. 
cash, ready money. Cf. Ipesa. 

mapigano, mapigiano pi. fight, conflict, 
struggle, battle. — ya kitabaka. coram. 
class struggle. Cf. piga, pigano. 

mapindu pi. somersault. Cf. pinda, pindu. 

mapinduzi pi. 1. (radical) change, upheaval. 
2. revolution. Cf. pinda. 

mapishi pi. cooking, cookery, prov. mchele 
mmoja — mabalimbali. There is only one 
rice, but there are various ways of cooking 
it. Cf. pika. 

mapiswa pi. stupidity, folly, nonsense. 
Cf. piswa. 

maponea pi. food, subsistence, livelihood. 
Cf. pona. 




maponyea, maponyo pi. 1. drugs, medicines. 
2. cure, (course of) treatment. Cf. pona. 

maponyo pi. see maponyea. 

maposo pi., rare 1. courtship, proposal of 
marriage. 2. arrangements of marriage. 
Cf. posa. 

mati(i7a n/ Ar 

= J : „ : r i 

mapumziko pi. 1. rest, relaxation. 2. ces- 
sation (of work), pause, break. Cf. pumua. 

mapune (-) med. a skin disease. Cf. puna. 

mapurendi* [Engl.l pi. epaulets, gold braid. 

mapusa pi. augment, of kipusa. 

mapwa, mapwaji pi. shore, coast, beach. 
Cf. pwa. 

mapyoro pi. 1. boasting, giving oneself airs. 
2. exaggeration, fraud. Cf. pyora, pyoro. 

mara* 1. (— ) time, turn, occasion; series, 
sequence. 2. adv. once; immediately; 
suddenly, unexpectedly. - moja. once. 

- mbili. twice. - nyingi. often, frequent- 
ly. — kwa — . again and again, often. 

— hii. immediately, directly. 

maraba* pi. see mraba. 

maradhi*, marazi (-) illness, sickness, dis- 
ease; pestilence, epidemic. - ya ng'ombe. 
cattle plague. — nyogea. rachitis. - ya 
mti, scrofula. 

maradufu*, marudufu, mardufu 1. (_) d ou . 
bling, duplicate. 2. (a/so rudufu) adj. 
double, twofold. Cf. rudufu. 

marahaba* inter j. 1. good, thank you. 

2. very well (in response to the salutation 

marahamu* (-) see marhamu. 

marakaraka* 1. pi. spot, patch, stripe. 
2. adj. spotted, speckled, striped, 
checked. Cf. kiraka. 

marasharasha* pi. 1. sprinkle, shower, 
spray. 2. sprinkling, moistening, mvua 
ya -. light rain, drizzle. Cf. rasha. 

marashi* (_) perfume. Cf. rasha. 

marazi* (-) see maradhi. 

mardadi* see malidadi. 

mardudi* (-) 1. refusal, denial, rejection, 
repudiation. 2. rare going over something 
for a second time (e.g., checking one's 
arithmetic to make sure there is no mistake). 
Cf. rudi. 

mardufu* (_) see maradufu. 

marefu pi. length, height, depth, haina - ya 
kutosha. It is not long enough. Cf. ref'u. 

marehemu* (-) deceased person, the late...; 
(pi.) the dead. Sikukuu ya - Wote. All 
Souls' Day. Cf. rehema, rehemu. 




marekani* adj. American. 

marendarenda pi. see malendalenda. 

marengu pi., naut. outrigger. 

marhamu*, marahamu, malhamu (— ) 1, grease, 
paste. 2. salve, ointment, plaster. 

maridadi* (— ) see malidadi. 

maridhawa* 1. adj. much, plenty of, enough, 
abundant. 2. adv. in abundance/profu- 
sion. Cf, radhi, ridhi. 

maridhia*, mridhia (wa-) 1. polite/charming/ 
nice person. 2. unassuming, unpretentious, 
modest person, mke vvangu — . My wife is 
unassuming. Cf. radhi, ridhi. 

marigedi* (— ) marigedi (large copper kettle). 

marijani* (— ) coral. — ya fedhaluka red 

marika pi. persons of the same age or belong- 
ing to the same age group, contemporaries, 
hawa ni — yangu. These people are my con- 
temporaries. Cf. rika. 

marikani* (— ) see merikani. 

marimba (— ) marimba (kind of wooden xylo- 

mariuda pi. edge, border; pleat (of a skirt, 

maringo pi. 1. boasting, arrogance. 2. tale- 
bearing. Cf. ringa. 

marini* L ? J adj. 1. pleasant, attractive. 
2. fashionable, elegant. 3. fresh. 
healthy, good-looking. 

marisaa*, marisawa, marisao, marisau, mali- 
saa, malisao pi. (small) shot, lead. 
bunduki ya — . shotgun. Cf. risasi. 

marisao*, marisau, marisawa (— ) see ma- 

marmar* (— ) marble. 

marudi*, marudio pi. 1. return, arrival. 
2. requital, punishment; reprimand. Cf. 

marudio* pi. see marudi. 

marudufu* (— ) see maradufu. 

marufaa* (— ) 1. bookrest fused for reading 
the Koran). 2. candlestick. 3. part of a 
native loom. Cf. rufaa. 

marufuku* pi. 1. prohibition. — kuvuta 
hapa. No smoking. 2. embargo. Cf. ru- 

marugurugu pi. swelling, lump(s), 

marupurupu pi. increase, extra compensation; 
discount, rebate. 

masaa, masao, masalio, masalia, masazo pL 

1. remains, remainder, vestige, remnant. 

2. rel. relic. 3. rare corpse. (= maiti.) 
Cf. 4aa. 

masahaba* pi., Isl. companions of Muhammad. 
Cf. sahibu. 




masahala*, msaala (-) question. - ya siasa 
(dini). political (religious) questions. 
Cf. saili, swali. 

masaibu* (-) 1. rel. predestination, divine 
punishment. 2. grief, distress, misfortune, 
affliction. Cf. 2 s jb u , 

masakasaka pi. dry leaves/twigs. 

masala* (-) rare, Isl. law. 

masalala* (usually lo masalale) interj. of 

masalan* see mathalan. 

masalia, masalio pi. see masaa. 

masalkheri* salutation: Good evening. 
Cf. sabalkheri. 

masamaha*, masameho pi. see msamaha. 

masango pi. thick wire of brass or copper 
fused to make ornaments). 

masao pi. see masaa. 

masarifu* pi. see masurufu. 

masazo pi. see masaa. 

masega p^.; — ya nyuki. honeycomb, honey 
in the comb. 

masengenyo pi. slander, calumny. Cf. se- 

mashabo* (-) see mashobo. 

mashairi* pi. see shairi. 

mashaka* pi. 1. trouble, distress, difficulty. 
2. need, privation, misery. Cf. shaka, 

mashambizo pi. mashambizo (cloths used 
for washing a corpse). 

mashapo pi. 1. residue, sediment, dregs. 
2. rare pulp, husks (of fruit, grain, etc., 
left after squeezing or pounding). (= ma- 
sira, mashata, masimbi, mashudu.) 

mashariki* (-) 1. sunrise. 2. east. - ya 
mbele. Near East. - ya kati/katikati. 
Middle East, -yambali. Far East. - ya 
kusini. southeast. 3.: —a — . adj. east- 
ern, oriental. 

masharti* pi. see shuruti. 

masharubu* pi. moustache. Cf. sharubu. 

mashata* pL lees, residue (of oil, etc.). 

mashavu pi. see shavu. 

mashenaka* pL, arch, gallows. 

mashendea pi. mashendea (thin, watery rice 

mashindano pi. see shindano. 

mashine*, mashini [Engl.] {-) 1„ machine, 
engine, _ ya kuandika. typewriter. - ya 



barafu. refrigerator. — ya stimu. electric 
motor. — za upuraji wa nafaka. thresher, 
kwa kutumia — . mechanical. 2. rare loco- 

mashini* (— ) see mashine. 

mashitaka* pi. see mashtaka. 

mashitakiano* pi. see mashtaka. 

mashkara* (— ) see masihara. 

mashobo*, mashabo (— ) show(iness), osten- 
tation, vanity. 

mashono pL, mshono (mi-) 1. sewing, tail- 
oring, dressmaking. 2. manner of dress; 
style, fashion; dress, clothing. — mpya. 
modern dress. Cf. shona. 

mashtaka*, mashtakiano, mashitaka, mashita- 
kiano pi. 1. accusation, reproach, impu- 
tation. 2. jur. charge, indictment, suit, 
action, prosecution, ameleta — ya uwongo. 
He was convicted of falsehood, fanya — . 
accuse, sue. — waziwazi na ya kisiri. 
overt and covert charges. Cf. shtaki. 

mashtakiano* pi. see mashtaka. 

mashua* \_lnd. J (— ) boat(s). 

mashudu* pL oilcake (residue after seed has 
been pressed for oil). 

mashuhuri*, mashuuri adj. famous, well- 
known, prominent, distinguished. ( = maa- 
rufu, enye sifa, ^bayana.) 

mashurti*, mashuruti pi. see shuruti. 

mashuuri* see mashuhuri. 

masia* (— ) rare walk, stroll, enda — . go 
walking, go for a walk. 

masifu* pi. praise, flattery. Cf. sifa, sifu. 

masihara"', mashkara (— ) jest, joke; mockery, 
derision, —a — . ridiculous. 

masihiya*, masiya 1. (— ) Messiah, Christ. 
(- Kristo.) 2. ( = mmasihiya, wa-) Chris- 
tian. ( = Mkrislo.) 3. adj. Christian. 
Cf. umasihiya. 

masika pi. masika (the great rainy season, 
approx. April-May). 

masikani* (— ) see makani. 

masikitiko pi. see sikitiko. 

masilaha*, masilahi, masuluhu rare 1. agree- 
ment, concord, harmony. 2. reconciliation, 
compromise. 3. (final) result (of bargain- 
ing, negotiation). Cf. suluhu. 

masilahi* (— ) see masilaha. 

masimbi pi. residue, dregs. (= mashapo, 

masingizio pi. slander, calumny; hypocrisy. 
Cf. singiza. 

masinzi pi. see masizi. 

masira* pi. lees (of wine, beer). 



masiwa, maziwa pi. 1. rare large island. 
2. (small) group of islands. Cf. kisiwa, 

masiya* (-) see masihiya. 

masizi, masinzi pL soot. 

maskani* (-) see makani. 

maskhara* (-) rare mask, disguise. 

maskini* 1. (-) poor person, beggar. 

2. adj. poor, indigent, destitute, wretched. 
Cf. umaskini. 

masoka (— ) iron/brass wire. 

Anasoka pi. see mahoka. 

masombo pi. belt, girdle, sash. 

masomo pi. study, studies, alimaliza - yake. 
He completed his studies. - ya kujifunza. 
self-education. Cf. soma. 

mastadi* [Engl.] (-) mustard. (= haradali.) 

mastakimu* (-) environment, surroundings. 
Cf. stakimu. 

masua*, mazua (-) swoon, fainting spell, 
dizziness. Cf. mbasua. 

masubutu* (-) see mathubuti. 

masuko, masukosuko pi. 1. rocking, tossing 
(of a ship], 2. disturbance, convulsion, 
excitement, agitation, unrest. Cf. 2 su ka. 

masukosuko pi. see masuko. 

masuluhu* (-) see masilaha. 

masumbul'u pi. see masumbuko. 

masumbuko, masumbufo, masumbuo, masumbu- 
Iizi pL 1. pain, torment. 2. disturbance, 
difficulty, obstacle. 3. unrest; annoyance, 
vexation. 4. pursuit, persecution « U nr>r e s- 
sion. Cf. sumbua, sumbufu. 

masumbulizi pi. see masumbuko. 

masumbuo pi. see masumbuko. 

masuo pi. water used for rinsing out the 
mouth. Cf. 'sua. 

masurufu*, masarifu pi. expenses, expendi- 
ture; housekeeping allowance; cost of living. 
Cf. sarafu, sarifu. 

masuto pi. reproach(es), faultfinding, criti- 
cism, accusation. Cf. ^suta. 

mata pL, rare bow and arrows. Cf. uta; also 
upinde, mshale. 

matabwatabwa pi. gruel, paste (anything 
pounded until soft and semi-liquid). 

matafuni, matafuno pi. 1. chewing, ruminat- 
ing. 2. something chewed/nibbled at. 
Cf. tafuna. 

matafuno pi. see matafuni. 

matagataga pi.: enda -. walk with the legs 
far apart, walk straddle-legged; take long 
strides. Cf. tagaa. 




^mataka, matakwa pi. 1. need, wish, desire. 
2. inclination, leaning, talent, gift. 
Cf. 3 taka. 

^mataka, matakataka pi. refuse, rubbish; dirt, 
filth. Cf. ^aka. 

matakataka pi. see mataka. 

matako pi., anat. buttocks. Cf. tako. 

matakwa pi. see * mataka. 

matamalaki* pi. power, rule, reign, govern- 
ment. Cf. lmiliki, malki, milki. 

matambuzi pi. explanation, clarification. 
Cf. tambua, tambuzi. 

matamko, matamshi pi. pronunciation, articu- 
lation, accent, sema — . speak with a for- 
eign accent, speak a language with the ac- 
cent of one's mother tongue. Cf. tamka. 

matamshi pi. see matamko. 

matana pi., med. leprosy. (= ukoma.) 

matanga pi. 1. pi. of nanga. 2. (ceremon- 
ies of) mourning. Cf. ^tanga. 

malapishi pi. 1. vomit; vomiting, nausea. 
2. obscene language, profanity. Cf. ta- 

matarajio* pi. hope, expectation. Cf. taraji. 

matata pi. confusion, trouble, mess, commo- 
tion, complication, difficulty. Cf. tata. 

matatizo pi. business. Cf. tata. 

mataya pi. chops, jowls. Cf. Maya. 

matayarisho* LPers.J pi. 1. preparation(s), 
precaution. 2. training, education. Cf. ta- 
yari, tayarisha. 

matbaa* (— ) rare (printing-)press. ( = mtambo 
wa kupiga chapa na kutoa vitabu, kiwanda 
cha kupiga chapa.) 

mate pi. saliva, tenia — . spit, expectorate. 
Cf. ute. 

matege pi. bow legs, mwenye — . bow-legged 
person. Cf. tege. 

mategu pi, typographical error, misprint. 
Cf. Itego. 

mateka pi. 1. prey, booty, plunder. 2. cap- 
tive, prisoner-of-war. Cf. teka. 

matembele pi. sweet-potato leaves (used as 
a vegetable). 

matembezi pi. walking, strolling; gadding 
about, loitering, loafing; loose living. 
— ya wageni. tourism. Cf. tembea. 

matemo adj. & adv. 1. slanting, crooked. 
2. deformed, misshapen. 

matendo pi. activity, occupation, work. 
Cf. tend a. 

matengano pi. sectarianism. Cf. tenga. 




matengemano pi. 1. K eogr. depression. 
2. calming down, pacification, return of 
peace (after war). 3. prosperity, stabili- 
zation. Cf. tengemaa. 

matengenezo pi. 1. arrangement, disposition. 
2. regulation. 3. preparation. Cf. tenge- 

matengo, matengu pi., naut. outrigger. 

matengu pi. see matengo. 

mateso pi. see teso. 

matetezi pi. see utetezi. 

mateto pi. protest, objection, argument. 
Cf. teta. 

mathalan*, mathalani, masalan, methalan adv. 
for example. Cf. mithili, methali. 

mathalani* see mathalan. 

mathubuti*, mathubutu 1. (-) proof, evidence. 
2. adj. firm, hard, durable, stable. 3. fig. 
honest, trustworthy, dependable. Cf. tha- 
biti, thibiti. 

mathubutu* (-) see mathubuti, 

matibwitibwi pi..- maji -. stale/muddy water. 
Cf. tibua. 

matiko pi. tempering (of metal), tia -. 
temper (metal, by heating). 

2 matiko pi. of utiko. 

matilaba* pi. 1. desire, request. 2. purpose, 
aim , intention. 

matilo* (— ) naut. stay. 

matimutimu pi.; — ya nywele or nywele za — . 

ruffled/unruly hair. Cf. 2 timka. 

matindi pi. young maize plant (before the for- 
mation of ears). Cf. tindi. 

matili pi.: enda -. trot (of animals). 


^matili pi. of titi. 

matlaa* (-) see matlai. 

matlai*, matlaa (-) rare 1. sunrise. 2. east 
(- mashariki.) 3. east wind. 

matokeo pi. 1. event, occurrence, incident, 
episode. 2. result, outcome, upshot. 
Cf. Itoa. 

matoki pi. see toki. 

matongo, matongotongo pi. (also utongo) 
discharge from the eye. Cf. 4 chongo. 

matope pi. dirt, mud; swamp. Cf. tope. 

matubwitubwi pi. see machumbwichumbwi. 

matukano pi. 1. cursing, invective, abuse. 
2. quarrel, dispute. 3. terms of abuse, 
insults. Cf. tukana. 

matuko* [?] (-) grace, charm. 




matule* pi. 1. vulgarity, baseness, mean- 
ness. 2. dishonor, disgrace. 3. misery, 
distress, Cf. tule. 

matumatu pi. grasshoppers, (young) locusts. 
Cf. kimatu, tunutu. 

matumbawe pi. coral (in the stage before com- 
plete fossilization). 

matumbo pL bowels, intestines, entrails, 
viscera. Cf. tumbo. 

matumio pL see matumizi. 

matumishi pi. service, attention, care. 
Cf. tuma, 

matumizi, matumio pi. 1. use, employment, 
utilization, exploitation. 2. expenses, 
expenditures. — yake ya mapesa ni maku- 
bwa. His expenses are great. He spends 
a great deal of money. Cf. tuma. 

matunguu pi., hot. wild cardamom (Aframo- 
mum angustifolium). Cf. kitunguu. 

matusi, matushi pi. 1. cursing, insults. 
2. quarrel, dispute. 3. terms of abuse. 
Cf. tusha. 

matwana (— ) bus, truck. 

maudhiko* pi. 1. unrest, disturbance. 2. an- 
noyance, vexation, trouble, grief. Cf. udhi. 

mauguzi pi. care of the sick, nursing. 
Cf. ugua. 

mauidha*, maowidha, mawaidha (— ) (good) 
advice, admonition, instruction. 

*mauja* (— ), muuya, mwuja (miuja) 1, un- 
rest, excitement, alarm. 2. danger; mis- 
fortune, accident. 

^mauja* (— ) rare wave (= \vimbi.) 

maniiidi* (_) rnr P things wM'-h <=t» obtain- 
able /a vailable/in one's possession/known 
from experience. 

mauko pi. 1. leaving, departure, 2. sending 
off/away. 3. euph. decease, death. 
Cf. uka. 

maulana* (— ) rel. Master, Lord (= God). 

maulidi* (— ) Isl. 1. birthday of Muhammad. 
2, festivity celebrating Muhammad's birth- 

maulisho (— ) cause of death. Cf. ^ua. 

maulizo pi. 1. investigation, interrogation. 
2. jur. hearing, trial. Cf. uliza. 

maumbile pi. 1. nature, environment. 
2. (natural) character, constitution. 
Cf. umba, umbile. 

maume pi. manly deeds, strength, prowess. 
Cf. ^ume. 

maumivu pi. see umivu. 

maundifu pi.: maji — . flood, tidal wave. 




maungo pi. body, limbs, extremities. 
Cf. ^unga, ^ungo. 

maunzi _p/. building, construction, erection. 
Cf. ^unda. 

mauti* (-) death. - yalimfika njiani or 
alifikwa na - njiani. Death overtook him 
on the way. dhambi ya -. rel. mortal sin. 
Cf. maiti. 

mauzauza (-) 1. trick(s), deception, illu- 
sion, juggling, legerdemain. 2. confusior, 
bewilderment, embarrassment. 

mava pi. see mafa. 

mavalio pi. decoration, ornament, adornment, 
finery. Cf. vaa. 

mavazi pi. clothing. Cf. vaa. 

mavi pi. 1. waste, rubbish, trash. - ya 
chuma. slag. 2. dung, excrement, prov. 

- ya kalehayanuki. The bad part of the 
past is forgotten, {lit.: the offal of the 
past does not smell.) 3. a coarse term of 
abuse or contempt: rot, humbug. Cf. mawe. 

mavilio pi. stoppage, cessation, stagnation. 

— ya damu. med. bruises, contusions, 
Cf. via. 

mavu (_) hornet. (= nyigu.) 

mavukizo pL see mfukuto. 

mavunde, mavundevunde pi. 1. (scattered) 
clouds, overcast sky. 2. see mavtine. 

mavundevunde pi. see mavunde. 

mavune (rarely mavunde) pi. 1. weariness, 

weakness. 2, stiffness (of the joints). 

mavunga pL: - ya nywele. thick, unkempt 

mavungu pi. what one has killed/caught 
when hunting, bag, catch. (= mawindo.) 

mavuno pi. 1, harvest, harvesttime, crop. 
2. fig. gain, profit, proceeds. Cf. vuna. 

mavurugano pi. 1, unrest, confusion. 2. dis- 
agreement, misunderstanding, difference of 
opinion. Cf. vuruga. 

mavurugo pL confusion, mess. Cf. vuruga. 

mavuzi pi. body hair (armpits, genitals). 

- ya kwapa. hair in the armpits. Cf. vuzi, 

mawaidha (-) see mauidha. 

mawakili* pL agency. _ wa kutoa habari. 
news agency, Cf. wakili. 

mawazo pL see wazo. 

mawe 1. (pi. of jiwe) stones, stonework. 

2. (- ya mizani) weights (of scales). 

3. fig. nonsense, foolishness. 

1 mawele pi. mawele (kind of millet, Penicil- 

laria spicata or Pennisetum malacochaete). 

rr 2 ill 
^f. mwele, uwele. 



2 mawele pi., arch. milk. (= 2 maziwa.) 
maweo pi. see maavvio. 

mawese pi. palm oil (from the seeds of the 
mehikichi palm). 

mawimbi pi. breakers, surf. Cf. ^wimbi. 

mawindo pi. bag, catch (in hunting). 
Cf. 2 w j n( j a) uvvindo. 

mawingu pi. clouds, kumefanya — . It is 
cloudy. Cf. wingu. 

mayiti* (-) see maiti. 

mayonzi pi. see majonzi. 

mayowe pi. see yowe. 

mayugwa pi. leaves of the taro (used as a 
vegetable). Cf. myugwa. 

mayungiyungi pi. 1. water lily. 2. honey- 
comb ( = kamba ya asali, masega, mazana). 

mazao pi. 1. produce, offspring. 2. profit, 
gain. 3. math, product (of multiplication). 
4. result, consequence, taabu anayopata 
ni — ya upuuzi wake. The difficulties that 
he has are the result of his folly. Cf. zaa, 

mazeka* \_Germ. Musiker?] (mi-) trumpeter, 
horn player, bugler. 

mazeruzeru pi. see zeruzeru. 

maziada pi. see ziada. 

maziga pi. 1. vessel for burning incense, 
censer. 2. earthenware dish/pot. Cf. 

mazigazi pi. optical illusion, mirage. 
( = mangazimbwe.) 

maziko dI. 1. burial, interment. 2. grave- 
yard, cemetery. 3. funeral service. 
Cf. zika. 

mazimbwezimbwe pi. 1. rare darkness. 
2. dark/gloomy weather. 3. fig. dull- 
ness, stupidity. 

mazingaombwe, mazingaumbo pi. 1. trick, 
illusion, cheating (in games). 2. witch- 
craft, magic. 

mazingaumbo pi. see mazingaombwe. 

mazingazinga pi. 1. turn, revolution; 

rounds (of a policeman, etc.). 2. decep- 
tion, misleading. Cf. zinga. 

mazingira, mazingo pi. environment, sur- 
roundings. Cf. zinga. 

mazingiwa, mazingo pi. siege, blockade. 
Cf. zinga. 

mazingo pi. 1. see mazingira. 2. = ma- 
zingiwa. 3. circumstances, conditions. 
Cf. zinga. 

mazishi pi. 1. preparations for a burial. 
2. articles used in a burial. Cf. zika. 



imaziwa pi. see masiwa. 

maziwa pi. milk, dairy products. - mabichi/ 
ya robu. curdled milk. - ya kopo. con- 
densed milk. _ matupu. powdered milk. 
Cf. 2 z j wa- 

mazoea pi. 1. habit, custom, usage, practice. 
2. conduct, behavior. Cf. *zoea. 

mazoezi, mazoezo pi. exercise, practice, 
training, experience. Cf. ^oea. 

mazoezo pi. see mazoezi. 

mazu* pi. mazu (variety of banana). 

mazua* (-) see masua. 

mazuka pi. apparition, ghost. Cf. zua, 

mazunguko pi. 1. circular movement, turn, 
rotation, revolution. 2. round (of a sentry, 
policeman, etc.). Cf. zungua. 

mazungumzo pi. 1. conversation, chat, dis- 
cussion. 2. amusement, pastime. 
Cf. zungumza, zungumzo. 

mba (-) 1. med. acne. 2. dandruff. 

mbaa (-) see mbala. 

mbaamwezi (-) see mbalamwezi. 

mbaazi (mi-) hot. 1. plant bearing a variety 
of pea (Cajanus indicus). 2. (-) peas 
from this plant. 

mbacha (mi-) old, worn-out mat. 

mbadhiri*, mbadhirifu (wa-) swindler, cheat; 
extravagant person, spendthrift. Cf. ba- 

mbadhirifu* (wa-) see mbadhiri. 

mbadilishaji (wa-) changeable/fickle/whimsi- 
i-al/ shiny person; (comm.) revisionist. 
Cf. badili, ubadilishaji. 

mbafu be uncouth/unmannerly /stupid. 

mbago: enda — go separately, avoid each 
other's company, be at outs. 

mbaguzi (wa-) racialist, racist. Cf. mbago. 
mbahili* (wa-) see bahili. 

mbala, mbaa (-) zool. mbala (species of 
antelope, bushbuck). (= mbawala.) 

mbalamwezi, mbaramwezi, mbaamwezi, bala- 
mwezi (_) 1. moonlight. 2. full moon. 

mbalanga*, balanga (-) med. mbalanga 
(a skin disease), - nyeupe (nyeusi). 
white(black) mbalanga. 

mbalasi* (mi-) see balasi. 
imbale pi. of ubale. 

2 mbale (mi-) augment, of ubale (smaller than 

mbalehe* (wa-) see balehe. 




mbali 1. adv. far, distant, remote; at/from a 
distance; (fig.) aloof. — ya... far from.. . Said na 
mimi tunakaa — . Said and I live far away from 

each other, nilimwona kwa — . I saw him 
from a distance. 2. adv. long since, for 
a long time, niliyajua mambo haya — . I 
have known about this matter for a long 
time, 3. adv. (with the appl. form of v.) 
completely, entirely, utterly, ulia -. kill 
outright. 4. adj. {also mbalimbali) sep- 
arate, different. Cf. umbali. 

mbalimbali adj. different, various. Cf. mbali. 

mbalungi* LPers.J (mi-) hot. grapefruit 
tree. Cf. balungi. 

*mbamba (mi-) hot. mbamba (poisonous plant, 
spurge: Euphorbia abyssinica). 

^mbamba (mi-) spade, shovel. Cf. 3 Dam b a , 

mbambakofi (mi-) bot. magnolia tree (Afze- 
lia quanzensis). 

mbambangoma (— ) bot. mbambangoma (a 
shrub with long spines). 

mbamia* (mi-) bot. okra plant. Cf. bamia. 

mbandarini* LPers.J (wa-) dock worker, 
longshoreman. ( = kuli.) Cf. bandari. 

mbande (— ) rare neap tide. (- maji mafu.) 

mbandiko (mi-) 1. pasting, gluing; applica- 
tion. 2. something applied/stuck/pasted 
(a plaster, etc.). Cf. bandika. 

mbanduko (mi-) 1. (act of) pulling off, re- 
moving. 2. fig. decrease; abolition, an- 
nulment. Cf. bandika. 

mbangi* (mi-) see bangi. 

*mbango (— ) wild pig, warthog (= ngiri). 

^mbango (— ) si. money. 

mbanjo (mi-) 1. (act of) breaking up, tearing 
down. 2. damage, injury. 3. auto, break- 
down. Cf. banja. 

mbano (mi-) 1. (act of) pressing, squeezing. 
2. fig. pressure, tension; effort, exertion 
(physical or mental). 3. (also kibano) 
tongs, pincers, tweezers. 4. hand vise. 
Cf. bana. 

^mbao (mi-) see bao. 

^mbao pi. of ubao. 

mbaraka (mi-) see baraka. 

mbaramba (— ) see mramba. 

mbaramwezi (mi-) see mbalamwezi. 

mbarango (mi-) stick, club. 

mbarapi (— ) zool. mbarapi (sable antelope). 

mbari (— ) rare family, clan, tribe. 

mbarika (mi-) bot. castor-oil plant (Ricinus 
communis), mbono/kokwa ya — . seed of 
the castor-oil plant, mafuta ya — . castor oil. 




mbaruti (mi-) bot. Mexican poppy (Argemt>ne 

mbashiri* (wa-) 1. messenger, one who brings 
news. 2. prophet. - dini. commentator 
(on religious matters). 3. soothsayer, for- 
tune-teller. Cf. bashiri. 

mbasua* (_) 1. spell of dizziness. 2. mad- 
r.cca, insanity, menial aberration. Lf. ba- 
sua, masua. 

mbata (-) fully ripe coconut. 

mbati pi. of ^wati. 

mbatilifu* (wa-) one who declares something 
to be invalid/ineffective. Cf. batili. 

mbatizaji* [Engl J (wa-) one who baptizes. 
Mtakatifu Johana Mbatizaji. St. John the 
Baptist. Cf. batiza. 

mbau (mi-) see bao. 

mbau pi. of ubao, ubau. 

^mbavu pL of ubavu. 

Anbavu (ma-) see ^bavu. 
mbawa pi. of ubawa. 

mbawala, mbawara (-) zool. mbawala (kind of 
antelope, bushbuck). (= mbala.) 

mbawara (-) see mbawala. 

mbawawa (-) mbawawa (kind of fish). 

mbayana* 1. (wa-) well-known/famous per- 
son. 2. adj. evident, apparent, obvious, 
well-known. 3. adv. see Ibayana. 
Cf. baina, baini, Ibayana. 

mbayuwayu* [PersJ ornitL swallow, swift. 
mbazazi* (wa-) see bazazi. 

mbea 1. (wa-) (also mmbea) slanderer, 
gossip, talebearer, scandalmonger. 
2. (mi-) slander, denunciation. 3. adj. 
false, untrue. Cf. umbea, mmbea. 

mbega (-) mbega (species of monkey, Colo- 
bus vellerosus). 

mbegu (-) L seed, panda -. sow. 2. germ, 
bud, shoot, seedling, cutting. 3. race, 
breed, species. 

mbeja* [_PersJ (wa-) neat/well-dressed 
person, one who takes pride in his per- 
sonal appearance. Cf. ubeja. 

mbeko (-) see mbeleko. 

mbele 1. (-) front. - yangu. in front of 
me. - ya sheria. before the law. loc. 
mbeleni. coll. genitals. 2. adv. be- 
fore, in front, forward; further, beyond; 
earlier, previously, long ago; later, sub- 
sequently, in the future; on the other hand, 
on thecontrary. Cf. umbele. 

mbeleko, mbeko, ubeleko, uweleko (-) (also 
beleko, ma-) mbeleko (cloth sling used for 
carrying children on the back). Cf. eleka. 




mbelewele (-) bot. pollen. 
Mbelgiji* [Germ.?] (wa-) a Belgian. 

Ifnbembe, mbembelezi, mbembezi (wa-) 

1. flatterer. 2. seducer, tempter. 3. flirt, 
coquette, immoral woman. Cf. bemba. 

^mbembe (mi-) coll. hunger. 

mbembelezi, mbembezi (wa-) see '■mbembe. 

mbenuko (mi-) roundness, curve, bulge. 
Cf. benua. 

mbepari* (wa-) comm. bourgeois, wadoezi 
wa wabepari. bourgeois hangers-on. Cf. 
bepari, kibepari, ubepari. 

mbezi (wa-) presumptuous/arrogant/conceited 
person. Cf. beza. 

mbibo* [Port.] (mi-) cashew apple tree 
(Anacardium occidentale). Cf. bibo. 

mbigili, mbigiri (mi-) mbigili (species of 
thorny shrub, Tribulus terrestris). 

mbiginyo (mi-) humiliation. 

mbigiri (mi-) see mbigili. 

mbiha (mi-) mbiha (a perennial plant, Abuti- 
lum zanzibaricum). 

mbili two. nyumba — . two houses, mara — . 
twice, mbili-tatu. two or three, several. 
Cf. wili. 

mbilikitno* (— ) 1. dwarf, gnome. 2. pygmy. 

mbilimbi, mbirimbi (mi-) cucumber tree 
(Averrhoa bilimbi). 

mbilingani* LPers.J (mi-) eggplant (Solanum 
melongena). Cf. bilingani. 

mbinda* [/rarf.] (mi-) okra, lady's finger 
(Hibiscus esculentus). (- mbamia.) 

mbingu (plur. of uwingu) 1. sky, heaven. 
2. clouds, cloudiness. 3. rare darkness. 

mbini* (wa-) 1. blacksmith. 2. forger, 
counterfeiter. Cf. bini. 

mbinja (plur. of ubinja) whistle, whistling. 

mbinu (— ) 1. roundness, curvature. — ya 
mkono (mguu). well-shaped arm (leg). 
2. pressure, arm-twisting. 3. trickery, 
distortion, fuata — . follow suit. Cf. be- 

Imbio 1. (-) (act of) running, race, piga/ 
enda — . to run. 2. adv. (also mbiombio) 
very fast, in haste, at full speed. 

^mbio (— ) mbio (kind of cassava). 

mbiomba (— ) rare maternal aunt. ( = mama 

mbirambi* (— ) see rambirambi. 

mbirimbi (mi-) see mbilimbi. 



lb lit 

mbishi (wa-) 1. stubborn/obstinate person. 
2. argumentative/contentious/cavilling per- 
son. 3. mocker, scoffer. Cf. bisha. 

mbishi pi, of ubishi. 

mbisho (mi-) see bisho. 

mbisi* (mi-) see bisi. 

mbiu (-) 1. buffalo horn. 2. announcement, 
proclamation (to which attention was former- 
ly called by blowing a buffalo horn), piga 
— . blow the buffalo horn, make an announce- 

mbiya (-) cutting, seedling: tia -. transplant 

mbizi (— ) dive, diving, piga — . to dive, 
maji ya — . deep water, sport fancy diving. 

2 mbizi (-) mbizi (kind of bird). 

mbobo (— ) 1. abundance, excess, superfluity. 
2. fertility. 3. cheapness. 

mboga 1. (-) mboga (large pumpkin, Cucurbita 
moschata). 2. [also mbogamboga, — ) vege- 
table (of any kind). — ya pwani. purslane. 

•nbogamboga (— ) see mboga. 

mbogo (-) buffalo (= nyati.) 

tnboji (— ) soil moisture. 

mbokora (-) beer calabash (with a narrow 

mbolea (-) 1. manure, fertilizer. 2. richness 
(of soil). 

tnbomoko (mi-) see bomoko. 

mbomoshi (wa-) 1. one who destroys/ruins. 
2. rec, pol. revolutionist, radical. Cf. 

mbona interrog. why? for what reason? (more 
polite than kwa nini). - umekawia kuja? 
Why are you late? 

mboni (-) 1. (also - ya jicho) anat. eyeball, 
pupil. 2. fig. something precious, the apple 
of one's eye. 3. a lost thing, missing person, 
mtumwa wa -. a missing slave. 4. reward for 
finding a lost object. Cf. ona. 

mbono (mi-) mbono (castor-oil plant, Ricinus 
communis), mafuta ya -. castor oil. Cf. 
ubono, nyonyo. 

mbono (pi. of ubono) seeds of the castor-oil 

mboo, mboro (mi-) anat., vulg. penis. 
( = dhakari, uume.) 

mboro (mi-) see mboo. 

mboza (mi-) mboza (kind of tree, Sterculia 

mbu (— ) mosquito. 

mbuai adj., rare wild, brutal, mnyama -. wild 
animal. Cf. ' ua, mwuaji. 



11 buz 

mbuga (— ) savannah, steppe, grassland, 

mbuge (wa-) a person who is constantly 
eating. Cf. bugia, ubuge. 

mbugi (— ) small bells (fastened to the legs of 
children or dancers). 

*mbugu (mi-) mbugu (climbing plant, rubber 
liana). Cf. mbungo. 

^mbugu pi. of ubugu. 

mbuguma (— ) cow that has calved. 

mbuji (wa-) see mmbuji. 

Mbuki (wa-) a Malagasy. Cf. Buki. 

mbukulia, mbukuzi (wa-) chatterbox, gossip, 
scandalmonger. Cf. bukua. 

mbukuzi (wa-) see mbukulia. 

mbulia (mi-) mbulia (a wild shrub). 

mbulu, mbulukwa (wa-) insane/feeble-minded 

mbulukwa (wa-) see mbulu. 

mbungati (mi-) mbungati ('sausage tree,' 
Kigelia pinnata). 

mbunge (ma-) member of parliament. Cf. bunge. 

^mbungo (mi-) rubber liana (Landolphia 

mbungo, mbung'o (— ) tsetse fly. (- chafuo.) 


mbung'o (— ) see mbungo. 

mbungu (— ) zool. mbungu (species of 
antelope, eland.) ( = *mpofu.) 

*mbuni* (mi-) coffee bush. Cf. buni. 

-mbuni* (— ) zool. ostrich. 

^mbuni* (wa-) 1. organizer. 2. inventor; 


author. Cf. buni. 

mbura (mi-) mbura (kind of tree with yellow 
blossoms, Parinarium curatellae folium). 

mburuga (mi-) magic for identifying a wrong- 
doer (by use of the bao, q.v.). 

mburugo (mi-) 1. mixing, mixture. 2. fig. 
confusion, disorder, jumble. Cf. buruga. 

mburukenge (— ) zool. monitor lizard. 
(= kenge.) 

mburuzo, mbuuzo (mi-) 1. pulling, dragging. 
2. trace, track, mark. — wa nyoka. track 
of a snake. Cf. burura. 

mbuuzo (mi-) see mburuzo. 

mbuya (— ) 1. concubine, mistress. 2. prostitute. 

mbuyu (mi-) baobab, calabash tree (Adansonia 
digitata). Cf. buyu, ubuyu. 

mbuzi (— ) 1. goat. — mwitu. ibex, klipspringer. 
2. coconut grater. 




mbwa (-) dog. _ wa mwitu. jackal. _ koko. 
wild dog; (fig.) bastard. _ ya kuwinda. 
hunting dog. Cf. jibwa, kijibwa. 

mbwago (mi-) 1. fall, collapse, slump. - wa 
bei. drop in price. 2. falling off, subsiding 
(of interest, etc.). Cf. bwaga. 

mbwanda (mi-) sword-bean (= mwingasiafu). 
kiila — ficr Kp =„^or.„f..i _„.. ...i.., 
wants, rejoice. 

mbwe (-) 1. small stone, pebble. 2. gravel. 
Cf. jiwe. 

mbwedu 1. (wa-) an unpleasant/dirty/disgust- 
ing/malicious person. 2. (mi-) a disgusting/ 
repulsive thing. 

mbweha (-) jackal (Canis mesomelas). 
{- bweha.) 

mbweko (mi-) bark(ing) (of dogs). Cf. bweka. 

mbwende (-) mbwende (apron of beads worn 
by women beneath their normal clothing). 

mbweu (-) belch(ing). piga -. to belch. 

mbwoji (mi-) spring (of water); spout, fountain. 

mcha, mchaji (wa-): - Mungn. rel. a God-fear- 
ing person. Cf. 2 cha. 

mchachatochachato (_) slow, deliberate gait. 

mchafuko (mi-) 1. something dirty /filthy. 2. 
disorder, confusion; (pol.) crisis. — wa 
kilimwengu. international crisis. 3. breakers, 
surf. Cf. chafua. 

mohafuzi (wa-) person who creates confusion/ 
disorder; (pol.) diversionist, saboteur. Cf. 

mchago (mi-) see ^hago. 

mchagua (wa-): prov. - j em be si mkulima. A 
poor workman blames his tools. Cf. chagua. 

mchaguo (mi-j choice, selection. Cf. chagua. 

mchaguzi (wa-) 1. fastidious/exacting person. 
2. pol. voter, elector. Cf. chagua. 

mchai* (mi-) hot. 1. tea-plant (Thea sinensis). 
Cf. chai. 2. lemon grass (Andropogon citrio- 

mchaji (wa-) see mcha. 

mchakacho (mi-) 1. crushing, pounding, pulver- 
izing. 2. crackling, rustling. Cf. chakacha. 

mchakuro (mi-) 1. scratching, scribbling, scrawl; 
scratch, laceration. 2. fig. careful scrutiny, 
investigation, revision. Cf. chakura. 

mchamvya (mi-) mchamvya (tree with edible fruit, 
PachystelaSacleuxii). (= mchocha.) 

mc-hana sing. 1. day. - kutwa (kuchwa). the 
whole day. 2. daytime. - mdogo. midday 
(period preceding and following noon). 
chakula cha -. midday meal. 3. daylight. 

mchanga sing. 1. sand. - mnene (mwembamba). 
coarse (fine) sand, chembe ya -. grain of 
sand. 2. dust, powder, sukari -. granulated 
sugar. Cf. uchanga. 




mchanganuo (mi-) analysis. Cf. changa. 

mchanganyaji (wa-) 1. one who mixes or com- 
pounds something, 2.: — dawa. druggist, 
pharmacist. Cf. * changa. 

mchanganyiko (mi-) mixture. Cf. ^change. 

mchanganyo (mi-) 1. confusion. 2. forgery, 
imitation. Cf. ^changa. 

rochango (mi-) intestinal worm, maw-worm. 


( = chango.) 

z mchango (mi-) 1. payment, deposit; contribu- 
tion. 2. collection (of money); (fin.) fund. 
— wa Kitaifa. National Provident Fund. 3. 
mil.: — wa askari. recruitment of soldiers. 
Cf. changa. 

mchanjo (mi-) 1. cutting, lopping (of branches). 
2. cut, wound. 3. med. vaccination. Cf. 
chanja, chanjo. 

mchanyato (mi-) mchanyato (a dish consisting 
of bananas and manioc). Cf. chanyata. 

mchapa: — maji. (wa-) coll. drinker. Cf. 

mchapaji*, mchapishaji (wa-) printer, publisher. 
Cf. chapa. 

mchapishaji (wa-) see mchapaji. 

mchapo (mi-) 1. blow, cut (with a whip). 
2. whip. Cf. *chapa. 

mchawi (wa-) magician, sorcerer, wizard. Cf. 

mche (mi-) 1. seedling, cutting, slip. 2. fig. 
descendant, offspring. 

mchea, mcheaji (wa-) timid/timorous person. 
Cf. 2 cha. 

mcheaji (wa-) see mchea. 

Imcheche (mi-) spine, quill (of a porcupine). 

^mcheche (mi-) spark. (= ^cheche.) 

mchegamo (mi-) mat placed under the head of 
a corpse. Cf. egama. 

mchekecho (mi-) sifting. Cf. chekecha. 

mchekele (mi-) wild olive tree. Cf. mzeituni. 

mchekeshaji (wa-) see mchekeshi. 

mchekeshi, mchekeshaji (wa-) jolly/amusing 
person, joker, wag, clown. Cf. cheka. 

mcheko (mi-) (manner of) laughing, laughter. 
Cf. ^heka. 

mchele (mi-; us. collec. sing.) 1. (husked) rice. 
2. (cleaned) grain (in gen.). — wa mtama. 
millet grain. 

mchelea, mcheleaji (wa-) nervous person. Cf. 
2 cha. 

mcheleaji (wa-) see mchelea. 

mchelema (mi-) watery manioc. Cf. chelema. 

mchemko (mi-) see chemko. 




mchengo (mi-) 1. mowing (grain). 2. cutting, 
felling (trees). Cf. ichenga. 

mchenza (mi-) mandarin-orange tree (Citrus 
nobilis). Cf. chenza. 

mcheshi (wa-) pleasant/affable person. Cf. 
cheka, cheshi. 

mcheza, mchezi; mchezaji (wa-) 1. player, 
athlete. - gozi. football player. 2.: - wa 
michezo ya kuiga. actor. 3.: — ngoma. 
dancer, mcheza and mchezi are used gen- 
erally and without special connotation; 
mchezaji, however, implies always that the 
person is especially skilled or a profes- 
sional. Cf. cheza. 

mchezaji (wa-) see mcheza. 

mchezi (wa-) see mcheza. 

mchezo (mi-) 1. game. 2. sport. - wa mpira. 
football game. — wa ngumi. boxing match. 
3. dance. 4. entertainment, amusement, 
fun. anafanya haya kwa - tu. He does this 
only for the fun of it. Cf. cheza. 

mchi (michi) 1. pestle, pounding-pole. 2. (- wa 
mashine) piston. 

mchicha (mi-) edible plant, spinach (Amaranthus 

mchikichi (mi-) oil palm (Elaeis guineensis). 
Cf. mawese. 

mchikicho (mi-) seasoning, flavoring (for foods). 

mchimbaji, mchimbuzi (wa-) one who digs for 
a living: excavation/construction laborer; 
(— wa madini) miner, mine worker. — 
dhahabu. goldminer, gold-digger. Cf. chimba. 

mchimbi, mchimvi, mtimvi (wa-) arch, un- 
lucky person, person of ill omen (one for 
whom an unfortunate life was foretold at 
his birth). Cf. chimba, chimvi, uchimvi. 

mchimbuzi (wa-) see mchimbaji. 

mchimvi (wa-) see mchimbi. 

mchinja (wa-) see mchinjaji. 

mchinjadamu (mi-) (kind of) banana. 

mchinjaji, mchinja (wa-) 1. slaughterer, 
butcher. 2. executioner, hangman. 3. 
murderer. Cf. chinja. 

mchinjiko (mi-) cord, rope (made of the fibers 
of the baobab; used by nursing mothers to 
support the breasts). 

mchinjo (mi-), kichinjo (vi-) slaughter, murder, 
massacre. Cf. chinja. 

mchipukizi (wa-) handsome young woman. 
Cf. chipua. 

mchiririko (mi-) drainage water (from the eaves 
of a house). Cf. chiririka. 

mchirizi, mkirizi (mi-) gutter, eaves, pipe, 
drainage ditch. Cf. chiririka, chirizi. 

mchocha (mi-) mchocha (tree with edible 
fruit). (= mchamvya.) 




mchocheaji (wa-) (usually — moto) stoker, 
fireman. Cf. chocha. 

mchocheo, mchocho (mi-) 1. (act of) poking, 
stirring (a fire); push, shove, kick. 2. fig. 
stimulus, impulse, instigation. Cf. chocha. 

mchochezi (wa-) one who stirs up, excites, 
provokes; agitator. — wa vita, warmonger. 
Cf. chocha. 

mchocho (mi-) see mchocheo. 

mchochoni (mi-) mchochoni (variety of yam; 
poisonous, but eaten after the poison has 
been removed). 

mchochoro (mi-) see kichochoro. 

mchochota (mi-) med. itching dry scab. Cf. 

mchokocho (mi-) irritation, vexation, annoy- 
ance. Cf. chokoa. 

Imchokochore (mi-) mchokochore (kind of tree), 

Anchokochore (mi-): — dume a weed. 

mchokoo (mi-) pointed stick. Cf. chokoa. 

mchokozi (wa-) inquisitive/obtrusive/annoy- 
ing/troublesome person. Cf. chokoa. 

^mchoma: — moto (wa-) stoker, fireman (on a 
locomotive). Cf. ^choma. 

^mchoma (wa-) one who stabs. Cf. choma. 

mchomaji (wa-) arsonist, incendiary. Cf. 

mchomo (mi-) 1. (act of) burning. 2. rare 
cooking. Cf. choma. 

2 mchomo (mi-) 1, irritation. 2. med. inflamma- 
tion; (sharp, sudden) pain. 3. stab (wound). 
Cf. choma. 

mchongelezi (wa-) see mchongezi. 

mchongezi, mchongelezi (wa-) 1. betrayer, 
talebearer, informer. 2. slanderer, scandal- 
monger. Cf. chonga. 

mchongo (mi-), chongo (— ) (act of) cutting, 
cut, notch. Cf. chonga. 

mchongoma (mi-) mchongoma (thorny shrub, 
Flacourtia indica). 

mchoo (mi-) rainy season (July to late September). 

mchopozi (wa-) 1. thief. 2. miser, skinflint. 
Cf. chopa. 

mchorachora (wa-) 1, poor writer, scrawler. 
2. (in gen.) one who does something badly, 
botcher, bungler, Cf. chora. 

mchoraji (wa-) engraver. Cf. chora. 

mchoro (mi-) 1. scratching, inscribing. 2. en- 
graving. 3. carving, sculpture. 4. tattooing. 
Cf. chora. 

mchorochoro (mi-) 1. scrawling, scribbling, 
illegible handwriting. 2. arabesque. Cf. 





mchoroko (mi-) plant resembling the pea 
(Phaseolus mungo). 

mchoshi, mchovu (wa-) annoying/boring person. 
Cf. ichoka. 

mchoto (mi-) small amount, pinch. Cf. chota. 

mchovu (wa-) see mchoshi. 

mchovya (wa-) a person who dips his finger 
into the food when eating. Cf. chovya. 

mchovyo (mi-) hardening, tempering (metals); 
plating, dhahabu ya -. gold-plating, gilding. 
Cf. chovya. 

mchu (michu) mchu (species of mangrove, 
(Avicennia marina). 

mchukuzi (wa-) carrier, bearer, porter. Cf. 

mchumba (wa-) 1. lover, sweetheart. 2. fiance(e), 
Cf. chumba, chumbisha, uchumba. 

mchumbururu (mi-) swordfish. (= chuchunge.) 

mchunaji, mchuni (wa-) flayer, knacker. Cf. 

Whunga (wa-) see mchungaji. 

2 mchunga (mi-) mchunga (a plant the leaves of 
which are cooked as a vegetable). 

mchungaji (wa-) {rare mchunga) 1. herdsman, 
shepherd. 2. fig. leader; (rel.) pastor, 
priest. Cf. 2 chunga. 

mchunguti (mi-) see 2 msunguti. 

mchunguzi (wa-) 1. inquisitive/impudent per- 
son. 2. spy, scout. 3. observer, journalist. 
Cf. ^xhunga. 

mchungwa (mi-) orange tree. Cf. chungwa. 

mchuni (wa-) see mchunaji. 

mchuruzi (wa-) see mchuuzi. 

mchuuzi, mchuruzi (wa-) retail merchant, shop- 
keeper. Cf. 2 chuuza. 

mchuzi (mi-) soup, broth, gravy, sauce, curry, 
kionja -. small beard below the lip, 
imperial (lit.: 'gravy-taster'). 

mchwa (-) white ant, termite. 

mdaa (mi-) mdaa (plant used for making a 

black dye, Euclea multiflora). (= msirisha.) 

mdaawa* 1. (wa-) jur. plaintiff, claimant. 
2. (mi-) = daawa, dai. Cf. daawa, dai. 

Mdachi* [Cerm.l (wa-) rare a German. 
(= Mjeremani.) Cf. 2 Dachi. 

mdadisi (wa-) inquisitive/impertinent person. 
Cf. dadisi. 

mdago (mi-) mdago (a weed, Adenium coeta- 

mdahalo* (mi-) discussion, debate, exchange 
of views. Cf. dahili. 




mdai* (wa-) 1. creditor. 2. jur. plaintiff, 
claimant. Cf. dai. 

mdaiwa* (wa-) 1. debtor. 2. jur. defendant, 
accused. Cf. dai. 

mdakale*, mdakali (mi-) stem of an opium pipe. 
Cf. digali. 

mdakair (mi-) see mdaktue. 

mdakizi, mdakuzi, mdukizi, mdaku 1. (wa-) 
eavesdropper, gossipmonger, talebearer, 
slanderer, informer. 2. (mi-) gossip, slander. 
Cf. 'daka, dukiza. 

mdako (mi-) mdako (children's game played with 
pebbles). Cf. daka. 

mdaku (wa-) see mdakizi. 

mdakulizi (mi-) 1. slanderer, talebearer, in- 
former. 2. someone who habitually contra- 
dicts or protests. Cf. daka. 

mdakuzi (wa-) see mdakizi. 

mdala (mi-) dial, bolt of cloth. 

mdalahani* (mi-) see mdarahani. 

mdalasini* (mi-) cinnamon tree (Cinnamomum 
zeylanicum), cinnamon (bark). Cf. dalasini. 

mdambi (— ) 1. savannah, grassland. 2. bot. 
heather (Erica). 

mdanganyi, mdanganyifu (wa-) deceiver, cheat, 
swindler; traitor. Cf. danganya, danganyifu. 

mdanganyifu (wa-) see mdanganyi. 

mdanzi (mi-) (Seville) orange tree (Citrus 
bigaradia). Cf. danzi. 

mdarabi* [Pers.] (mi-) rose-apple tree 
(Eugenia jambosa). Cf. darabi. 

mdarahani*, mdalahani (mi-) mdarahani (soft 

= ;lk faKf'V)- 

mdeke* (mi-) see mdeki. 

mdeki*, mdeke (mi-) mil. ramrod. 

mdele* (mi-) see mdila. 

mdengu* (mi-) bot. lentil plant. Cf. dengu. 

mdeni* (wa-), maduyuni (— ) debtor. Cf. deni. 

mdewere (mi-) bot. spinach. 

mdhabidhabina* (wa-), kidhabidhabina (vi-) 

1. liar, deceiver, cheat, swindler. 2. gossip- 

tndhaha*. msaha (-) mockery, joking, teasing. 

mdhalimu* (wa-) 1. oppressor, tyrant, despot. 

2. unjust/cruel person. Cf. dhalimu. 

mdhamana* (wa-) see mdhamini. 

mdhamini*, mdhamana (wa-) 1. guarantor, 

trustee, guardian, sponsor. 2. rare oppressor. 
Cf. dhamini. 

mdhana* (-) 1. bad luck, misfortune, calamity. 
2. bad omen. 3. thing or person supposed to 




bring bad luck/misfortune. 4. one who brings 
others under suspicion, talebearer, informer. 

mdila* (mi-) coffeepot. (= dele.) 

mdimu*, mndimu [ind.J (mi-) lime tree (Citrus 
auranti folia). Cf. ndimu. 

mdiria (-) ornith. kingfisher. 

mdirifu* (wa-) well-to-do person, someone who 
lives in easy circumstances. 

mdodoki* (mi-) bot. luffa (Luffa acutangula). 
Cf. dodoki. 

mdoriani* (mi-) see mduriani. 

mdoshi (mi-) treadle (of a loom). 

mdoya (wa-) see mdoezi. 

mduara* 1. adj. round, circular. 2. (mi-) 
see duara. 

mdubira* (wa-) unlucky person, someone who 
is always unsuccessful. 


ldudu* (wa-) insect (any small creeping or 
flying creature). Cf. ^udu, kidudu; also 
dude (?). 

mdoea (wa-) see mdoezi. 

mdoezi, mdoea, mdoya (wa-) 1. scout, spy, 
2. fig. parasite, sponger, wadoezi wa wabe- 
pari. comm. bourgeois hangers-on. Cf. doea, 

mdogo (wa-) junior (in age or rank). - wa 
waziri. deputy minister. Cf. dogo. 

mdomo (rare mlomo) (mi-) 1. lip. 2. mouth, tia 
nyama .mdomoni. put meat in one's mouth. 
3. beak (of a bird). 4. mouth of an animal 
(snout, maw, etc.), proboscis (of an insect). 
5. opening, hole; nozzle, spout; mouthpiece 
(of a wind instrument, etc.); barrel (of a gun). 
bunduki ya midomo miwili. double-barrelled 
gun. 6. mouth of a river, estuary. Cf. domo, 

mdongea (mi-) mdongea (kind of shawl or wrap). 

mdono (mi-) bite, biting (offish at bait). Cf. 

mdudu (mi-) mdudu (shrub with tuberous roots, 
rarely used for food; Thylachium africanum). 

mdukizi (wa-) see mdakizi. 

mdukuo (mi-) push, poke, blow, slap, box on the 
ear. Cf. dukiza, ^aka (?). 

mdumu (mi-) 1. pot, jug (usually metal). 2. tin 
can/box. (= dumu.) 

mdundo (mi-) 1. sound of a drum. 2. mdundo 
(kind of drum). Cf. dunda. 

mdundugo (mi-) mdundugo (a charm or amulet 
supposed to make the wearer invulnerable). 

mdunzidunzi (wa-) , dunzi (ma-) 1. spy, detective. 
2. prying person, busybody. 

mduriani*, mdoriani [.Mai.'] breadfruit/durian 
tree (Durio zibethinus). 




mdusi*, mdusia (wa-) parasite. Cf. dusa. 

mea 1. sprout, germinate. 2. grow (of the hair 
or fingernails), appl. melea. grow on...; 
(intr.) be overgrown, caus. melesha. intr. 
meleka. Cf. kijimea, kimea, kimelea, mimea, 
mmea, mmelea. 

^mechi* [Engl. J (— ) match, game. — ya 
mpira. football game. 

^mechi* [Engl. } (— ) rare match (for lighting 
fires). ( = kibiriti.) 

medali* [Engl. J (— ) medal. 

Ifnede* (— ) small bed/couch (also used as a 
seat for guests). 

^mede* (— ) sport 1. goal, winning-post. 
2. rare goal, point. 

mega break off, divide up. — kwa meno. bite 
off. appl. megea. intr. megeka. caus. me- 
gesha. Cf. mego, mmego. 

mego (ma-) piece; bite, morsel; slice (of bread). 
Cf. mega. 

meguka {us. red. megukameguka) be confused, 
disjointed, incompletely expressed, unintel- 
ligible, kifungu hiki cha maneno ya sheria 
kilitafsiriwa na fundi mmoja lakini maana 
kamili ya kisheria haipo timamu bali imeme- 
gukameguka. This section of law has been 
translated by an expert, but its true meaning 
is confused. 

Mei* LEngl.l (month of) May. 

neka 1. blaze/flame up, be red-hot, burn, glow. 

2. be red; (fig.) turn red, be embarrassed. 

3. (mekameka) glitter, sparkle. 

nekanika* [.Engl. J (-, ma-) mechanic, work- 

meko pi. of jiko. 

melea appl. of mea. 

meleka intr. of mea, 

meli* \_Engl. mail] (— ) 1. steamship (in gen.). 
chumba cha — . cabin, ingia (pakia) — . go on 
board. 2. cargo. 3. imported goods (brought 
by ship), mpunga wa — . kind of imported 

melikora (— ) variety of rice. 

melimeli*, melmeli [jnd. ] (-) melimeli (kind 
of thin fabric like muslin). 

mema pi. goodness, good actions, prov,: — na 
maovu ndio ulimwengu. There are both good 
and evil in the world. Cf. eraa. 

memba* [.Engl. J (— ) member. 

membe (— ) ornith. (species of) curlew (Numenius 

memeteka, memetuka, meremeta 1. shine, sparkle, 
glitter, twinkle; give off sparks, 2. rare rage, 
be furious. Cf. umeme, memetuko. 

memetuka see memeteka. 

memetuko (-) shining, glittering, sparkling, 
twinkling. Cf. memeteka. 



memsahib* (— ) see mamsahib. 

mena 1. scorn, disdain, despise. 2. be rude/' 
impertinent insolent/impudent. Cf. kimene. 

mende (— ) 1. zool. cockroach. 2. vulg. one 
who practices sodomy. 

meneja* iEngl.j (— ) 1. manager, director, 
administrator. — wa sinema. movie director. 
2. sport trainer. 

mengi see ingi. 

meno pi. of iino. 

mentaa* (— ) see mentari. 

mentari*, mentaa (— ) tweezers (for depilation). 

menya 1. pull off, peel, husk. — muhogo 
(viazi). peel manioc (potatoes). — mpunga. 
husk rice. 2. beat, pound, pulverize. 

menzili* (— ) see manzili. 

merekani*, amerikani, (— ), mrekani (mi-) [Engl.j 
rough, unbleached cotton cloth, sheeting. 

meskiti* (— ) see msikiti. 

[>„„/ 1 

messi* \_Engl. J (— ) mess, board, dining- 

^meta 1. gleam, glitter, sparkle, shine, 2. fig. 
do very well at something, be successful. 
appl. metea. intr. meteka. caus. metesha. 
Cf. kimeta, kimeti; also memeteka. 

"meia* [Engl. J (— ) meter; cubic meter (of 
wood, building stone), —a — . metric. 
kipimo cha — . metric system, 

methalan* see mathalan. 

methali*, mithali, misali (— ) symbol, emblem; 
parable, proverb, tumia — katika mazu- 
ngumzo. use proverbs in a conversation. 
Cf. mithili. 

Imeza* [Port.j (-) 1. table, loc. mezani. 
dining room. adv. at table. 2. counter, 
(ticket) office/window (bank, railroad sta- 
tion). — ya kuandikia. (writing-)desk. 
kitambaa cha — . tablecloth. 3,: — ya Bwana. 
rel. altar rail. 

meremeta see memeteka. 

merikebu* (— ) ship, steamship (always a vessel 
of European origin; chombo = native vessel; 
meli = steamship only), loc. merikebuni. 
aboard. Cf. rakibu. 

mesenja* [Engl. J (— ) messenger. 
meski* (— ) see miski. 

-meza swallow (up), devour, intr. mezeka. 
caus. mezesha. pass, mezwa. 

mfaa (mi-) mfaa (center piece of a door). 

mfadhili* (wa-) benefactor, donor, contributor 
(to a collection of money). Cf. fadhili. 

mfafanusi (wa-) draftsman, illustrator. Cf. 




mfagiaji (wa-) 1. street sweeper. 2. charwoman. 
Cf. fagia. 

mfagio (mi-) hot. mfagio (plant similar to the 
mallow; used for making brooms: Sida carpini- 
folia). Cf. fagia. 

mfalme (wa-) ruler, king. Cf. kifalme, ufalme. 

mfano (mi-) 1. sample, model, pattern; (liter.) 
parable, kama — . similar, analogous. 2. 
example, kwa — . for example. 3. liter. 
style (of writing). Cf. faa, fana, fanana. 

mfanya, mfanyi (wa-) 1. someone who performs 
an action or engages in an activity. — kazi. 
worker. — kazi ya reli. railroad worker. — 
biashara. businessman, merchant, trader. 
— mambo ya magendo. black-marketeer, — 
hi an a. pol. renegade. 2. executor. 3. orga- 
nizer. Cf. faa. 

mfanyaji (wa-): — kazi. worker. — kazi uchu- 
kuzi wa magari. chauffeur. — kazi wa relwe. 
railroad worker. — kazi wa shamba. agri- 
cultural worker. Cf. faa. 

mfanyi (wa-) see mfanya. 

mfanyizaji (wa-): — kazi. worker. Cf. faa. 

Mfaransa* (wa-) Frenchman. Cf. Faransa, 
Kifaransa, Ufaransa. 

mfariji* (wa-) comforter, consoler. Cf. fariji. 

mfarika* (wa-) young animal (lamb, calf). 

mfariki*, mfaraka (wa-) lonely /solitary/ 

abandoned person, one who separates himself 

from his home and relatives; refugee, dis- 
located person. Cf. fariki. 

mfarishi* (mi-) mfarishi (kind of quilt or quilted 

mfaruku* (wa-) a bereaved person. Cf. fariki. 

mfasa (mi-) hot. mfasa (variety of grass with 
blue blossoms, Veronica obconica). 

mfasiri* (wa-) 1. interpreter, commentator. 
2. translator. Cf. fasiri. 

mfeleji* (mi-) see mfereji. 

mfenesi* (mi-) jack-fruit tree (Artocarpus 
Integra). Cf. fenesi. 

mfereji*, mfeleji (mi-) 1. ditch, sewer, trench, 
channel, mifereji ya kutilia maji. irrigation 
channels. 2. canal. — wa Panama. Panama 
Canal. 3. water-pipe, water-tap. 

mfichachani (mi-) mfichachani (kind of banana). 

mfichaji, mfichifichi (wa-) 1. secretive/reserved 
person. 2. sly/crafty person. Cf. ficha. 

mfichifichi (wa-) see mfichaji. 

mfidhuli* (wa-) 1. insolent/arrogant person. 
2. boor, ruffian. Cf. fidhuli. 

mfigili*, mfigiri (mi-) mfigili (species of radish 
plant, Raphanus sativus). Cf. figili. 

mfiko (mi-) 1. extent, limit (i.e., the distance 
that something will extend or can reach); 
hence 2.: — wa risasi. mil. range (of a bullet, 
etc.). Cf. fika. 




mfilisi* (wa-) 1, wasteful/extravagant person, 
spendthrift. 2. one who causes financial 
distress for another person, by legal or 
illegal means: distrainer, swindler, embez- 
zler, etc. Cf. filisi. 

mfilisika (wa-) ruined/impoverished/bankrupt 
person. Cf. filisi. 

mfinyanzi (wa-) potter, prov.: — hulia gae. The 
potter commonly eats off potsherds. Cf. fi- 

mfinyo (mi-) pinch(ing) (with the fingers). Cf. 

mfiraji* (wa-) sodomite, pederast. Cf. fira. 

mfisadi* (wa-) see fisadi. 

mfisha, mfishaji (wa-) 1. murderer. 2, fighter 
(in a war). Cf. fa. 

mfishaji (wa-) see mfisha. 

mfitini* (wa-) troublemaker, agitator. Cf. 

mfiwa (wa-) orphan, bereaved person. Cf. fa, 

mfiwi (mi-) hot. lima-bean plant (Phaseolus 
lunatus). Cf. fiwi. 

mfo, mvo (mi-) 1. watercourse, stream, torrent. 
2. channel/bed of a torrent. — mkavu. dry 
torrent bed. 

mfoko (mi-) sudden rush (of water, etc.), tor- 
rent. Cf. foka. 

nforsadi* (mi-) mulberry tree (Moras alba). 
Cf. f'orosadi. 

ifu (wa-) dead body, corpse. (= maiti.) Cf. 

mfua 1. (mi-) {also mfuo) beating, striking, 
hammering. — wa mawimbi. surf, breakers. 
2. (wa-) smith, metal-worker. — dhahabu 
(fedha). goldsmith (silversmith). 3.: — nguo. 
washerwoman. Cf. M'ua. 

mluasi, mfuataji (wa-) 1. follower, adherent, 
partisan, disciple. 2. pursuer, persecutor. 
Cf. fuata. 

mfuataji (wa-) see mfuasi. 

mfuatano (mi-) 1. sequence, series. 2. retinue. 
Cf. fuata. 

mfufu, mfuu (mi-) mfufu (tree with small edible 
berries). Cf. fuu. 

mfufuaji, mfufuzi (wa-) one who brings back 
from the dead/revives/resuscitates. Cf. 

mfufumaji (mi-) mfufumaji (kind of tree). 

mfufuzi (wa-) see mfufuaji. 

mfuga, mfugaji (wa-) 1. one who breeds and 
raises animals or poultry, cattle-breeder, 
poultry-raiser, etc. 2. one who tames, breaks 
in, or trains animals. Cf. fuga. 

mfugaji (wa-) see mfuga. 



mfugo 1. (mi-) breeding/raising/taming/train- 
ing of animals. 2. domesticated animah 3.: 
mifugo. flocks, herds, livestock. Cf. fuga. 

mfujaji (wa-) 1. extravagant person, spend- 
thrift. 2. lazy person, idler, good-for-nothing. 
3. bungler, one who does his work badly. Cf. 

mfumba, mtumbaji (wa-) 1. magician. 2. some- 
one who conceals/makes a secret of his 
activities. Cf. Tumba. 

mfumbaji (wa-) see mfumba. 

mfumbati (mi-) mfumbati (side-piece of a bed- 

mfuko (mi-) bag, purse; pocket. — wa barua. mfumbi (mi-) drainage ditch (for rain water). 

mailbag. — wa mto. pillowcase. — wa 
kubebea. carrying-case. Cf. fuko, kifuko. 

mfukuaji, mfukuzi (wa-) one who digs, miner. 
Cf. fukia. 

mfukuto (mi-) steam, smoke, vapor. Cf. fuka. 
^mfukuzi (wa-) see mfukuaji. 

ifumbua, mfumbuaji (wa-) 1. one who explains/ 
clears up obscurities, 2. fig. translator. 
Cf. fumba. 

ifumbuaji (wa-) see miumbua. 

ifumi (wa-) 1. = mfuma, 2.: kitanda cha — . 

(weaver's) loom. Cf. fuma. 

''mfukuzi (wa-) one who banishes, persecutor. 
Cf. fukuza. 

^mfumo (mi-) 1. (act of) .plaiting, weaving. 
2. fabric, cloth. Cf. fuma. 

mfulilizo (mi-) see mfululizo. 

mfulizo (mi-) 1. regular progression, sequence, 
succession, continuity. — wa masomo. a 
sequence/course of lessons. 2. series. Cf. 
fuliza, fua. 

^mfumo (wa-) see fumo. 

mfumua, mfumuaji (wa-) ]. spy, informer. 
2. slanderer. Cf. Huma. 

mfumuaji (wa-) see mfumua. 

mfululizo, mfulilizo (mi-) 1. - mfulizo. 2.: — 
wa milima. a range of mountains, kwa — . one 
after the other. Cf. fuliza, fua. 

mfuma, mfumi, mfumaji (wa-) weaver. Cf. 

mfumaji (wa-) see mfuma. 

mfundishaji (wa-) 1. - fundi. 2. rare trainer. 
Cf. 2 funda. 

mf'undo (mi-) 1. thickening, knot. 2. package, 
bundle. 3. fig. difficulty; grudge, malice, 
ill-humor. 4. fig. fad. Cf. funda, fundika. 

mfune, mgude (mi-) mfune (tree with whitish 
bark, Sterculia appendiculata). 




mfunga (wa-) 1.: — hesabu. one who checks 
figures/audits accounts. 2. one who fasts. 
Cf. funga. 

mfungizo (mi-) 1. obstacle, impediment. 2. 

fastening up. 3. siege, blockade. Cf. funga. 

mfungo (mi-) 1. (act of) fastening/tying/ 

closing. 2. conclusion. 3. tie, bond. 4. rel. 
fasting. Cf. funga. 

mfuagua (wa-) one who opens/unfastens. Cf. 

mfunguo (mi-) 1. loosening, unfastening. 2. re- 
lease, liberation, rescue. 3. rel. end of 

fasting. Cf. funga 

mfungwa (wa-) captive, prisoner. Cf. funga. 

mfuniko (mi-) 1. cover, lid. 2. case. 3. pro- 
tection, shelter. Cf. funika. 

mfunzaji (wa-) see fundi. 

mfunzi (wa-) see fundi. 

*mfuo (mi-) 1. - mfua 1. 2. bellows. 

^mfuo (mi-) 1. line, stripe, karatasi ya — . 
lined/ruled paper. 2. fuirow, groove, inden- 
tation, depression. 3. rare (kind of) drill, 
augur. Cf. fua. 

mfupa (mi-) bone. — wa bega. anat. collar- 
bone, clavicle, pi. mifupa. skeleton. Cf. 
» In pa. 

mfurahivu (wa-) happy/jovial person. Cf. 
furaha, furahi, furahivu. 

mfure (mi-) wooden plate. 

mfuria* (— ) mfuria (kind of loose sleeveless 

mfurungu* (mi-) mfurungu (citron, shaddock, 
Citrus rnedica). Cf. furungu. 

mfuto (mi-) 1. (act of) wiping, cleaning. 2. 
erasing, obliteration. 3. removal, abolition. 
4. a common/plain/inferior article of any 
kind, mlango wa — . a plain door (without 
carving or ornamentation), mkeka wa — . a 
plain/cheap mat. Cf. futa. 

mfuu (mi-) see mfufu. 

mfyatuko (mi-) see fyatuko. 

mfyeka (wa-) one who cuts down trees or clears 
land. Cf. fyeka. 

mfyonza (mi-) sucking. — {or kifyonza) vumbi. 

vacuum cleaner. Cf. fyonza. 

mlyozaji, mfyozi (wa-) rude/insolent person. 
Cf. fyoa. 

mfyozi (wa-) see mfyozaji. 

mfyuso (mi-) (kind of) net, trap. Cf. fyata, 

mgaagaa (wa-) restless/lazy person, vagrant. 
Cf. gaagaa. 

ifuradi* (mi-) verse, poem. 

mgaiiawa* (mi-) see mkaliawa. 




idi* (ma-) see ^ggjdj, 


mgambo (mi-) public proclamation, official 
announcement. Cf. amba. 

Imganda (mi-) mganda (kind of drum). 

2mganda (mi-) bundle, bunch, sheaf (of grain). 
Cf. panda. 

mgandisho (mi-) see mgando. 

mgando, mgandisho (mi-) 1. coagulation (of 
milk, blood). 2. hardening, thickening. Cf. 

'mganga, mganguzi (wa-) 1. arch, witch doctor. 
2, rec. doctor, physician. Cf. ganga. 

^mganga (mi-) mganga (a kind of shrub yielding 
a milky latex used as a fish-poison). 

mgango (mi-) 1. binding up, splicing, mending. 
2. cure, treatment. 3. healing, scarring over 
(of wounds). Cf. ganga. ■ 

mganguzi (wa-) rare see mganga. 

mgao, mgawo (mi-) 1. division, distribution. 
2. part, share. — wa faida. dividend. Cf. 

mgaragazo (mi-) confusion, disorder. Cf. gaa- 

mgawaji, mgawiaji (wa-): — dawa. pharmacist, 
druggist. Cf. gawa. 

mgawanya, mgawanyi (wa-) one who divides or 
distributes. Cf. gawa. 

mgawanyi (wa-) see mgawanya. 

mgawanyiko (mi-) division, schism; (comm.) 
splittism. Cf. gawa. 

mgawanyo (mi-) division, distribution. Cf. 

mgawiaji (wa-) see mgawaji. 

mgawo (mi-) see mgao. 

mgema, mgemi (wa-) mgema (maker of palm 
wine), prov.: — akisifiwa tembo hulitia 
maji. If the maker of palm wine is praised 
for his wine, he adds water to it. Cf. 

mgemi (wa-) see mgema. 

mgemo (mi-) 1. preparation of palm wine. 2. 
tapping of palms (to obtain the sap for pre- 
paring wine). Cf. gema. 

mgeni (wa-) 1. stranger, foreigner. 2. guest, 
visitor. Cf. geni. 

mgeuzo, geuzo (ma-) (usually mageuzo) change, 
alteration, transformation; innovation, reform. 
— wa kidemokrasi. democratic reform. Cf. 

mghafala* 1. (wa-) fool, simpleton. 2. (mi-) 
simplicity, artlessness; thoughtlessness, 
absent-mindedness, carelessness, negligence. 
Cf. ghafula. 




mghalaba* (mi-) rivalry, competition. Cf. ghi- 
libu, ghiliba. 

mgomvi, mgombi, mgomba-(wa-) quarrelsome 
person. Cf. ''gomba, Mgomvi. 

mghani* (wa-) (professional) singer. Cf. 

mgiligilani* (mi-) hot. coriander plant (Cori- 
andrum sativum). 

Mgiriki* [Engl. 1 (wa-) a Greek. Cf. Kigiriki, 

mgodi (mi-) (usually loc. pi. migodini) mine. 

mgogoro (mi-) 1. obstacle, impediment. 2. dif- 
ficulty, trouble, nuisance. 3. misunderstand- 
ing, problem. 

mgomaji (wa-) one who goes on a strike, 
striker. Cf. goma. 

*mgomba (mi-) banana/plantain palm (Musa 
sapientum). Cf. *gomba, ugomba; also 

Angomba (wa-) see mgomvi. 

mgombea, mgombeaji (wa-) candidate, appli- 
cant, competitor. — uchaguzi. candidate in 
an election. Cf. Ugomba. 

mgombeaji (wa-) see mgombea. 

mgombezi (wa-) 1. faultfinder, carper. 2. 
grumbler, surly person. Cf. Ugomba. 

mgombi (wa-) see mgomvi. 

mgomo (mi-) 1. diversion, feint. 2. sabotage, 
strike. — baridi. slow-down strike. Cf. *goma. 

mgongo (mi-) 1. back. 2. backbone, spine, 
lala mgongoni. lie on one's back. 3. hump 
(on the back). — wa ngamia. camel's hump. 
4. ridge, crest (hill, mountain). Cf. Mgongo, 
jongo, kijongo. 

mgoni (wa-) adulterer. Cf. gona. 

mgonjwa (wa-) sick person, patient. Cf. 

mgono (mi-) mgono (fish-trap). 

mgoto (mi-) (act or sound of) knocking, tapping, 
drumming; clap, bang. Cf. gota. 

mgude (mi-) see mfune. 

mgulabi* LPers. J (mi-) mgulabi (litchi tree, 
Nephelium lappasceum). Cf. gulabi. 

mgumba (wa-) 1. sterile person (man or woman). 
2. solitary /lonely person. 3. something which 
does not serve its proper purpose (because of 
its nature, inadequate treatment, etc.): 
(green) wood that gives off smoke rather than 
heat; beans or maize that have not been com- 
pletely cooked and are not fit to eat. Cf. 

mgumio (mi-) see gumio. 

mgunda (mi-) rare plantation. (- shamba.) 

mgunga (wa-) a person who must abstain from 
something (e.g., observe a diet). Cf. gunga. 


^mgunga (mi-) hot. (species of) acacia. 

mgunguti (mi-) hot. (species of) acacia, 

mguno (mi-), guno (ma-) growling, grumbling, 
complaining, dissatisfaction. Cf. guna. 

mguruguru (mi-) see 2g UrU g Uru , 

mguruka (mi-) hot. (species of) mimosa. 

mguruti (mi-) hot. (species of) mimosa, 

mguruto (mi-) (act of) pressing. Cf. guruta. 

mguso (mi-) 1. (an act of) touching/contacting; 
touch, contact. 2. sense of touch. Cf. gusa. 

mgutusho (mi-) 1. fright, astonishment, shock. 
2. fig. (electric) shock. Cf. Igutua. 

mguu (mi-) leg, foot, enda kwa miguu. go on 
foot, shika miguu. show respect, greet some- 
one respectfully; be in a subordinate posi- 
tion, loc. miguuni. foot end of a bedstead. 
Cf. guu, kiguu, mjiguu. 

mgwaru* [/red.] (mi-) mgwaru (bean plant, 
Cyamopsis psoraloides). Cf. gwaru. 

mgwisho (mi-) 1. tuft of horse hair. 2. fly 

Mhabeshi* (wa-), Habeshi (ma-) Abyssinian, 
Ethiopian. Cf. Uhabeshi. 

Mhadimu* (wa-) one of the original inhabitants 
of Zanzibar. Cf. hadimu. 

mhaini* (wa-) see haini 2. 

mhajiri* (wa-) emigrant. Cf. hajiri. 

mhali* (— ) see muhali. 

mhamaji (wa-) see mhamiaji. 

mhamiaji, mhamaji (wa-) immigrant, refugee. 
Cf. hama. 

mhamishi (wa-) 1. homeless person. 2. nomad. 
3. rel., rare pilgrim. Cf. hama. 

mhanga (wa-) 1. animal killed as an offering. 
2. fig. sacrifice. 

mhanuni* (wa-) see mhina. 

mharabu* (wa-) see harabu. 

mharage* (mi-) see mharagwe. 

mharagwe*, mharage, mharaji iPers.J (mi-) 
mharagwe (variety of bean plant, Phaseolus 
communis). Cf. haragwe. 

mharaji* (mi-) see mharagwe. 

mharibifu* (wa-) see harabu. 

mharita*, mwarita \_lnd.~] (mi-) soapberry tree 
(Sapindus saponaria). Cf. harita. 

mharuma* (mi-) mharuma (colored woolen shawl, 
worn as a turban). 

nhasi* (wa-) 1. -castrated person or animal, 
gelding, eunuch (= towashi, maksai). 2. one 
who castrates. Cf. hasi. 




Mhaya (Wa-) Haya (member of a tribe in Tan- 

mhenga (wa-) 1. an older person who instructs 
boys and girls in the initiation rites. 2. an 
elder who is a member of a native council. 
3. (in gen.) one who can be relied on to give 
good advice. 

mheshimiwa* (wa-) Lille excellency (term of 

u.uu/CO.> ,L>, HL^H uffl,Lt,uU UII.U f, I U ,111 1 K / li fJCI- 

sons, but still used for anyone deserving 
respect). Cf. lieshimu. 

mhimili* 1. (wa-) patient/forbearing/long-suffer- 
ing person. 2. (mi-) support: post, prop, 
beam, girder. — wa dunia. axis of the earth. 
Cf. hamali. 

mhina*, mhanuni (mi-) henna plant (Lawsonia 
inermis). Cf. hina. 

Mhindi*, Muhindi (wa-) Indian. — mwekundu. 
Red Indian, American Indian. Cf. Hindi, 
Kihindi, Uhindi. 

mhirabu* (mi-) mihrab (apse in a mosque, 
showing the direction toward Mecca). 

mhisani* (wa-) benefactor. Cf. hisani. 

Mhispania* [_Lat. ?j (wa-) Spaniard. 

mhitaji* (wa-) 1. petitioner. 2. applicant, 
candidate. 3. poor/needy person. Cf. 

mhogo* (mi-) see muhogo. 

mhoro (mi-) mhoro (pointed stake in a pit for 
trapping game). 

mhubiri* (wa-) 1. rel. preacher. 2. (political) 
speaker. Cf. habari, iiubiri. 

mhuni* (wa-) 1. hooligan, vandal. 2. vagabond, 
tramp. 3. traitor. 4. outlaw, outcast, pariah. 
Cf. huni. 

mhunzi, muhunzi (wa-) craftsman who works in 
metal or stone. — wa chuma. blacksmith. 
— wa mawe. stonecutter. Cf. uhunzi. 

mhuri* (mi-, — ) see muhuri. 

mia* hundred. 

miaa pi. of mwaa, 

miadi*, mihadi (— ) promise (to do something 
at a set time). Cf. ahadi. 

mialamu* (— ), mwalamu (mi-) 1. edge, border. 
2. seam, hem 3. stripe (of color, in cloth). 
Cf. alama. 

miayo pi. yawn(ing). piga (enda) — . to yawn. 

miehezo pi. games, sport, coll. kufanya — . go 
in for sports. — ya Olimpiki. Olympic Games. 
Cf. cheza. 

mifugo pi. flocks, herds, livestock. Cf. fuga, 

mifupa pi. skeleton, Cf. mfupa. 

miguuni see mguu. 

mihadi* (— ) see miadi. 

miiba pi. of mwiba. 




mikaha* (— ) see nikaha. 
mikasi* pi. see mkasi. 

mila* (— ) usage, custom; tradition; religious 
prescription, —a — . customary, traditional, 

milele* 1. pi. endlessness, infinity; (rel.) 
eternity, maisha ya — . life everlasting. 
2.: —a — . adj. eternal, constant. 3. adv. 
always, constantly. — na — forever. 
yadumu — ...! Long live ...! Cf. umilele. 

milia 1. pi. of 2 m lj a . 2. adj. striped, punda 
— . zebra. 

Imiliki*, tamalaki, tamaleki 1. lead, conduct. 
2. rule, govern, appl. milikia. intr. miliki- 
ka. caus. milikisha. 3. (— ) see milki. 
Cf. malki, mamlaka. 

2miliki* (— ) see milki. 

milioni* \_Engl. J (— ) million. 

milki*, miliki (— ) 1. rule, dominion, power. 
2. empire, kingdom. 3. property, prosperity. 
4. econ., rec. asset(s). Cf. miliki, malki. 

mimba (— ) 1. fruit, germ, fanya — . germinate, 
sprout. 2. embryo. 3. conception, pregnancy, 
tia — . fertilize, impregnate, chukua (wa na, 
shika) — . be pregnant, haribu — . procure 

mimbari* (— ) Tel. pulpit. 

mimea pi. vegetation. Cf. mea, mmea. 

mimi abs. pron. 1st pers. sing. I, me. — 
mwenyewe (nafsi yangu). I myself, wangu 
— . my own. 

mimina pour out, spill; pour in, fill. appl. 
miminia. caus. miminisha. intr. miminika. 
fig. be present in great number, walu 
walimiminika katika mkutano. There were 
crowds of people at the assembly. Cf. 

miminiko (ma-) 1. pouring out, overflowing. 
2. fig. (super)abundance, profusion. 3. 
mold, casting. Cf. mimina. 

min* prep., rare from, of. Cf. minajili, 
minghairi (sub baghairi), mintarafu. 

minajili* 1. prep, without; except, apart from, 
because of, as a result of. 2. conj. because, 
since; so that, in order that, in order to. 
kwa (ajili ya) minajili ya. for the sake of. 
Cf. min, ajili. 

mindi (— ) zool. mindi (species of antelope, 
Abbott's duiker; cf. funo). 

minenguo pi. minenguo (kind of dance). 

minghairi* see baghairi. 

minika fold, turn up (the edge of cloth), hem. 

mintarafu* prep, concerning, with regard to, 
as a result of. Cf. min, tarafa. 

minteen* see miteen. 

minya press, squeeze, crush. Cf. finya. 



minyara (— ) minyara (kind of tree, Euphorbia 

minzani* (— ) see mizani. 

mio 1. pi. of umio. 2. (ma-) (augment, of 
umio) anat. larynx, throat, gullet (e.g., of 
an animal). 

miongoni loc. of *mwongo. 

^mirabaraba*: —a — . adj. checked, checkered. 
Cf. *mraba. 

■^mirabaraba* pi. cellulose, synthetic fiber. 
Cf. mraba. 

mirathi* (— ) 1. inheritance, legacy, bequest. 
2. leg. division of a legacy, masala ya — . 
rare law of inheritance. Cf. rithi. 

mirengu pi. see mrengu. 

misa*, missa LLat. J (— ) rel. mass, adhi- 
misho la — takatifu. celebration of the mass. 
— ya kimya. low mass. — kubwa ya kiasko- 
fu. pontifical high mass, — kubwa ya sherehe. 
solemn high mass. — ya wafu. requiem mass. 

misali* (— ) see methali. 

misheni* \_Engl, J (— ) 1. rel. mission, skuli 
ya — . missionary school. 2. (official) mis- 
sion, detached service. 

misili* (— ) see milhili. 

misioni* [.Engl. J (— ) mission, parish. 

misitumisitu red. pi. of msitu. 

miski*, meski (— ) musk, panya — . muskrat. 

Misri* Egypt. Cf. Mmisri. 

missa* (— ) see misa. 

mita* {.Engl.l (— ) meter. 

miteen*, minteen, miteni arch, two hundred. 

miteni* see miteen. 

mithali* (— ) see methali. 

mithili*, misili 1. (— ) similarity, resemblance. 
2. adv. similarly, like, amekuja kimya 
kimya — ya mwizi. He came stealthily like 
a thief. Cf. madhali, mathalan, methali, 

mithilisha* compare. Cf. mithili. 

miti (pi. of *mti) framework (of a house, etc.) 

mitu (— ) ornith. Indian cockatoo. 

miuja* (— ) danger; misfortune, accident. Cf. 

miungano pi. combination. — ya namba mba- 
limbali. combination of numbers, Cf. ^unga. 

miunzi pi. (sing, mwunzi rare) whistle, piga 
— . to whistle. 

mivua pi. bellows, Cf. vukuta, mvua. 



miwa pi. see muwa. 

miwani* (— ) (eye) glasses, spectacles. — ya 
jua. sunglasses. 

miyaa pi. see mwaa. 

miye see mimi. 

mizani*, minzani (— ) 1= balance, scales, fig. 

balance (of a clock, watch). 3, astr. (the 
constellation) Libra. Cf. uzani. 

mizigo pi. baggage. Cf. mzigo. 

mja (wa-) rare 1. newcomer, stranger. 2. 
foreigner. 3. hist., liter, slave. Cf. ]a. 

mjadala* 1. (wa-) opponent. 2. (mi-) pol. 

mjafari* (mi-) mjafari (kind of tree, Erythrina 

mjakazi (wa-) liter, female slave. Cf. ja, 
mja 3. 

mjali (mi-) see ujali. 

Mjampani (wa-) see Mjapani. 

mjane (wa-) 1. solitary /lonely person. 2. un- 
married person: bachelor, spinster. 3. widow, 
widower. Cf. ujane. 

mjango (mi-) a fruitless/unsuccessful visit. 
Cf. janga. 

mjanja (wa-) deceiver, swindler. Cf. janja, 

Mjapani*, Mjampani [.Engl.] (— ) a Japanese. 
Cf. Kijapani. 

mjari*, mjarari (mi-) see ujari. 

mjaribati* adj. see jarabati. 

mjaribu* (wa-) person who tries out/tests 
something. — wa ndege, av. test pilot. Cf. 

mjasiri* (wa-) brave/daring/foolhardy person. 
Cf. jasiri. 

mjasusi*, mjasusu, jasusi (wa-) 1. spy, 
traitor, 2. detective, plainclothesman. 
3. inquisitive person. Cf. jasisi. 

mjasusu* (wa-) see mjasusi. 

mjeledi* (mi-) strap, whip, piga/tia — . to 
whip. Cf. ijalidi. 

mjenga, mjengaji (wa-) see mjenzi. 

mjengo (mi-) I. (act of) building. 2„ style/ 
method of building. 3. structure, building. 
Cf. jenga. 

mjenzi, mjengaji, mjenga (wa-) builder, archi- 
tect. Cf. jenga. 

Mjeremani*, Mjerumani YEngl. J (wa-) a German. 
Cf. Kijeremani, Ujercmani, 

Mjerumani* (wa-) see Mjeremani. 



^mji (mi-) 1. settlement. 2. village; town, city, 
— mkuu, capital (city). Cf. kijiji. 

2mji (mi-) anat. 1. placenta, afterbirth, 2. (— 
wa uzazi) rare womb ( = tumbo Lift uzazij). 

mjiari*, mi- see ujari. 

mjibu* (wa-) pleasant/affable person. Cf. 

mjiguu 1. (mi-) augment, of mguu. 2. (wa-) a 
person with very large feet. 

mjiko (mi-) 1. anat. rectum, 2. med. hemor- 
rhoids. Cf. Ijika. 

mjima (wa-) helpful person. Cf. ujima. 

mjimbi (vi-) see jimbi. 

mjinga (wa-) stupid person, fool. Cf. jinga. 

mjio (mi-) coming, arrival. Cf. ja. 

mjisifu* (wa-) braggart, conceited person. Cf 
sifu, majisifu. 

mjolio* (mi-) mjoho (velvet apple tree). 

mjohoro (mi-) mjohoro (ironwood tree, Cassia 

mjoja, mjoo (mi-) 1. mjoja (kind of tree the 
wood of which is used for building boats), 
2. a small boat similar to a canoe (made of 
the wood of this tree). 

mjoli* Und. ] (wa-) arch, comrade, fellow- 
slave. Cf. ujoli. 

mjomba (wa-) 1, (maternal) uncle. 2. uncle (in 
gen.). 3. nephew, niece (child of one's 
sister), 4. polite term of address (for people 
of the older generation). 5= native of the 
Swahili-speaking area around Mombasa. Cf. 
Kijomba, Ujomba. 

mjombakaka (— ) mjombakaka (kind of large 

mjomba (mi-) mjombo (kind of sea-fish). 

mjoo (mi-) see mjoja. 

mjuba* (wa-) 1. courageous person. 2. impa- 
tient/boisterous person, 3.: moto huyu ni 
— sana; This child is very ill-mannered/ 
naughty. Cf. ujuba. 

mjukuu (wa-) 1. grandchild. 2. (in gen.) rela- 
tive (on the paternal side) of the second 
generation, e.g., grandnephew, Cf. kijukuu. 

mjumbe (wa-) 1. messenger, envoy. 2. pol., 
rec. deputy, delegate, representative. — wa 
serikali. representative of the government, 
chief of state. Cf. ujumbe; also jumbe, 

mjume* (wa-) 1. engraver, carver. 2. gunsmith. 
Cf, mjumu, ujume. 

mjumu* (mi-), njumu (— ) rare inlay work, in- 
crustation. Cf. mjume. 

J -mjusi (mi-) 1. lizard. 2. mjusi (lizard-shaped 
ornament on a kanzu). 

^mjusi (mi-) nosebleed. 




'mjusi (wa-) magician, astrologer. (= mjuzi ?) mkahaba* (wa-) see kahaba. 

mjuvi (wa-) presumptuous /impudent person. 
Cf. ^jua, juvi. 

mkahale* (mi-) pencil for applying kohl to the 
eyes. Cf. kohl. 

ljuzi (wa-) connoisseur, expert. Cf. 2 jua, 

mkahawa*, mgahawa (mi-) cafe', restaurant, 
Cf. kahawa. 

Imkaa, mkaaji, mkazi (wa-) 1. inhabitant, res 
dent. 2. fig. stay-at-home. Cf. *kaa. 

2 mkaa (mi-) mkaa (kind of tree the bark of 
which is used as a medicine), 

mkaaji (wa-) see ^mkaa. 

mkabala* adv. 1. on the contrary. — wa ... 
facing, opposite, contrasting. 2. face to 
face. Cf. kabili. 

mkabidhi* (wa-) 1. trustee, administrator, 
guardian. 2. frugal person, miser. Cf. ka- 

mkaidi* (wa-) stubborn/argumentative person. 
Cf. kaidi. 

mkaja (mi-) 1. bandage worn by women after 
childbirth. 2. gift given by the family of the 
bridegroom to the mother of the bride. 

mkaka (mi-) mkaka (variety of rubber tree, 
Acacia Verek). 

mkakamavu (wa-) sly /shifty person. Cf. kaka- 

J-mkakasi (mi-) (round) metal box with a lid 
(for perfumes, cosmetics, etc.). 

mkadamu* (wa-) see kadamu. 

Ankakasi (mi-) see mkasasi. 

nkadi* (mi-) mkadi (kind of tree, screw pine, 
Pandanus Kirkii/tectorius). 

mkakaya* (mi-) mkakaya (kind of tree, royal 
poinciana, Delonix regia). 

mkagua, mkaguaji, mkaguzi (wa-) overseer, 
inspector. — shamba. farm inspector. — wa 
hesabu. comptroller. Cf. kagua. 

mkalamu* (mi-) arch, mkalamu (kind of reed 
or bamboo used for making pens). Cf. 

nkaguaji (wa-) see mkagua. 

ikaguo (mi-) examination, inspection. — wa 
skuli. inspection of a school. Cf. kagua. 

mkale (wa-) ancestor, forebear, ancient. Cf. 

mkalimana (mi-) mkalimana (kind of banana). 

nkaguzi (wa-) 1. - mkagua. 2. inspector; 
(liter.) reviewer. Cf. kagua. 

mkalimani* (wa-) interpreter. (- mfasiri.) 
Cf. kalima, ukalimani. 




mkalimu* (wa-) rare teacher, educator. Cf. 

mkalio (mi-) 1. gift gi ven by the bridgegroom 
to the bride's attendants. 2. gift given by a 
young man to a girl's maternal uncle, who 
then presents it to the girl's father as_ evi- 
dence of a proposal of marriage. Cf. ^kaa. 

mkamachuma (mi-) mkamachuma (kind of tree), 

mkamasi (mi-) mkamasi (a fruit tree, Cordia 

mkamba (-) med. tracheal catarrh. 

2 mkamba (mi-) see 2 kamba. 

mkambaa (mi-) see mkambala. 

mkambala, mkambaa (mi-) mkambala (species 
of acacia). 

mkamshe* (mi-) see mkamshi. 

mkamshi*, mkamshe [ind.'j (mi-) wooden 

mkana (wa-) one who denies/disavows, rel. 
- Mungu. atheist. Cf. ^ana. 

mkanda (mi-) rare strap, belt. (= ukanda.) 

mkandaa (mi-) variety of mangrove (Ceriops 

mkandaji (wa-) masseur. Cf. 3 kanda. 

mkandamizo (mi-) press. - wa maji maji. 
hydraulic press. Cf. 3 kanda. 

imkando (mi-) (act of) kneading, massaging; 
massage. Cf. 3 kanda. 

2 mkando (mi-) bar (of gold, silver). 

mkangaja (mi-) (species of) orange tree. Cf. 

mkangazi (mi-) mahogany tree (Khaya nyasica/ 

mkanju* [_lnd.~] (mi-) mkanju (cashew apple 
tree, Anacardium occidentale). (= mbibo, 
mkorosho.) Cf. kanju. 

imkano (mi-), ukano (-) anat. sinew, tendon. 

2 mkano (mi-) see mkanyo. 

mkanya (wa-) one who^rebukes/finds fault with 
other people. Cf. ^kana. 

mkanyo, mkano (mi-), kanyo (ma-) 1. prohibi- 
tion, refusal, repudiation. 2. rebuke, re- 
proach, reprimand. Cf. *kana. 

mkapitalisti* [_Engl.~\ (wa-) capitalist. Cf. 

mkarabaka (mi-) mkarabaka (kind of tree, 
Encephalartos villosus). 

mkarafuu* (mi-) clove tree, Cf. karafuu. - 
maiti. camphor tree. Cf. kafuri. 

imkaragazo (mi-) downpour of rain, heavy shower, 

2 mkaragazo (mi-) an inferior quality of tobacco. 




mkarakala (mi-) see mtututu. 

mkarati, mkuruti (mi-) mkarati (kind of tree, 
Baphia Kirkii)* 

mkaribishaji* (wa-) hospitable/generous per- 
son. (= mkarimu.) Cf. karibia. 

pact; statute, — wa amani. peace treaty. - 
wa urafiki. treaty of friendship- _ wa kuto- 
shambuliana. nonaggression pact. 3. mil. 
regulations. Cf. kitabu. 

mkataji*, mkati (wa-) cutter [tailor, etc.). Cf. 

karimu* (wa-) host, hospitable person. Cf. mkatale* (mi-) stocks, foot-shackles. 

kirimu, karimu. 

mkasa* (mi-) rare 1. event, occurrence, inci- 
dent. 2, (piece of) news. Cf. kisa. 

^mkasama* (mi-), kasama (-) 1, part, share. 
2. division, partition, distribution. 3, math. 
division. Cf. kasimu. 

Ankasama* (mi-) mkasama (kind of manioc), 

mkasasi*, mkakasi (mi-) mkasasi (kind of tree), 

mkasi*, mkassi (mi-) {also makasi, pL) (pair 
of) scissors. 

mkasiri (mi-) mkasiri (shrub the bark of which 
is used to make a black dye). 

mkassi* (mi-) see mkasi. 

mkata* (wa-) 1. poor person. 2. boaster, brag- 
gart, Cf. *kata, ukata. 

mkataa* 1. (— ) decision, undertaking directed 
toward a goal. 2. adv. definitely, finally, 
irrevocably, unalterably. Cf. ^kataa. 

mkataba* (mi-) 1. agreement, settlement. 2. 
jut., pol. contract, deed, charter, treaty, 

niKaiani (mi-i_ sisai nemp plant (Agave sisa- 
lana). (= Imkonge.) Cf. katani. 

mkatavu. (wa-) stubborn/quarrelsome person. 
Cf. *kataa, katavu. 

mkate* (mi-) 1. loaf of bread. 2. (— mtamu) 
cake, 3. compact/pressed piece of some- 
thing. — wa tumbako. pressed/plug tobacco. 
— wa nyuki. honey in the comb. Cf. kata. 

mkati (wa-) see mkataji. 

mkatili* (wa-) 1. cruel person, 2, aggressor. 
Cf. katili. 

mkatizo* (mi-) interruption, pause, break. 
Cf. ^kata. 

mkato* (mi-) 1. (act of) cutting, felling (trees). 
2. cut, incision. 3. section, division, com- 
partment; (— wa duara) arc (of a circle). 
4. cutting down, shortening, reduction, njia 
ya — . shortcut. 5. med. amputation. 6. fig. 
firmness, decisiveness, determination. 
maneno ya — . resolute words. Cf. kata. 

nkavu: .— wa macho (wa-) rude/insolent person. 
Cf. kavu, kauka. 




mkazi (wa-) see ^mkaa. 

mkazo (mi-), kazo (ma-) 1. fastening, securing, 
strengthening. 2, pressing;, compressing. 
3, pressure. 4. emphasis, stress. - wa 
sauti. accent (on a syllable ). 5, fig. stead- 
fastness, constancy; stability, durability. 
Cf. kaza. 

like (wa-) wife. Cf. ke. 

nkebe* [lnd.1 (mi-), kebe (ma-) 1. pot, can. 
2. box, case. 

nkeka (mi-) (sleeping) mat. 

mkichaa (wa-) rare - mwenye kichaa. insane 
person, madman, lunatic. 

mkidhi* (wa-) rel. the granter (of benefactions) 

(= God). Cf. kidl.i. 

mkiki (-) mkiki (kind of fish). 

mkilemba (wa-) mkilemba (someone who has 
earned the right to wear a turban; sec *!;•!;■-. 
mba): (fig. J successful candidate, prizewinner. 

mkilua (mi-) mkilua (species of liana the flowers 
of which are used to make perfume). Cf. 

mkeketo (mi-) something/someone of the same 
size/height (as something/someone else). 
Cf. kekela. 

mkekewa (mi-) mkekewa (a weed). (= nikwa- 

mkereza (wa-) ]. one who uses a lathe, turner, 
2. pol. timeserver, opportunist. Cf. kereza. 

mkero (wa-) importunate/meddlesome person. 
Cf. kera. 

*mkesha (mi-) clearing up (after a rain). 

2 mkesha (mi-), kesha (ma-) night-watch, vigil. 
Cf. kesha. 

mkevve (wa-) arch. (- mke wake) his wife. 

mkilungwana (mi-) mkilungwana (kind of rubber 
tree, Landolphia Kirkii). 

mkimbiaji, mkimbizi (wa-) sport halfback. Cf. 

mkimbizi (wa-) 1. fugitive, deserter. 2. pursuer, 
persecutor. 3. = mkimbiaji. Cf. kimbia. 

mkimu* (wa-) 1. provider, supporter (one who 
supplies someone else with the necessities 
of life). 2. careful/attentive person. 3. one 
who harps on a subject. Cf. kimu. 

mkimwa (wa-) unfriendly/ill-humored person. 
Cf. kimwa. 

mkinaifu* independent/self-sufficient person. 
Cf. kinai, kinaifu. 

mkia (mi-) 1. tail, la -. be last. 2. feeler, 
antenna (of an insect). 3.: - wa mjusi. 
lines of embroidery on a kanzu, proceeding 
from the mjusi (see Imjiisi 2), 

^mkinda (mi-) mkinda (dance at the initiation 
ceremony for girls). 

2 nikmda (wa-) see kinda. 




mkindani (wa-) see mkinzani. 

mkindu (mi-) mkindu (wild date palm, Phoenix 
reclinata). Cf. kindu, ukindu. 

mkinga 1. (mi-) obstruction, obstacle, barrier. 
— wa maji. dam, dike. 2. (wa-) .person who 
obstructs/impedes others. Cf. kinga, 

mkingaji |.wa-) defender, protector. Cf. L kinga. 

mkingamo (mi-) 1. obstacle, impediment, njia 
ya — . roundabout way, detour; crossing, 
crossroads. 2. resistance, opposition, Cf. 

mkingiko (mi-) cross-beam, roof-beam (of a 
house). Cf. kinga, mkinga. 

mkingiri (mi-) mkingiri (a shrub the bark of 
which is used as a remedy for snakebite). 

mkingu (mi-) mkingu (kind of tree, Albizzia 

mkinzani, mkindani (wa-) opponent, adversary. 
Cf. kinza, kinzani. 

mkiristo (wa-) see mkristo. 

mkirizi (mi-) see mchirizi. 

mkitamli (mi-) mkitamli (coconut palm, Cocos 
mucifera). Cf. kitamli. 

mkiwa (wa-) 1. poor/destitute person, beggar. 
2. solitary /lonely person. Cf. kiwa. 

mkizi (mi-) 1. cuttlefish. 2. sepia. 

mkoba* (mi-) bag, pouch, purse. — wa kike, 
handbag. Cf. koba, kuba, kubaza. 

mkoche, mkoma (mi-) (species of) dwarf palm 
(Hyphaene coriacea). Cf. koche. 

^mkodi (mi-) mkodi (a spirit). 

2mkodi* (wa-) one who rents/leases. Cf. kodi. 

mkoe (mi-) mkoe (kind of liana, Pergularia 

^mkogo (mi-) show, display, demonstration. 
Cf. koga. 

2mkogo (mi-) see ^kogo. 

mkojo, mkojozi (mi-) 1. urine, mwaga — . uri- 
nate. 2. - kikojozi. Cf. kojoa. 

mkojozi (mi-) see mkojo. 

Imkoko (mi-) mkoko (species of mangrove, 
Rhizophora mucronata. The wood is used 
for house building; the bark, for the soles of 

2mkoko* [.Engl. J (mi-) cocoa tree. Cf. koko. 

mkokoto (mi-) 1. pulling, dragging. 2. the track 
left when something is dragged through the 
sand. Cf. kokota. 

Imkole (mi-) mkole (kind of tree). 




^mkole (mi-) bundle, bunch. — wa nuzi. a 
bunch of coconuts. — wa mvua. rare rain- 
bow. ( = upinde). Cf. kole. 

mkoloni* lEngl. J (wa-) colonialist. Cf. 
koloni, ukoloni. 

^mkoma (mi-) see mkoche. 

2 m Um., (w H .) rare Uper. (" nr.venyc „kuum.) 

''mkoma (wa-) one who stops doing something. 
Cf. *koma. 

mkomafi (mi-) mkomafi (kind of tree, Carapa 

mkomamanga (mi-) pomegranate tree (Punica 
granatum). Cf. komamanga, Manga. 

mkomba (wa-) coll. drunkard. ( = mlevi.) 
Cf. ''komba 2. 

mkomunisti* [.Engl. J (wa-) communist. Cf. 
kikomunisti, ukomunisti. 

mkomwe (mi-) see mkombwe. 

mkondo (mi-) 1. flow, course, run, current. — 
wa mto. bed of a river, prov. maji hufuata 
— wake. The water follows its course/runs 
in its bed. 2. track (of an animal). — wa 
simba. the track of the lion. 3. wake (of n 
ship). 4. elec: — wa stimu. electric current. 

mkonga (mi-) trunk (of an elephant). (= mkono, 

^mkonge (mi-; sisal plant. Cf. ukonge. 

^mkonge (— ) mkonge (kind of sea-fish with 
poisonous spines). 

mkongojo (mi-), ukongojo (kongojo) stick, staff, 
cane, crutch. Cf, ^konga. 

mkombo (mi-) naut. rudder-handle, tiller. 

mkombozi (mi-) 1. rescuer, liberator. 2. rel. 
Saviour, Redeemer. Cf. komboa. 

nkongwe (wa-) sickly /feeble person. 
Cf. kongwe, konga 

mkonjo (mi-) see mkonzo. 

mkombwe, mkomwe (mi-) 1. mkombwe (twining 
plant, Coesalpinia bonducella). 2. seeds of 
the mkombwe (used in a board game). 3. 
mkombwe (a powder used in charms, made 
from these seeds). 

mkomo (mi-) rare end, limit, boundary. 
( = kikomo.) 

mkomoka (mi-) mkomoka (kind of manioc). 

mkono (mi-) 1. arm, hand. — wa kuume (kushoto). 

right (left) hand. — wa ndizi. a hand of bananas. 
2. unit of length (from the fingertips to the 
elbow, 45 cm). 3. handle. — wa chungu. handle 
of a pan. 4. signature, tia — . sign (a letter, 
document). 5. inlet (of the sea), branch (of a 
river). 6. (— wa tembo) trunk (of an elephant); 
(fig.) variety of banana. Cf. kikono, kono, 




mkonyezo (mi-) sign, signal; wink, hint; warn- 
ing. Cf. konyeza. 

mkonzo, mkonjo (mi-) pointed stick, hunting 
spear. Cf. konzo. 

mkoo (wa-) dirty /untidy person. Cf, ukoo. 

mkopaji, mkopi (wa-) 1. debtor. 2. rare 
swindler. Cf. kopa. 

mkopeshi (wa-) 1. lender, creditor. 2, usurer. 
Cf. kopa. 

mkopi (wa-) see mkopaji. 

mkopo (mi-) 1. loan, credit. — bila ya faida. 
interest-free loan. — wenye faida ya chini 
kabisa. low-interest loan, ununuzi wa — . 
purchase on the instalment plan. 2. trickery, 
swindling. Cf. kopa. 

mkorofi* (wa-) 1. cruel/brutal person. 2. one 
who brings bad luck. Cf. koroli. 

mkoroga, mkorogaji (wa-) troublemaker, 

agitator, insurgent, revolutionary. Cf. koroga. 

mkorogaji (wa-) see mkoroga. 

mkorogi (wa-) see mkorogo 2. 

mkorogo 1. (mi-) agitation, trouble-making, 
discord, confusion. 2. (wa-) {also mkorogi) 
quarrelsome/pugnacious person. Cf. koroga. 

mkoromaji (wa-) one who habitually snores. 
Cf. koroma. 

tikoromo (mi-) 1. snoring, snorting. 2. purring 
(of a cat). Cf, koroma. 

mkorosho (mi-) mkorosho (cashew apple tree, 
Anacardium occidentals), Cf. korosho. 

mkosaji, mkosefu, mkosi (wa-) 1. one who vio- 
lates the law, offender, criminal. 2. rel. 
sinner. Cf. kosa. 

mkosei'u (wa-) see mkosap. 
^mkosi (wa-) see mkosaji. 

^-mkosi* (— ) bad omen, bad luck. Cf. kisirani. 

mkota (mi-) mkota (species of sweet sorghum, 
Sorghum saccharatum). 

mkowa (mi-) mkowa (bandage worn by women 
during pregnancy; cf. mkaja). 

mkristo*, mkristu, mkiristo iPort. ?} (wa-) 
Christian. Cf. kikristo, Lkristo, 

mkubwa (w'a-) 1. leader. 2. director, manager; 
superior, employer. Cf. kubwa. 

mkudhumani* (mi-) pomegranate tree (= mkoma- 
martga). Cf. kudhumani. 

mkufu (mi-) (ornamental) chain. — wa shingo. 
necklace. — wa mguuni. anklet. 

mkufunzi, rhkurufunzi (wa-) 1. leader. 2. skilled 
workman, journeyman. 3. rare teacher, edu- 
cator. Cf, ^funda. 




mkugenzi, mkurugenzi (wa-) rare pioneer, 
leader; superior, boss, manager, Cf. ukuru- 

mkuki (mi-) spear, lance. 

'mkuku (mi-) naut. keel (of a boat, ship). 

-mkuku (mi-) mkuku (a kind of climbing plant). 
mkule (mi-) mkule (kind of sea-fish). 

ikulima (wa-) agricultural worker, farmer. Cf. 

mkulivu (wa-) 1. idle /lazy person. 2, boring/ 
tiresome person. Cf. Mvua, kulivu. 

mkulo, mkuro (mi-) filter, strainer (for straining 
grated coconut). 

^mkumbi (mi-) mkumbi (a shrub, Ochna albo 
serrata. The bark is us 
dye). (= Triwungamo.) 

serrata. The bark is used to prepare a vellow 

_ 9 

-^mkumbi (mi-) track, traces (of an animal or a 

1 mkumbizi (wa-) one who cleans up/makes a 
clean sweep of something; gleaner. Cf. 

^mkumbizi (wa-) one who pushes/jostles, 
rough/inconsiderate person. Cf. ^kumba. 

mkumbo (mi-) 1. destruction, devastation. 
2. loss. Cf. ^ktimba. 

mkumbufu (wa-) person with a good memory. 
Cf. kumbuka. 

mkumbuu (mi-) 1. belt, sash, 2. sling, bandage. 
3. mil. shoulder strap. 

mkunazi* \_Pers, ? j (mi-) mkunazi (kind of 
tree, Zizyphus jujuba), Cf. kunazi, kiku- 

mkundaji (— ) mkundaji (kind of fish). 

mkunde (mi-) bean plant (Phaseolus vulgaris). 
Cf. ukunde. 

mkundu (mi-) anat. anus. Cf, kikundu. 

'mkunga (wa-) 1. midwife (= mzalishi). 
2. confidential (female) adviser, older 
woman friend who makes arrangements for a 
marriage, Cf. "kunga. ukunga. 

-mkunga (mi-) (species of) marine eel. 

imkungu (mi-) 1. cooking pot, frying pan. 2. 
lid of a cooking pot, Cf, chungu. 

Ankungu (mi-) (species of) almond tree (Termi- 
nalia catappa). Cf, ^kungu. 

•Jmkungu (mi-) fruit stem of the banana plant 
(with the entire bunch of fruit). 

mkunguma (mi-) mkunguma (kind of tree, 
Sorindeia usambaraensis), 

mktingumanga (mi-) nutmeg tree (Myristica 
fragrans). Cf. kungumanga. 




*mkunguni (wa-) lazy person, idler. Cf. uku- 

^mkunguni (mi-) mkunguni (species of almond 
tree, Terminalia Fatraea). 

''mkunguni (mi-) a long, stout stick. 

mkunguru, ukunguru sing, seasoning fever, 

newcomer's fever (due to difficulty in adjust- 
ing to a change of climate or diet). 

mkung'uto (mi-) 1. shaking, sifting, winnowing. 
2. refuse, rubbish, Cf. kung'uta. 

mkunjaji (wa-) one who bends/folds some- 
thing; folder. — uso. one who makes faces, 
clown. Cf. kunja. 

mkunjo (mi-) 1. folding, creasing. 2. fold, 
crease, suruali yenye — . trousers with a 
pressed crease, 3, wrinkle, Cf. kunja. 

mkuno (mi-) (act of) scratching, scraping, 
grating, Cf. kuna. 

mkunungu (mi-) mkunungu (kind of tree the 
leaves of which are eaten as a vegetable), 

mkuo (mi-) 1. heap, lump. 2. bar, ingot (of 

mkupuo (mi-) 1. push, shove, blow. 2. (act of) 
shaking off, pushing aside, getting rid of 
something. Cf. kupua. 

mkupuzi (wa-) one who is given to pushing/ 
hitting/horseplay. Cf. kupua. 

mkuranga (mi-) arid region, desert. (= jangwa.) 

mkuro (mi-) see mkulo. 

mkuru (wa-) see mkuu. 

mkurufunzi (wa-) see mkufunzi. 

mkurugenzi (wa-) see mkugenzi. 

mkurungu (mi-) mkurungu (kind of tree, Ptero- 
carpus chrysothrix). 

mkururo (mi-) line, procession (of people). 

mkuruti (mi-) see mkarati. 

mkuruzo, mkuruzu (mi-) drawstring (cord, etc., 
for closing a bag, a garment at the neck, 

mkuruzu (mi-) see mkuruzo. 

mkusanya, mkusanyi (wa-) one who collects/ 
gathers/assembles, Cf. kusanya. 

mkusanyi (wa-) see mkusanya. 

mkusanyiko, mkusanyo (mi-) 1. heap, quantity. 
2. accumulation, collection. 3. gathering, 
assembly; crowd, throng; tumult. 4. set, 
kit, Cf. kusanya. 

mkusanyo (mi-) see mkusanyiko. 

mkutano (mi-) 1. meeting, — wa umma. mass 
meeting. — hadharani. open meeting. 2. con- 
sultation, discussion, conference, session. 
— wa waandishi/wanagazeti. press confer- 
ence. 3, contest, competition. Cf. *kuta. 



mkuto (mi-) 1. (act of) meeting, running, across, 
finding. 2. fold, bend, curve. Cf. kuta. 

mkutuo (mi-) jerk, impact, shock. Cf. kutua. 

mkuu, mkuru (wa-) 1. superior, manager, 

director, head. _ wa skuli. school principal. 
2. leader, chairman. _ wa chama (kiti). 
party leader. 3. mil. commander. 4. presi- 
dent. - wa serikali/dola. chief of state. 
t>. comm. cadre. Cf. kuu. 

mkuwadi*, mkwadi (wa-) l.(sexual) impotence. 
2. = kawadi. 

mkuyati* (_) me d. (sexual) restorative, tonic; 

mkuyu (mi-) wild fig tree. Cf. kuyu. 

mkuzaji (wa-) livestock breeder. Cf. \ua. 

mkwachuro (mi-) mkwachuro (disease of coco- 

mkwadi* (wa-) see mkuwadi. 

mkwaju (mi-) tamarind tree (Tamarindus indica). 
Cf. kwaju. 

mkwakwa, mkwakwara (mi-) mkwakwa (climbing 
plant bearing edible fruit, Landolfia florida). 

mkwakwara (mi-) see mkwakwa. 

mkwamba (mi-) mkwamba (kind of thorny shrub). 

mkwangwachare (mi-) mkwangwachare (species 
of liana, Smilax Kraussiana). (= mkekewa.) 

mkwao (wa-) fellow villager, fellow countryman. 
Cf. ' wao. 

mkwara (mi-) mkwara (kind of tree, Millettia 

mkware (wa-) 1. sensual/lascivious person. 
2. prostitute. 3. female animal in heat. Cf. 
^kware, ukware. 

mkwaruzo (mi-) 1. scratching, scraping, grating 
(action, sound). 2. scraper. 3. scratch, sur- 
face wound, abrasion. 4. track, trail (of a 
snake, etc.). Cf. kwaruza. 

mkwasi (wa-) wealthy/well-to-do person. Cf. 
kwasi, ukwasi. 

mkwe (wa-) relative by marriage: father- 
(mother-) in-law, son- (daughter-) in-law, 
brother- (sister-) in-law. 

mkweme (mi-) mkweme (species of liana, 
Telfairia pedata), Cf. kweme. 

mkweo (mi-) 1. (act of) climbing, mounting. 
2. climb, ascent. Cf. kwea. 

mkwepuzi (wa-) rare thief. (= mwivi.) Cf. 

mkwezi 1, (wa-) one who climbs/mounts; one 
who make a business of climbing coconut 
trees to knock down the nuts. 2. (mi-) climb- 
ing plant, creeper, liana. Cf. kwea, kwezi. 

Vkwiji (mi-) bag, pouch, purse, 

^mkwiji (wa-) rare = gwiji. 



mkwiro (mi-) drumstick. 

mla (wa-) eater, consumer, mla riba. usurer. 
liter.: — watu. cannibal. Cf. Ma. 

mlaanifu*, mlaanizi (wa-) 1. one who curses/ 
swears. 2. accursed person, us. pi. wala- 
nifu. rel. the damned. Cf. laana, laani. 

mlaanizi* (wa-) see mlaanifu. 

mladi* (mi-) mladi (stick used by weavers to 
tighten threads). 

mlafi (wa-) one who eats greedily /voraciously, 
glutton. Cf. lapa, lafua. 

mlaghai* (wa-) deceiver, cheat, swindler. Cf. 

mlai* \_Engl. J (wa-) see 1 mlei. 

mlaji (wa-) (great) eater, one who likes to eat 
certain things. Cf. la. 

mlala (mi-) mlala (species of dwarf palm). 
( = mkoche, mwaa.) 

mlalafi (wa-) see mlalavi. 

mlalaji (wa-) late sleeper, sleepyhead. Cf. 

mlalamishi (wa-) jut., rare plaintiff. (- mdai.) 
Cf. lalama. 

mlalangwa (mi-) mlalangwa (kind of tree, Ficus 

mlalavi, mlalafi (wa-) 1. restless sleeper (one 
who twists and turns in his sleep). 

2. quarrelsome/irritable person. Cf. lala. 

mlalazamu* (wa-) watchman, guard. Cf. lala, 

mlamba (wa-) one who licks /has a sweet 
tooth. Cf. lamba. 

^mlamba (mi-) see mramba. 

mlamu (wa-) see mwamu. 

mlandawa (mi-) banyan tree. 

mlangali (mi-) mlangali (kind of tree, Euphorbia). 

mlangamia (mi-) mlangamia (parasitic plant grow- 
ing on cloves, etc.; - Cassytha filiformis), 

mlango {rare mwango) (mi-) 1. door, gate, 
entrance, fig. milango ya maarifa. the five 
senses. 2.: — wa mto. mouth of a river. — 
wa bahari (or sometimes mlangobahari). 
strait, channel. — wa Suez, the Suez Canal. 

3. (mountain) pass, defile; bottleneck. 

4. genealogy. 5. liter, chapter. 6. goal (foot- 
ball). Cf. lango, kilango. 

mlariba* (wa-) moneylender, usurer. Cf. mla, 

mlazi 1. (wa-) children's nurse (lit.: one who 
puts to sleep,). 2. (mi-) cradle. Cf. lala. 

mle dem. pron. (also adv.) in that, inside there, 

mlegevu (wa-) 1. weak, sickly person. 2. de- 
pressed/dejected person. Cf. lega, legevu. 



ilei, mlai [E ngl. ^ (wa-) layman; (pi.) lav- 
people, Iaitv. 

mlia (wa-) one who cries (e.g., a child). Cf. 


ilei (wa-) (children's) nurse, babv-sitter. Cf. *>,-,. ^ , 
l ml(>zi- -mha (m.-) 1. colored stripe. 2. striped patte 

(of cloth). Cf. milia. 

mleli (mi-) tail-feathers of a bird (often used mli ,ana (mi-) mliiana (kind of n 

as ornament), toa -. put out a tail-feather 
(fig-) show signs of prosperity. 

langrove, Son- 

neratia cae solaria /ac Ida). 

'«i i ma (mi-) mountain, large hill; steep climb. 
mlemhe (mi-) mlembe (the honey bird Indicator l ■ 

> uiiu, indicator _ vva molo# volcano, milima, safu ya miliina. 


mountain range, Cf kilima. 

mlenge (mi-) mlenge (game plaved bv th 

mlengu (mi-) naut. outrigger. 

rowing mlimaji (wa-) rare agricultural worker, farmer. 
( = mkulima.) Cf. 'lima. 

mlimao* (mi-) see mlimau. 

mleo (mi-) 1 . staggering, reeling as a drunken m l ima „* i- r D 1, , , 

, miimau , mlimao IPers.j (mi-) lemon tree 

person). 2. swaying, rocking, wavering. fC;, r , « V . rr,- 

~ [Citrus Limonum). Cf. limau. 
3. concussion, vibration. t„ rolling (of a 

ship). Cf. lewa. I- i -l i ■ \ ,. , , , 

mlimbiko (mi-), limbiko (ma-) 1. supply, reserve: 

, .. , . , (econj reserve fund. 2. thri ft, economy. 

mlela|i (wa-) I. messenger, deliverer, bearer. qc |j m i,jk a 
2. sender (of a letter). 3. porter. Cf. lota. 

iilevi (wa-) heavy drinker, drunkard, alcoholic. 
C\. Iewa, levi. 

iimbolimbo (mi-) mlimbolimbo (a thorn bush, 
Euphorbia cuneata). Cf. ulimbo. 

mlimbuko (mi-) .see limbuko. 
'mle/.i, mlei (wa-) I. nurse, children's maid. 

2. governess, tutor. 3. jur, guardian. Cf. mlimi (wa-) 1. chatterer, gossip, talebearer. 

Ica- 2 " boaster, braggart. Cf. limi, kilimi, ulimi. 

-mle/.i (mi-) med. swelling of the neck glands. mlimo ("'-'") cultivation, agriculture, farming, 
scrofula. tillage. Cf. Mima, kilimo. 

3 mlezi (mi-) (species of) millet plant. Cf. nilimwengu, mwulimwengu (wa-) 1. inhabitant 

l „lozi. of the earth - I'uman being. 2. easv-going/ 7 

happy-go-lucky person. Cf. ulimwengu. 



mlinda, mlindaji (wa-) 1. watchman, guard, 

keeper, caretaker. — ndege. one who watches 
over a planted field (scares away birds, 
etc.). 2. mil. guard, sentry, Cf. linda. 

mlindaji (wa-) see mlinda. 

mlingano (mi-) 1, resemblance, similarity, 2. 
harmony, unison, 3, geom. symmetry, 4. (or 
mlinganyo) math, equation, Cf. linga. 

mlinganyo (mi-) see mlingano 4. 

mlingoti (mi-) 1. (ship's) mast, — wa maji. 

bowsprit, — wa mbele. foremast, — wa galme. 
mizzenmast. — wa bendera. flagstaff, 2. 
vulg. penis. 

mlinzi (wa-) 1. watchman, guard, caretaker; 
shepherd. 2. protector, defender, 3. jur. 
guardian. Cf. linda. 

mlio (mi-) 1. sound (in gen.). 2. bang, report. 
— wa bunduki. rifle shot. 3. cry (of a person 
or animal), roar, bellow., etc, — wa ng'ombe. 
lowing of cattle. Cf. Mia. 

mlipa, mlipaji, mlipi (wa-) one who pays, 
payer. Cf. lipa. 

mlipaji (wa-) see mlipa. 

mlipi (wa-) see mlipa. 

mlipizi (wa-) one who exacts payment. — 
kisasi. avenger. Cf. lipa. 

mlipuaji (wa-): — baruti. minesweeper, explo- 
sives expert. Cf. lipuka. 

mlipuko (mi-) explosion, detonation. Cf. lipuka. 

mlisha, mlishi (wa-) one who feeds/cares for 
(people or animals). Cf. la. 

mlishi (wa-) see mlisha. 

mlisho (mi-) 1. feeding, nourishment. 2. Isl. 
month of the Muhammadan year (preceding 
Ramadhan). Cf. la. 

mliwa* (mi-) mliwa (kind of tree, Spirostachys 
africana)* Cf. liwa. 

mlizabu* (mi-) see mrizabu. 

mlizamu* (mi-) spout, eaves, gutter, pipe. 
Cf. mrizabu. 

mlizi (wa-) 1. one who cries/screams/whines. 
2. one who causes someone/something to 
make a noise. Cf. lia. 

mlo (mi-) 1. food, diet; provender, fodder. 
2. banquet. Cf. la. 

mlomo (mi-) see mdomo. 

mlonge (mi-) mlonge (kind of tree the leaves 
of which are eaten as a vegetable). 

^mlongo (mi-) see mwongo. 

^mlongo (wa-) see 'mwongo. 

mlonjo (mi-) stilt (used in various games). 
Cf. lonjo. 

mlowezi (wa-) settler. Cf. lowela. 



^mlozi* (mi-) almond tree. Cf. lozi. 
2 mlozi (wa-) magician, sorcerer. Cf. loga. 

mlumbaji (wa-) speaker, orator, eloquent per- 
son. Cf. lumba. 

mlungula, mlungura 1. (wa-) thief, robber, 
swindler, extortionist. 2. (mi-) bribery, 
corruption: bribe. Cf. Ii.ngii| 3 . 

mlungura (wa-, mi-) see mlungula. 

mluzi sing. see uluzi. 

mluziluzi (mi-) mluziluzi (a kind of tree; the 
seed pods make a whistling noise in the 
wind; cf. uluzi). 

mmalidadi* (wa-) see malidadi. 

Mmanga* (wa-) Arab. Cf. 2 Manga. 

mmasihiya*, mmasiya (wa-) Christian 
(= mkristo). Cf. masihiya. 

mmasiya* (wa-) see mmasihiya. 

mmbea (wa-) 1. chatterer, gossip, scandal- 
monger. 2. inquisitive/curious person. Cf. 
mbea, umbea. 

mmbuji*, mbuji (wa-) well-dressed/elegant 
person. Cf. umbuji. 

mmea (mi-) sprout, shoot; (pi.) vegetation. 
Cf. mea, kijimea. 

mmego (mi-) 1. breaking, biting. 2. ripping, 
tearing (up, to pieces), Cf. mega. 

mmelea (mi-) creeping/climbing plant, parasite 
plant. Cf. mea, kimelea. 

mmisionari* \_Engl.~] (wa-) missionary. 

Mmisri (wa-) Egyptian. Cf. Misri. 

mmoja (wa-) a (certain) person, someone, kila 
-. each (and every) one. Cf. moja. 

mmoyomoyo, mmwaka (mi-) mmoyomoyo (a shrub, 
Sapindus saponaria). 

mmrirna* (wa-) coast dweller (i.e., inhabitant of 
the coastal area where Swahili is the native 
language). Cf. mrima. 

mmumunye, mmung'unye (mi-) bottle-gourd plant 
(Lagenaria vulgaris). Cf. mumunye. 

mmung'unye (mi-) see mmumunye. 

mmunina* (wa-) see muminina. 

Mmvita (wa-) inhabitant of Mombasa. Cf. Mvita, 

mmwaka (mi-) see mmoyomoyo. 

mmwambao (wa-) rare one who lives on the 
coast. Cf. ambaa, mwambao. 

mna, muna 1. 2nd pers. pi. you have. 2. (in 
it) there is.., 

mnaanaa (mi-) see mnanaa. 

mnada* (mi-) 1. sale, auction, piga (uza kwa) 
-. auction off. 2. rare, rec. chamber of 
commerce. Cf. nadi. 


mng aro 

mnadi* (wa-) 1. auctioneer. 2. announcer, mnazaa* 1. (vva-) quarrelsome person; one who 
— sala. Isl. one who calls to prayer, muez- does a shameful/disgraceful thing, 2. (mi-) 

zin. Cf. nadi. quarrel, dispute, ill-feeling, Cf. nazaa. 

mnafiki* (wa-) deceiver, hypocrite, liar, Cf. mnazi (mi-) coconut palm (Cocos nucifera). 
unafiki. Cf. nazi. 

mnajimuu*, mnajimu (wa-) 1, astrologer. mndege (wa-) see mwana. 

2, astronomer, Cf. unajimu. 

mndimu* (mi-) see mdimu. 
mnajisi* (vva-) unclean/impure /profane pcisuu. 

Cf. najisi. 

mnamo adv. about, approximately. 

mnana (mi-) 1. ornith. finch, golden weaver. 
2. yellow dye (used for staining the strips 
from which mats are made). 

mnanaa*, mnaanaa (mi-) hot. mint plant 
(Mentha viridis /piperita). Cf. nanaa. 

mnanasi* [Pers. J (mi-) pineapple plant 
(Ananas sativa/comosus). Cf. nanasi. 

mnandi (wa-) ornith. mnandi (cormorant, 

mndunga (mi-) mndunga (bitter species of 

mnena (wa-) eloquent, confident speaker. — 
watu. popular speaker, demagogue. — uwongo. 
liar, Cf. *nena. 

mnenaji, mneni (wa-) 1, talkative person, gossip, 
2, = mnena. Cf. *nena. 

mnenea (wa-) 1. defender, advocate, proponent. 
2. critic. 3. opponent. Cf. *nena. 

mneni (wa-) see mnenaji. 

mng'ago (mi-) see mng aro. 

mnara* (mi-) 1. tower. - wa taa. lighthouse. mng'ao (mi-) see mng'aro. 
2. minaret, steeple. Cf. nuru. 

mng'ariza (wa-) 1. a person with very bright/ 

mnaso (mi-) 1. (act of) catching, trapping. piercing eyes, 2. wicked person, sorcerer. 

2. trap. 3. what is caught (in a trap), Cf ng'aa. 

catch. Cf. nasa. 

mng'arizo (mi-) brightness, gleam, glitter, glare, 

mnavu (mi-) hot. nightshade (Soianum nigrum/ glow. - wa macho, shining/piercing eyes. 

nodiflorum). Cf. ng'aa. 

mnawili* (— ) mnawili (an agreement for mng'aro, mng'ao, mngago (mi-) 1. brightness, 

shipping goods). Cf. nauli. 2. fig. clarity, lucidity, intelligibility. Cf. 




Mngazija (wa-) inhabitant of the Comoro m „n n j 

Islands. Cf. Ngazij, ve T much; too much, inordinately, 

excessively; unusually; very. (Sometimes 

m „ , .. , . . ,, used in conjunction with other words of 

mng oaj. wa-) usually with a followm , object) ^ ^^ _ / 

one who pulls ... out/up. - meno. dentist. J ' 

Cf. ng'oa. 

mnofu (mi-) flesh, lean meat (without fat or 

bones). Cf. nofu, kinofu, nofoa. 
mngo|a, mngo|e, mngojaji (wa-) watchman, 

guard, keeper, attendant, mil. guard sentrv / ■ \ 

g ' sentf y° mnoga (mi-) green tobacco leaf. 
— mlango. doorkeeper, porter. Cf. ngoja. 

. .. , . mnong'onezi, mnong'oni (wa-) whisperer 

mngojai! (wa-) see mnpoja. r , r msperer, 

prompter. Cf. nong'ona. 

mngoje (wa-) see mngoja. 

nnong'oni (wa-) see mnong'onezi. 

mngojezi (vva-) 1. guard, protector. 2. observer > i ^ -, , 

o . , . , ooserver. nmong ono (mi-) 1. whispering. 2. (idle) talk 

3. steward, housekeeper. Cf. ngoja. n , , ' 

n rumor. Cf. nong ona. 

mnguri (mi-) wooden hammer, mallet (used by u i •* i v m , . 

, , , y Mn,lbl ( wa ") a Nubian. Cf. Kinubi. 


... . , mnukauvundo (mi-) mnukauvundo (a shrub 
mngurumizi (wa-) 1. one who roars /growls / r 

... r. - Cassia occidentalis). 

bellows. 2. grumbler, faultfinder Cf 

mnukio (mi-) aromatic substance, perfume. Cf. 

mngvvana (wa-) see mwungwana. 

mniU* Ui \ • A- ' 1 . n J- r ■ mnako ^^ sm ^l odor (either pleasant or 

mmli (mi-) mdigo plant (Indigofera tinctorial , . „, 

nr J pleasant). Cf. nuka. 

L/. nili. 

mnimbi (— ) mnimbi (a large fish). 

mninga (mi-) mninga (a tree providing good 

mnjugumawe (mi-) Madagascar/Bambara 
peanut plant. Cf. njugu. 

mnjugunyasa (mi-) peanut plant (Arachis 
hypogaea). Cf. njugu. 

mnuna, mnunaji, mnuni (wa-) grumbler, fault- 
finder, malcontent. Cf. nuna. 

mnunaji (wa-) see mnuna. 

mnunda (wa-) see nunda. 

mnuno (mi-) grumbling, complaining, fault- 
finding. Cf. nuna. 

mnunuzi (wa-) buyer, purchaser, customer. 
Cf. nunua. 




mnyama (wa-) 1. animal, beast- 2. fig. coarse/ 
stupid person. Cf. nyama, kinyama, unyama. 

mnyamavu (wa-) taciturn/uncommunicative 
person. Cf. nyamaa, nyamavu. 

mnyenyekevu (wa-) quiet, humble person. Cf. 
nyenya, nyenyekevu. 

mnyeo (mi-) 1. tickling, itching. 2. craving, 
yearning. Cf. *nyea. 

mnyampara, mnyapara (wa-) head, headman, 
leader (esp. of a caravan or an expedition). 

mnyevu (mi-) dampness, moisture, vapor. Cf. 

nnyangalika (wa-) nondescript/uselessAope- mnyevunyevu adj. wet, moist, damp. Cf. nya. 


mnyang'anyi (wa-) 1. robber, plunderer, brig- 
and, burglar. 2. invader, conqueror. Cf. 

mnyanya (mi-) tomato plant (Lycopersicum 
cerasi forme). Cf. ^nyanya. 

mnyanyuko (mi-) uprising, insurrection. — wa 
silaha. armed uprising. Cf. ^nyanya. 

mnyapa (mi-) mnyapa (a plant, spurge). 

mnyapara (wa-) see mnyampara. 

mnyaufu sing, (process of) drying up, wither- 
ing/wasting away. Cf. nyauka. 

mnyefu (mi-) see unyefu. 

mnyegea (mi-) mnyegea (kind of tree, Kigelia 

mnyenyekeo (mi-) 1. honor, respect, esteem, 
devotion. 2. deference, servility, humility, 
reverence. Cf. nyenya. 

mnyima, mnyimaji (wa-) miser, skinflint. Cf. 

mnyimaji (wa-) see mnyima. 

mnyimo (mi-) stinginess, miserliness. Cf. 

mnyiri (mi-) feeler, arm, tentacle (of a cuttle- 
fish, etc.). 

mnyo (mi-) 1. (act of) discharging urine/feces. 
2. shower (of rain). Cf. nya. 

mnyofu (wa-): mtu — . honest/honorable person. 
Cf. nyoka, nyofu. 

mnyongaji (wa-) hangman, executioner. Cf. 


mnyonge (wa-) 1. weak/sickly person. 2. mean/ 
malicious person. Cf. nyonge. 

mnyonywaji (wa-): — damu. bloodsucker, 
exploiter. Cf. nyonya. 

*mnyoo (mi-) see mnyororo. 



mnyoo (mi-) roundworm, intestinal worm. 

mnyororo, mnyoo (mi-) 1. chain, fetter. - wa 
baisikeli. bicycle-chain. 2. jail, confine- 

mnyozi (wa-) see kinyozi. 

mnyunyo (mi-) sprinkling, moistening. Cf. 

mnywa, mnywaji (wa-) drinker. Cf. nywa. 

mnywanywa (mi-) mnywanywa (a shrub, Pluchea 

mnywo (mi-) 1. swallow of water. 2. mnywo 
(an alcoholic beverage). Cf. nywa. 

mo 1. relat. pron. 2. adv.: — mote, wherever, 
no matter where, everywhere. 

modeli* [.Engl. ] (-) model, type. 

moduleta* [Engl. ] (-) mus. modulator, 

mofa (-) 1. small (clay) oven. 2. (also mkate 
wa — ) round loaf of bread (of millet flour) 
baked in a mofa. 

mofti* [Engl. J adj. /adv. see mufti. 

mogo (mi-) see mwogo. 

moja 1. num. one. kumi na — . eleven (= ten 
and one), mia kwa — . one percent. — kwa 
— . straight away, without delay, immediate- 
ly, amesikia ati mama yake mgonjwa akao- 
ndoka — kwa — . News reached him that his 
mother was ill and he left immediately. 

moja moja. one after another, one by one, 
one each, walikuja mmoja mmoja. They came 
one at a time, uhusiano wa — na — . one-to- 
one correspondence, pamoja. together. 2. 
an individual, a certain one. mtu mmoja. a 
certain person, mmoja wetu. one of us. 
mojawapo. someone or other. 3. uniform, 
homogeneous, moyo mmoja. harmony (lit.: 
one hearty, watu si wamoja. People are not 
all alike. Cf. kumoja, mamoja, mmoja, pa- 
moja, umoja. 

mojawapo see moja 2. 

mola* sing., Isl. Lord (= God). 

*moma be spread out/spilled/scattered; to 

spread (of fire, water, disease), appl. momea 

2 moma (ma-) moma (kind of snake, Bitis gabo- 

momonyoa see monyoa. 

monyoa, momonyoa break off, tear off; pick 
(fruit), appl. monyoiea. caus. monyosha. 
intr. monyoka, momonyoka. break off, become 
eroded, crumble away, fall into ruin. 

Imori (-) young animal. _ ya ng'ombe. calf, 
heifer. — ya farasi. colt, filly. 

2 mori* (-) (animal) fat, tallow. 

^mori* (-) 1. excitement, anger, ferocity (e.g., 
of male animals fighting over females, and 
fig.). 2. mori (a medicine which is supposed 
to produce anger and ferocity). 



morita*, morta (— ) (short) span (distance from 
thumb to forefinger when the hand is fully 
opened). Cf. shibiri. 

Moroko* Morocco. 

morta* (— ) see morita. 

moshi (mi-) 1. smoke, pazia la — . recent, pol. 
smokescreen. 2. soot. 3. vapor, steam. 
gari la — . locomotive, prof, palipo na — 
pana moto. Where there is smoke there is 
fire. Cf. joshi. 

mosi arch. 1. num. one. Jumamosi. Saturday 
(the first day of the week), mwezi — . the 
first day of the month. 2. rare, adv. first. 
— lazima niende, pili... First I must go, 

mota* [.Engl, j (— ) motor, rare baisikeli ya 
— . motor scooter. 

motaboti* [Engl. J (-) motorboat. 

motakaa*, motokaa, motakari, motokari [Engl. J 
(— ) automobile, — ya abiria. bus, taxi. 

motakari* (-) see motakaa. 

mote, mwote indef. pron. (agreeing w. nouns 
w. suff. -nij all, whole, entire, nyumbani 
— . in all the houses, mjini — . in the whole 
city, mo — . wherever, in all places, every- 
where. Cf. ote. 

Imoto (mioto) 1. fire, flame, washa — . light/ 
kindle a fire, zima -. put out/extinguish a 
fire, ota — warm oneself at the fire, pala 

— . become hot. tia — . set a fire (arson), fig., 
recent, take off (of airplanes), prov.: dawa 
ya — ni — . The remedy for fire is fire. — wa 
milele. rel. hell. 2. burning, glowing, makaa 
ya — . glowing coals. 3. heat, warmth, tem- 
perature, maji — . hot water. 4. fig. zeal, 
energy, exertion, kazi — . hard/taxing work. 
5. rare, elec. current, —a — . charged, live. 
isiyo na — . without current. 6. adv.: — or 
motomoto. mkate huu u motomoto. This bread 
is very tresh. C/. joto, ujotojoto, umoto, 
vimoto; also ^ota. 

2 moto (mioto) marks/welts (made by beating). 
Cf. 4 ota. 

motobaiki* [Engl.] (— ) coll. motorbike, motor- 

motokaa* (— ) see motakaa. 

motokari* (— ) see motakaa. 

motomoto see moto. 

moyo (mioyo; dial, nyoyo) 1. heart, feeling, 
conscience, character. 2. interior, center, 
middle. — wa mnazi. core at the top of the 
coconut tree (favored as a delicacy). — wa 
jipu. core of an abscess, fig. kujifunzu 
kwa — (or kujifunza). study hard, kimoyo- 
moyo. learn by heart. 3. fig. courage, deter- 
mination, willpower, tia (kuza) — , jipa — , 
piga — konde. take heart, pluck up courage. 

— za kithaura. comm. revolutionary fervor. 
4. fig. favorite, pet, sweetheart. Iiuyu ndiye 

— wake. This one is his favorite. Cf. choyo, 
kijoyo, kimoyo, uchoyo. 




Mozambiki Mozambique. 

mpagani* [Engl.l (wa-) pagan, heathen. 

mpagazi (wa-) carrier, bearer, porter. Cf. 

mpaji (wa-) 1. generous person. 2. benefactor, 
donor, rel. - Mungu. God is the giver. Cf. 

mpaka (mi-) 1. boundary, border, limit, barrier. 
piga (weka) _. set/establish a boundary, 
draw a limit, ruka -. cross a boundary-line, 
trespass, invade (a country). - mmoja. bor- 
dering, neighboring, contiguous. 2. (time) 
limit, term. — wa tnwisho. the latest date, 
deadline. 3. prep, until. - lini? until when? 
how long? - sasa. until/up to now. toka ... 
-. from ... to. Cf. 2 paka. 

mpaka, mpakaji, mpaki (wa-) one who spreads 
or applies something. - chokaa. plasterer. 
- rangi. painter. Cf. ipaka. 

mpakaji (wa-) see 2 mpaka. 

mpakato (mi-) something applied: patch, 
plaster, etc. Cf. Ipaka. 

mpaki (wa-) see 2 mpaka. 

mpakizi (wa-) packer, loader, stevedore. Cf. 

mpako (mi-) 1. spreading, smearing. - wa cho- 
kaa. plastering. - wa rangi. painting. 2. 
plaster, stucco, whitewash. Cf. ^paka. 

mpakuzi (wa-) 1. one who unloads, (usually) 
stevedore, longshoreman. 2. rare one who 
serves food. Cf. ^pakia. 

mpalilio, mpalio (mi-) 1. hoeing, weeding. 2. 
hoeing time. Cf. *paa. 

mpalilizi (wa-) see mpalizi. 

lmnalin fn,i.l -:~: (,i , ,. 

-- v-. , .,-..., ft Ui luc guige, cnoKing. L/. 

2mpalio (mi-) see mpalilio. 

mpalizi, mpalilizi (wa-) one who hoes or pulls 
weeds. Cf. Ipaa. 

Impamba* [PersJ ( mi .) cotton plant (Gossyptum 
spj, Cf. 2 pamba. 

2 mpamba, mpambaji, mpambi (wa-) decorator. 
Cf. ipamba. 

mpambaji (wa-) see 2 mpamba. 

mpambanisho (mi-) 1. contest. 2. bankruptcy. 
Cf. pambana. 

mpambano (mi-) 1. encounter, meeting (sport, 
pol.). 2. mil. skirmish, engagement. 3. rare 
collision (of vehicles). Cf. pambana. 

mpambauke (mi-) mpambauke (a shrub, Lippia 

mpambe, mpambi (wa-) 1. eth. mpambe (girl who 
attends a bride at the wedding ceremony). 
2. rec. well-dressed young girl. Cf. ipamba, 




^mpambi (wa-) see -mpamba. 

^mpambi (wa-) see mpambe. 

^mpanda, mpandaji, m panel i, mpanzi (wa-) 
planter, sower, Cf. ^panda. 

2mpanda, mpandaji (wa-) 1. (mountain-)climber. 
— baisikeli. bicycle rider. — farasi. (horse- 
back) rider, 2. jig. sponger, sycophant. Cf. 

"mpanda (mi-) see panda, 

mpandaji (wa-) see ^mpanda, ^mpanda. 

mpande (mi-) see kipande, upande. 

mpandi (wa-) see ^mpanda. 

Impando (mi-), pando (ma-) 1. (act, time, 
method of) planting, sowing. 2. row of 
plants. 3. furrow, bed. Cf. panda. 

2mpando (mi-) (act of) climbing, mounting. 
Cf. ^panda. 

anga (wa-) see ^mpangaji, 2 m pangaji. 


Impangaji, mpanga (wa-) arranger, — herufi. 
typesetter. — viti (meza). one who arranges 
the chairs (tables) at a feast. Cf. 1 panga. 

^mpangaji, mpanga (wa-) 1. renter, tenant, 

lessee (of a house, field). 2. rare employer. 
Cf. ^ panga. 

mpangishaji, mpangishi (wa-) landlord, lessor. 
Cf. 2 panga. 

mpangishi (wa-) see mpangishaji. 

*mpango (mi-) 1. arrangement, apportionment, 
classification, order. 2. list, plan. 3. pol. 
program, platform, constitution, Cf. Mpanga. 

2mpaneo (mi-) 1. (act of) renting, leasing. 
2. rent. Cf. Mpanga. 

mpanje (mi-) mpanje (kind of banana). 

mpanzi (wa-) see i mpanda. 

mpapai*, mpapayu Und. J (mi-) papaya tree 
(Carica papaya). — mwitu. wild papaya 
(Melochia melissifolia). Cf. papai. 

mpapatiko (mi-), papatiko (ma-) 1. beating, 
throbbing, fluttering, palpitation, pulsation, 
vibration. 2, med. spasm, convulsion, Cf. 

mpapayu (mi-) see mpapai. 

mpapindi (mi-) mpapindi (kind of palm, Cycas 

mpapuro (mi-) 1. scratching, scraping. 2. 
scratcher, scraper (an implement). 3. trace 
left by a scratch or scrape; scratch, surface 
wound. 4. fig. scribble, scrawl. Cf. papura. 

mparamuzi (mi-) mparamuzi (kind of tree, 
Sterculia appendiculata)* 




mparuzi (wa-) 1. idler, lazybones. 2. bungler, 
blunderer. - wa karatasi. scribbler, poor 
writer. Cf. Ipaa, parua. 

mparuzo (mi-) 1. scratching, scraping. 2. 
scratch. 3. botchwork. Cf. 1 p aa , parua. 

mpasi (wa-) ambitious person, go-getter. Cf. 

in K ..sua (wa-) one who cuts/spins, - mbao. 
one who saws boards, sawmill worker. Cf. 

mpasuasanda (-) (ornith.) nightjar. 

mpasuka (mi-) see mpasuko. 

mpasuko, mpasuka, mpasuo (mi-) 1. tear, split. 
2. bursting, breaking. 3. explosion, detona- 
tion, mipasuko ya bomu la atomiki. atomic 
bomb explosions. Cf. pasua. 

mpasuo (mi-) see mpasuko. 

mpatanishi (wa-) mediator, negotiator, arbitra- 
tor. Cf. pata. 

Jmpato (mi-) 1. = kipato. 2. procurement, 
acquisition. 3. gain, profit. Cf. pata. 

2 mpato (mi-) float (on fishnets). ( =1 chelezo.) 
mpayukaji (wa-) chatterbox, gossip, Cf. paya. 
inpea* (mi-) see mpera. 

lmpekecho, mpeketo (mi-) 1. (act of) twisting, 
twirling, stirring. 2. disturbance, excitement. 
3. agitation, trouble-making. Cf. pekecha. 

L mpekecho, mpeko (mi-) mpekecho (two sticks 
used for producing fire). Cf. pekecha. 

mpeketevu (wa-) vain/arrogant person. Cf. 
pekecha, peketevu. 

mpeketo (mi-) see Mpekecho. 

mpeko (mi-) see 2 mpekecho. 

mpekuzi (wa-) inquisitive person. Cf. pekua, 

mpelekwa (wa-) 1. messenger, courier. 2. envoy, 
delegate. Cf. peleka. 

mpelelezi (wa-) 1. observer, scout, spy. 2. 
pursuer, persecutor. Cf. peleleza. 

impemba (mi-) mpemba (kind of manioc). 

mpemba (wa-) coll. ignorant/ill-bred person. 

mpenda, mpendi, mpendao (wa-) (usually w. foil, 
obj.) one who is fond of something. - kula. 
glutton. - michezo. sports fan. - raha. easy- 
going person, wapendao vita, warmongers. 
Cf. penda. 

mpendao (wa-) see mpenda. 

mpendelevu (wa-) one who favors/shows favor- 
itism. Cf. penda, pendelevu. 

mpendevu, mpendezi (wa-) agreeable/congenial 
person. Cf. penda, pendevu. 

mpendezi (wa-) see mpendevu. 

mpendi (wa-) see mpenda. 




mpendwa (wa-) 1. favorite, pet. 2. youngest 
child. Cf. penda. 

mpigaji (wa-) 1. - mpiga. 2.: — ngumi. boxer. 
— bendi. orchestra musician. Cf. piga. 

mpenyezi (wa-) 1. smuggler. 2. secret agent. 
3. traitor. Cf. penya. 

mpenyezo (mi-) 1. penetration. 2. smuggling. 
3. bribe, bribery. Cf. penya. 

mpenzf (wa-) favorite; lover, sweetheart. Cf. 

mpepea (mi-) breeze, draft. Cf. pepa. 

mpepetaji, mpetaji (wa-) one who sifts/winnows 
(grain). Cf. pepa. 

mpera*, mpea \_Port. J (mi-) guava tree (Psidium 
guajava). — wa kizungu. myrtle tree (Jambosa 

mpetaji (wa-) see mpepetaji. 

mpevu (wa-) full-grown person, adult, huyu si 
mtoto mchanga ni — . This person is no longer 
a child but an adult. Cf. pevua, pevu. 

mpevushi (wa-) one who tempts /perverts/ 
seduces. Cf. pevua. 

mpiga, mpigaji, mpigi (wa-) (always w. foil. 

obj.) one who strikes/makes/produces some- 
thing. — picha. photographer. — simu. teLe- 
grapher. — chapa. printer. — muziki. musi- 
cian. — ramli. soothsayer, fortune-teller. 
— kura. voter. — maji. coll. drinker. — 
ngoma. drummer. — nyama. hunter, — kelele. 
noisy child. — filimbi. sport, umpire, ref- 
eree. Cf. piga. 

mpiganaji, mpigani (wa-) warrior, fighter. Cf. 

mpigani (wa-) see mpiganaji. 

mpiganisho (mi-) impact, collision; encounter; 
conflict, combat. Cf. piga. 

mpigano (mi-) see pigano. 

mpigi (wa-) see mpiga. 

mpigo (mi-) striking, hitting, beating; blow. 
Cf. piga. 

mpigwa (wa-) 1. defeated/beaten person. 
2. rare person killed in combat, casualty. 
Cf. piga. 

mpikaji (wa-) rare cook. ( = mpishi.) Cf. 

^mpiko (mi-) cooking, preparation of food. 
Cf. pika. 

2mpiko (mi-) 1. carrying-pole; supporting bar 
of a hammock. 2. lever. 

mpilipili* LPers.J (mi-) pepper plant (Capsi- 
cum annuum). — manga, black-pepper plant 
(Piper nigrum). — hoho. African pepper 
plant (Capsicum frutescens). Cf. pilipili. 

mpima, mpimaji (wa-) one who measures, 
surveyor. Cf. pima. 




mpimaji (wa-) see mpima. 

mpimo (mi-) (act of) measuring, surveying, 
weighing. Cf. pima. 

mpindani (wa-) a person bent/deformed by 
disease. Cf. pinda. 

mpindanifu (wa-) unshakable/resolute person. 
Cf. pinda, pindani. 

mpindano (mi-) 1. stiffening, straining, press- 
ing. 2. med. cramp. Cf. pinda. 

mpindu/.i (wa-) 1. disturber of the peace, 
rioter. 2, lawbreaker. 3. rebel, agita- 
tor. Cf. pinda. 

mpinga (wa-) one who obstructs. - maende- 
leo pol. reactionary. _ tliaura. counter- 
revolutionary. Cf. pinga. 

mpingaji, mpingani, mpinzani (wa-) ]. oppo- 
nent, adversary. 2. mischief-maker. 
Cf. pinga. 

mpingani (wa-) see mpingaji. 

mpingi (mi-) mpingi (kind of thorn tree, 
Ximenia americana). 

mpingo (mi-) ebony tree (Diospyros ebenum). 

2 • , . v 

mpingo (mi-) see pingo. 

mpini (mi-) {augment, of kipini) (handle 
of a knife, etc.). 

mpinzani (wa-) 1. - mpingaji. 2. stubborn 
person. Cf. pinga. 

mpira (mi-) 1. rubber tree. 2. rubber. - wa 
gumdumu. (bicycle, automobile) tire. _ wa 
ndani. inner tube. - wa nje. (tire) casing. 
3. (rubber) ball, football, kucheza -. play 
football. 4. elasticity, nyama hii ngumu 
kama — . This meat is tough. 

mpishi (wa-) cook. (= rare mpikaji.) 
Cf. pika. 

mpita, mpitaji (wa-) 1. (also - njia) passer- 
by. 2. rare traveler, passenger. Cf. pita. 

mpitaji (wa-) see mpita. 

mpito (mi-) crossing, passage. Cf. pita. 

mpoa, mpua (mi-) distant country. - wa 
bahari. seacoast. 

^pofu, pofu (_) eland (Boselaphus canna). 
mpofu (wa-) rare see kipofu. 

mpokea, mpokeaji, mpokezi (wa-) one who 
receives/collects. _ kodi. tax collector. 
Cf. pokea. 

mpokeaji (wa-) see mpokea. 

mpokezi (wa-) see mpokea. 

mpomoshi (wa-) one who destroys. Cf. po- 




mponda (wa-) 1. (always w. {oil. obj.) one 
who pounds/crushes/pulverizes. — mawa. 
stonemason. 2. fig., coll. - mali (fedha). 
one who squanders property (money). Cf. 

mpondo (mi-) (act of) crushing, grinding, 
pulverizing. Cf. ponda. 

mpondo (mi-) see pondo. 

mponyeshaji, mponyi (wa-) 1. one who cures, 
physician. 2. quack. Cf. pona. 

mponyi (wa-) see mponyeshaji. 

mpopoo*, mpopo LPers.j (mi-) mpopoo 
(kind of palm, Areca catechu). Cf. popoo. 

^mpopoo (mi-) (act of) knocking something 
down (w. a stick/stone). Cf. popoa. 

mposo (mi-) proposal ofmarriage, courtship. 
Cf. posa. 

mposta* \_Engl.J (wa-) rare post-office em- 
ployee. (= mtu wa posta). Cf. posla. 

mpotefu (wa-) see mpotevu. 

mpotevu, mpotefu, mpotezi (wa-) spendthrift, 
wastrel, libertine. - wa mali (fedha). one 
who squanders property (money). — wa ma- 
neno. windbag, chatterbox, one who talks 
illogically. Cf. potea, potevu. 

mpotezi (wa-) see mpotevu. 

mpoto (mi-) (act of) twisting, braiding, knitting 
Cf. pota. 

mpotoe, mpotwe, mpotovu, mpotofu (wa-) stub- 
born/capricious/unprincipled person. Cf. 

mpororo (mi-) 1. single file, Indian file. 
2. row of tribal markings down the nose. 

Mportugesi* L Engl. J (wa-) rare a Portu- 
guese. (- Mreno.) 

mposa (wa-) see mposaji. 

mpotofu, mpotovu, mpotwe (wa-) see mpotoe. 

mpozi (wa-) one who cures/heals, physician. 
Cf. poa. 

mpujufu (wa-) mean/vile/shameless person. 
Cf. pujua, pujufu. 

mposaji, mposa, mposi (wa-) one who pro- 
poses marriage, suitor. Cf. posa. 

mposeaji (wa-) person who acts on behalf of 
another in proposing marriage, matchmaker. 
Cf. posa. 

mposi (wa-) see mposaji. 

mpukuti (wa-) coll. money. Cf. pukuta. 

mpumbavu, mpumbafu (wa-) stupid person, 
fool. Cf. pumbaa, pumbavu. 

mpunga (mi-) rice plant (Oryza sativa), 
(grains of) rice (while the plant is still 
standing in the field). See also mchele, 



mpungate, mpungali (mi-) mpungate (species 
of cactus, Opuntia fie us). 

mpungufu (wa-) person with a defect, one 
lacking in some respect, mtu huyu - wa 
akili. This person is stupid/foolish/ 
mentally defective. Cf. 2 punf , a , punRuflI . 

mpupu (mi-) mpupu ( species of bean pJant) 
Mucuna pruriens or Canavalia ensifnrn,.;?). 

mpurukushani (wa-) ]. careless/negligent/ 
slipshod person. 2. carefree/lighthearted 
person. Cf. purukusha, purukushani. 

mpurule (mi-) mpurule (a shrub> Chenopodium 

mpururo (mi-) 1. (act of) rubbing/ s trip ping 
off, shelling (peas, beans, etc.). 2. spin- 
ning/paying out (thread through the fingers). 
3- a single file (of people, etc.) Cf. pura. 

"ipuzi (wa-) 1. silly/frivolous person. 
2. chatterbox, gossip. 3. nagger, fault- 
finder. Cf. 2 puza. 

mpwa (wa-) nephew, niece (= child of one's 

impweke (wa-) lonely /solitary person 
(without relatives). Cf. peke. 

2 mpweke (mi-) 1. mpweke (kind of hardwood 
tree). 2. short, thick stick or truncheon 
(made from the wood of the mpweke tree). 
3. fig. difficulty. 

mpyo („,{.) rubber liana (Landolphia KirHa 

mpyoro (wa-) 1. user of obscene language. 
2. one who exaggerates: boaster, tale- 
bearer; hypocrite, liar. 3. onewhosUs 
off by using many English words or diffi- 
cult and unusual Swahili words. Cf. pyo r a 

Vaba*, maraba 1. ( mi _) square; rectangle> 
cube. _ a _. square, rectaneular. perpen- 
dicular, mistariya-. perpendicular lines. 
2. adj. right (of an angle), pembe -. 
right angle, pembetatu mraba. right- 
angled triangle. Cf. mirabaraba. 

2 mraba*, maraba (mi-) preserves, jam, mar- 
malade. _ wa tangawizi. candied ginger, 
njugu za -. peanut brittle. 

rnrabaha* (mi-) hist , trading tax fcollected 

by the chief of a particular place for the 
right to trade in that place). 

mradi* 1. ( mi .) {also muradi) intention) 
plan, decision; desire, ambition, goal; ' 
(rare) whim, sasa ni mwalimu na ameti- 
miza-wake. Now he is a teacher and has 
achieved his ambition. 2. con/, and so, 
accordingly; since, because; provided that. 
- amelala msimwamshe. Since he is 
asleep do not wake him. 3. adv., rare 

mrajis* (ma-) see rais. 

mrama* (mi-) naut. pitching, rolling (of a 
ship), enda -. pitch, roll; (fig.) take a 
wrong direction, go the wrong way. mi- 
Pango yetu imekwenda -. Our plans have 
gone awry. 



mramba, mbaramba, mlamba (— ) ornith. mramba 
(kind of starling). — mweupe. golden oriole. 

mrehani*, mrihani (mi-) bot. (sweet) basil 
(Ocimum basilicum). 

mranaa*, mranaha, mrenaha (ma-) 1. mranaa 
(kind of tree, Datura metel & Datura fastu- 
osa). 2. rare ~ mwegea, q.v. 

mranaha* (mi-) see mranaa. 

Irr.rac* l rr.i -^ 1. wick. 2. arch. match 
fuse, bunduki ya — . matchlock gun. 

Anrao* L. ? J (mi-) mrao (cool season, harvest 

mrarua (wa-) one who tears something. 
Cf. raru a. 

mraruasanda (— ) ornith. nightjar (lit.: 
'shroud-tearer.'). ( = pvvaju.) 

mraruo (mi-) (act of) tearing, rending. 
Cf. raru a. 

mrasharasha*, mrasho (mi-) sprinkling. — wa 
mvua, mvua ya rasharasha. sprinkle, 
drizzle (of rain). Cf. rasha. 

mrashi* (mi-) 1. scent-bottle, spray. 
2. scent, perfume. Cf. rasha. 

mrasho (mi-) see mrasharasha. 

mratabu* (mi-) mratabu (species of plum tree, 
Achras zapota). 

mregaa* (— ) see mrejaa. 

mrejaa*, mregaa (— ) commission business, 
commission, biashara ya — . commission 
business. Cf. rejea, rejareja. 

mrekani* L Engl. J (mi-) see merekani. 

mreli* \ Engl. J (wa-) rare railroad worker, 
railwayman. Cf. reli. 

mrembe (mi-) 1. wooden spear with a sharp 
point, 2. arch. German military helmet, 
Pickelhaube (Tanganyika). 

mrembo 1. (wa-) person who pays much at- 
tention to his dress; fashion plate, fop. 
2. (mi-) ornament, decoration ( = rembo). 
Cf. remba. 

mrenaha (mi-) see mranaa. 

mrengu (mi-) naut. outrigger. 

mreno* LPort. reino] (wa-) a Portuguese. 
Cf. Reno. 

mrera (mi-) mrera (embroidered ornamenta- 
tion on the collar of a kanzu). 

mreteni (mi-) bot. juniper. 

mriba (mi-) mriba (leaf of the sweet potato 
plant, eaten as a vegetable). 

mridhia* (wa-) see maridhia. 

mrihani* (mi-) see mrehani. 



mrihi, mriti ( m j.) mrihi ( kind of tree produc . 
ing good lumber for building purposes). 

mrija (mi-) 1. mrija (kind of reed, used for 
making musical instruments and as a 
drinking tube). 2. pipe, flute (musical 
instrument). 3. rare pipe, tube (in gen.). 
4. rec, elec. tube (radio, etc.). 5. (in 
gen.) tube, straw (for drinking). 

mrili (mi-) mrili (kind of tree, used for mak- 
ing dugout canoes). 

mrima* (mi-) 1. coast, coastal region, lit- 
toral. 2. continent, mainland (as opp. to 
islands). Cf. Kimrima, mmrima. 

mrithi* (wa-) heir. Cf. rithi. 

mrithisha*, mrithishi (wa-) executor fo/ a 
will, estate). Cf. rithi. 

mrithishi* (wa-) see mrithisha. 

mriti (mi-) see mrihi. 

mrizabu*, mlizabu (mi-) 1. channel, drain, 
pipe. 2. water tap, faucet. Cf. mlizamu. 

mroho* (wa-) glutton, greedy person (pne who 
eats more than his share). Cf. roho. 

mronge (mi-) mronge (horse-radish tree, 
Moringa pterigosperma). 

mrongo (wa-) young person of either sex 
who has been through the initiation rites, 
one who is experienced in matters of sex. 
Cf. msungo. 

mrongo (wa-) dial, liar, swindler. See 
also mwongo. 

mrua*, murua 1. (_) politeness, courtesy, 
obligingness, good behavior; respect, 
deference. 2. (wa-) courteous, well-bred 

mruba (mi-), ruba (ma-) leech. 

mrugaruga, rugaruga (wa-) 1. mil. irregular 
soldier, guerrilla. 2. robber, plunderer. 

mrukaji (wa-) 1. sport jumper. 2. av., rare 
flier, pilot. Cf. ruka. 

mruko (mi-) 1. jumping, jump. 2. flight. 
Cf. ruka. 

Mruma*, Mrumi (wa-) Roman. Cf. rumi, 

Mrusi* (wa-) a Russian. Cf. Kirusi, Urusi. 

mrututi*, mrututu [indj (_) chem. copper 
sulphate, blue vitriol. 

mrututu* (_) see mrututi. 

msaada* (mi-) help, aid, assistance, support. 

- wa fedha. financial assistance/support. 

- wa iktisadi. economic aid. _ wa ki- 
fundi. technical assistance. Cf. saidia. 

msaajaji* (wa-) see msaidizi. 

msaala* (_) see masahala. 




msadikifu* (wa-) 1. trusting/friendly per- 
son. 2. trustworthy/reliable person. 
Cf. sadiki, sadikifu. 

msafa* (mi-) see safu. 

msafara* (mi-) 1. caravan. 2. journey, ex- 
pedition. 3. crowd of people, nimekutana 
na — wa watu wakitoka mpirani. I met a 
big crowd of people coming from the font, 
ball game. Cf. safiri, safari. 

msafihi*, msafii (wa-) impudent/insolent/ 
rude/ill-bred person. Cf. safihi. 

msafii* (wa-) see msafihi. 

msafiri* (wa-) traveler. Cf. safiri. 

msafirishaji* (wa-): — mali. econ. exporter. 
Cf. safiri. 

msafishaji* (wa-) 1. cleaner, charwoman 
— choo. latrine cleaner. 2. medical 
orderly. Cf. safi. 

msafu* (mi-) see msahafu. 

msaga, msagi (wa-) miller. Cf. saga. 

msagaliwa (wa-) an impotent male who acts 
as a servant to women, eunuch {lit. grinder 
of sandalwood; cf. saga, liwa). 

msagi (wa-) see msaga. 

^msago (mi-) grinding [of meal, flour). 
Cf. saga. 

^msago adv. see * sago. 

^msaha* (mi-) 1. crowbar. 2. spade, shovel. 

2msaha* (-) see mdhaha. 

msahafu*, msafu (mi-) 1. book (us. the 
Koran). 2. rare page, leaf. 3. rare 
Bible. Cf. sahifa. 

msahala* (mi-) med. laxative, purgative. 

msahau*, msahaulifu, msahaulizi (wa-) for- 
getful/absent-minded person. Cf. sahau. 

msahaulifu* (wa-) see msahau. 

msahaulizi* (wa-) see msahau. 

msaidia* (wa-) see msaidizi. 

msaidizi*, msaidia (wa-) 1. helper, assis- 
tant. — wa hospitali. nurse's aid. 2. ac- 
complice. Cf. saidia. 

msaji* (mi-) teak tree (Tectona grandis). 

msaka (wa-) see msakaji. 

msakaji, msaka, msasi (wa-) driver, hunter, 
Cf. saka. 

Msakalawa* (wa-) inhabitant of (the west 
coast of) Madagascar. 

msakamo (mi-) sticking, jamming. Cf. sa- 




msako (mi-) hunting, trapping. Cf. saka. 

msala* (mi-) 1. Isl. prayer mat. 2. (in 
gen.) oval/round mat. Cf. sala. 

msamba (mi-) anat. 

perineum. (= kilako.) 

msambalc (mi-) msambale (flowering shrub, 
Lobelia fervens). 

msala* (mi-) toilet, Fv.C. enda msalani. 
go to the toilet. 

msalaba* (mi-) hist., rel. cross, ishara 
ya -. sign of the cross. Lhama cha Msa- 
laba Mwekundu. Bed Cross Society. 
Cf. sulibi. 

msalata*, msaliti (wa-) 1. traitor, slanderer; 
one who makes a false accusation. 2. des- 
pot. Cf. salata. 

msalheri* salutation Good morning, etc. 
Cf. heri. 

msalihina*, msalikhina (wa-) (also salihina, 
wa-) 1. honest/incorruptible person. 
2. pious/devout person. Cf. salihi. 

msalikhina* (wa-) see msalihina. 

msalimina*, msalimu (wa-) 1. pious/devout 
person (of any faith). 2. rare Moslem 
( = M wislamu). Cf. silimu. 

msalimu* (wa-) see msalimina. 

msaliti* (wa-) see msalata. 

msamaha*, msamehe (mi-), masamaha pi. 

1. forgiveness, pardon. (= ghofira.) 

2. liberation, deliverance, salvation. 
Cf. samehe. 

msambia (mi-) msambia (kind of tree with 
edible fruit). 

msameha* (wa-) see msamehaji. 

msamehaji*, msameha (wa-) forgiving/indul- 
gent person. Cf. samehe. 

msamehe* (mi-) see msamaha. 

msamilo (mi-) msamilo (a kind of wooden 
headrest or pillow). 

msana (mi-) dial, passage, corridor. 
( = ukumbi.) 

2 msana* (wa-) metal worker, smith. 
- chuma. blacksmith. Cf. 2 sana# 

msanaa*, msa ni, msanii (wa-) skillful/compe- 
tent craftsman, specialist. Cf. sanaa. 

msanaka (mi-) msanaka (species of pine, 
Pandanus sp.). 

msanapiehi, msanapiti (mi-) frangipane/jas- 
mine tree (Plumeria acuminata). 

msandali* ( mi .) sandalwood tree. Cf. sandali. 

msandarusi* (mi-) (gum-)copal tree. Cf. sa - 

msangao (mi-) see mshangao. 


msani* (wa-) see msanaa. 

msanii*, msanifu (wa-) 1. - msanaa. 2. fig. 
one who invents and spreads lies. Cf. 
sanaa, sanifu. 

msapata* L Port. J (mi-) msapata (kind of 

msaro (mi-) msaro (species of thorn tree). 

msasa (mi-) 1. msasa (Ficus sp., the leaves 
of which are used for smoothing wood). 
2. sandpaper, emery paper, meza hii hai- 
kupigwa — vizuri. This table is not smooth 
(has not been well sanded). 

msasi (wa-) see msakaji. 

msazo (mi-) 1. remainder, remains, remnant. 
2. fig., rare remains, corpse. Cf. "saa. 

msegese (mi-) msegese (kind of tree, Bau- 
hinia Tkonningii; the wood is used for mak- 
ing bedsteads, and a remedy for bronchitis 
is prepared from the roots). 

mseja (wa-) 1. unmarried man, bachelor. 
Cf. ^-useja. 2. a necklace of small beads. 
Cf. useja. 

msema (wa-) see msemaji. 

msemaji, msema (wa-) 1. narrator, speaker, 
orator. 2. recent, pol. information officer, 
spokesman. — wa mkutano huu. the, 
speaker at this meeting. 3. commentator. 
4. - msemi. Cf. sema. 

msemi (wa-) 1 - msemaji. 2. speaker 

(parliament), 3. spokesman. — wao. their 
spokesman, yeye ni — wa chama cha kikomu- 
nisti katika baraza la kufanya sheria. He 
is the spokesman of the communist group 
in the legislative body. Cf. sema. 

msemo (mi-) 1. speech, address. 2 conver- 
sation. 3. dialect; (rare) language. 4. ut- 
terance; saying, maxim; expression, idiom. 
5. slogan, watchword. Cf. sema. 

msengenya (wa-) see msengenyi. 

msengenyaji (wa-) 1. underhanded assailant, 
calumniator. 2. fig., rel. the devil, Satan. 
Cf. sengenya. 

msengenyano (mi-) talebearing, backbiting; 
dissension, quarrel, dispute. Cf. sengenya. 

msengenyi, msengenya (wa-) gossip, tale- 
bearer. Cf. sengenya. 

msengenyo (mi-) rumor, gossip, slander, 
calumny. Cf. sengenya. 

msetiri (wa-) see ^mstiri. 

mseto (mi-) 1. mseto (a porridge made of 
beans cooked together with various grains, 
maize, or rice), 2. fig. a mixture, pol.: 
serikali ya — . a government including the 
representatives of various tribes/parties, 
coalition government. Cf. seta. 

msewe (mi-) 1. msewe (a kind of bush bear- 
ing pods which are used as rattles). 

2. msewe (rattles worn by dancers). 

3. child's rattle. 4. kind of large drum. 



mshabaha* (mi-) similarity, resemblance. 
Cf. Ishabaha. 

mshabiki* (wa-) enthusiast, mtu huyu — sana 
wa karata. He is an enthusiastic/inveter- 
ate cardplayer. 

mshadhari* (-) see mshazari. 

mshahara* (— , mi-) payment, remuneration; 
(monthly, weekly) salary, wages; income. 

mshairi* (wa-) poet. Cf. shairi, ushairi. 

mshakiki*, mshikaki (mi-) 1. spit, skewer. 
2. piece of meat roasted on a skewer. 

mshale (mi-) 1. arrow. — wa sumu. poisoned 
arrow. 2. fig. ray. — wa nuru. ray of sun- 
light. 3. sting (of a bee, etc.). 4. hand, 
pointer, indicator. 

mshamo (mi-) 1. stick for digging holes. 
2. crowbar. 3. naut. marline spike. 

mshangao, msangao (mi-) {also ushangao) 
1. astonishment, amazement. 2. confu- 
sion, speechlessness. Cf. shangaa. 

msharafu* (wa-) an honored/respected per- 
son. Cf. sharifu. 

msharasi (mi-) awl. 

msharika* (wa-) see mshirika. 

mshaufu* (wa-) 1. shameless/ill-mannered 
person. 2. frivolous/ostentatious person. 
Cf. shaua, shaufu. 

mshauri* (wa-) 1. advisor, counsellor. 
— wa mambo ya sheria. legal advisor, 
counsel. 2. pol. representative, deputy, 
delegate- _ m. upandc v.a serikali. k<jv- 
ernment delegate. Cf. shauri. 

mshawishi* 1. (wa-) tempter, seducer. 
2. (mi-) rare - shawishi. 3. pol. agi- 
tator. Cf. shawishi. 

mshazari*, mshadhari 1 (— ) tape, cord, 
string; edging, braid; hem 2. (— ) twist, 
bend, curve, slant, mstari wa — . oblique 
line. 3. adv. slanting, oblique; lopsided, 
crooked; cylindrical, fig..- mambo yake 
siku hizi yanakwenda — . His affairs are 
not in order at present (have not gone well, 
turned out badly). 4. (wa-) fig. deformed 

mshelisheli* [< Seychelles] (mi-) msheli- 
sheli (species of breadfruit tree). 

mshemali* (wa-) an Arab from Muscat. 

mshenga (wa-) 1. go-between, matchmaker 
(one who arranges a marriage for someone 
else). 2. messenger, agent, confidant, 
mshari* (wa-) an unlucky person, jinx (some- 
one who causes misfortune or injury to other mshenzi* [Pers.] (wa-) 1. aboriginal, 
people). Cf. ^hari. native (from the interior). 2. savage, bar- 

barian. 3. (also mtu — ) uncouth/uncivi- 
msharifu* (mi-) see kisharifu. lized/nondescript person. 4. inter], -we! 

You scoundrel! Cf. shenzi. 




mshihiri* (wa-) an Arab from Sheher (South 

mshika, mshiki (wa-) (always w. foil, obj.) 
one who holds something. — sukani. 
1. naut. helmsman. 2. driver (of an 
automobile). 3. pilot (of an airplane). 

— filimbi. sport, rare referee, umpire. 

— duru. leader of the duru ceremony 
(drinking by turn). Cf. shika. 

mshikaki* (mi-) see mshakiki. 

mshinde (wa-) see mshindwa. 

mshindi (wa-) see mshinda, mshindaji. 

mshindikizo (mi-) 1. accompaniment. 2. es- 
cort (for protection), guard. 3. retinue, at- 
tendants. Cf. ^shinda. 

mshindilio (mi-) 1. (act of) pushing, forcing, 
stuffing (e.g., clothes into a suitcase). 
2. mil. loading (a gun, cannon). 
Cf. ^shinda. 

mshikano (mi-) 1. mass, accumulation, 
group. 2. cluster, bunch (of fruit, etc. ). 
Cf. shika. 

mshiki (wa-) see mshika. 

mshikilizo, mshikizo (mi-) (act of) tacking/ 
basting together (in dressmaking). 
Cf. shika. 

mshikizo (mi-) see mshikilizo. 

mshinda, mshindi. (wa-) 1. victor. 2. winner 
(sport). Cf. ^shinda. 

mshindaji, mshindi (wa-) 1. victor, con- 
queror. 2. rival, competitor. Cf. shinda. 

mshindani, mshindanizi (wa-) 1. opponent, 
adversary, rival, prov. asiyekubali ku- 
shindwa si — . The man who is not willing 
to be beaten is no adversary. 2. partici- 
pant in a contest. 3. stubborn/contentious 
person. Cf. shinda. 

mshindano (mi-) see shindano. 

mshindio (mi-) 1. (act of) working the woof/ 
weft into the warp in weaving. 2. woof/ 
weft. Cf. ^shinda. 

mshindo (mi-) 1. (sudden, loud) noise: crash, 
bang, rumble, etc. — wa miguu ya farasi. 
the trample of horses. — wa ngoma. beat- 
ing of a drum. 2. shouting, outcry, din. 

— wa watu walio (katika mkutano) mkuta- 
noni. noise of people in a crowd. 3. phy. 
orgasm. Cf. shinda. 

mshindwa, mshinde (wa-) one who is defeated/ 
beaten/conquered. Cf. shinda. 

mshipa (mi-) anat. 1. vein, artery. 2. pulse. 

— unapiga. the pulse beats. 3. nerve. 

4. muscle, sinew, tendon. 5. any illness 
involving the nerves or muscles, maradhi 
ya — . neuralgia, sciatica. 6. (— wa utu- 
mbo kutokeza) hernia, 7.: — wa maji. hy- 

mshipi (mi-) 1. band, cord, strip (of cloth). 
2. belt. 3. suspenders, braces. 4. fish- 




Mshirazi* (wa-) a descendant of Persians 
from Shiraz. 

mshirika*, mshiriki, msharika 1. (wa-) part- 
ner, joint-owner. - biashara. business 
partner. 2. (mi-) partnership. Cf. shiriki. 

mshiriki* (wa-, mi-) see mshirika. 

""" """ \""i-, aupcisuuous person (one 

who believes in magic and sorcery). 
Cf. shiriki. 

mshitaki* (wa-) see mshtaki. 

mshitakiwa* (wa-) see mshtakiwa. 

mshitiri* (wa-) see mshtiri. 

mshokishoki (mi-) mshokishoki (kind of tree 
bearing edible fruit, Nephelium lappaceum). 
Cf. shokishoki. 

mshona (wa-) (always w. foil, obj.) one who 
sews. - nguo. tailor, dressmaker. - viatu. 
shoemaker. Cf. shona. 

mshonaji (wa-) see mshoni. 

mshongo (wa-) passionate person (usually in 
a sexual sense). Cf. shonga. 

mshoni, mshonaji (wa-) one who sews. - wa 
nguo. tailor. - wa viatu. shoemaker. 
Cf. shona. 

mshono (mi-) 1. sewing. 2. seam, suture. 
3. ready-made clothing. Cf. shona, ma- 

mshtaka* (mi-) complaint, accusation, charge, 
Cf. shtaki. 

mshtaki*, mstaki, mshitaki (wa-) 1. tale- 
bearer, informer. 2. jur. plaintiff. 
Cf. shtaki. 

mshtakiwa*, mshitakiwa (wa-) jur. accused, 
defendant. Cf. shtaki. 

Mshtarii* (_) astr. Jupiter. 

mshtiri*, mshitiri, mstiri (wa-) 1. buyer 
(usually at auction). 2. jur. client. 

mshtuko, mstuko (mi-) 1. sudden fright, con- 
vulsion, wincing, flinching. 2. shock, 
stroke. 3. sprain. 4. fig., elec. (elec- 
trical) shock, Cf. shtua. 

mshtuo, mstuo (mi-) cause of fright/shock. 
Cf. shtua. 

mshubiri (mi-) see msubili. 

mshuko (mi-) 1. descent, lowering, decline. 
2. sinking. - wa jua. sunset. 3. fig., 
rare end, conclusion. Cf. shua. 

mshuku* (mi-) chewing tobacco. 

mshulu* (mi-) see shuru. 

mshumaa* (mi-) candle, washa (zima) -. 
light (extinguish) a candle, kinara cha -. 

mshupavu (wa-) 1. tough/hardy/courageous 
person. 2. energetic/resolute person. 
3. obstinate/persevering person. Cf. shu- 
paa, shupavu. 



mshuru* (mi-) see shuru. 

mshurutisho* (mi-) pressure, force, compul- 
sion. Cf. shuruti. 

mshushio (mi-) see mshusho. 

mshusho, mshushio (mi-) 1. (act of) lowering, 
discharging. 2. phy. ejaculation, orgasm. 
Cf. shua. 

msia, mzia (mi-) msia (kind of fish similar to 
an eel), 

msiba* (mi-) 1. misfortune, affliction, dis- 
tress; accident, disaster, calamity, prov. 
hakuna — usio mwenziwe. A misfortune sel- 
dom comes alone. 2. poverty. 3. sadness, 
grief; mourning, shikwa (patwa) na — mkuu 
(mkubvva). be overcome by great sorrow, 
pa mkono wa— . condole with someone, ex- 
press sympathy, nguo za — . mourning dress. 
Cf. 2 sibu. 

Imsibu* (wa-) one who causes sorrow/mis- 
fortune. Cf. ^ibu. 

^msibu* (wa-) one who foretells, prophet. 
Cf. 4 sibu. 

msichana (wa-) young girl (who has reached 
puberty). Cf. kisichana. 

msifu* (wa-) flatterer, eulogist. — mno. 
toady, sycophant, lickspittle. Cf. ^sifa, 

msiga (mi-) msiga (kind of tree, Dobera loran- 
thifolia; twigs from this tree are used for 
cleansing the teeth). 

msikiaji (wa-) listener, auditor. Cf. sikia. 

msikilivu, msikivu (wa-) tractable/docile/ 
obedient person. Cf. sikia, sikilivu. 

msikilizaji, msikizi (wa-) 1. listener, auditor. 
'I. attentive person. Cf. sikia. 

msikilizano (mi-) 1. audibility. 2. fig. 
(mutual) understanding. Cf. sikia. 

msikiti*, meskiti (mi-) Isl. mosque. 

msikivu (wa-) see msikilivu. 

msikizi (wa-) see msikilizaji. 

msikundazi (mi-) msikundazi (kind of tree; 
the wood is used for building boats). 

msikwao (wa-) ( < si + ^kwao) 1. homeless 
person, wanderer, vagrant. 2. fig., pol. 

msilimu* (wa-) see mwislamu. 

msimacho (wa-) (<si + macho) obtuse 
person, wilfully blind person. 

msimamizi (wa-) 1. overseer. 2. superin- 
tendent, manager, administrator. 3. ad- 
vocate, defender; attorney. 4. rare pro- 
tector. Cf. simama. 




msimbo (wa-), kisimbo (vi-) 1. bad reputa- 
tion/character, 2. assumed name, pseud- 
onym (to disguise a name of bad repute). 

msimiko (mi-) phy. erection. Cf. simama. 

msimu*, musimu (mi-) 1. northeast monsoon. 
2. msimu (season of the northeast mon- 
soon). 3. (in gen.) period, season (esp. 
w. re f. to agriculture), sasa ni - wa embe. 
Now is the mango-harvesting season. 
4. rec. semester. 

msimulizi* (wa-) 1. narrator, storyteller. 
2. rec. reporter, correspondent. Cf. l s i- 
mulia, simulizi. 

msindi (mi-) see msinzi. 

msindikizo (mi-) (act of) accompanying/ 
speeding a departing guest. Cf. Jshinda, 
shindikizo 3. 

msindusi (mi-) msindusi (kind of tree). 

msinga (mi-) msinga (kind of hardwood tree). 

msingefuri (mi-) see mzingefuri. 

msingi, mzingi, msinji (mi-) 1. ditch, trench, 
pit, drain. 2. foundation, jenga -. lay 
the cornerstone /foundation. 3. fig. basis, 
essence, substance (of a thing). 4. mus. 
key, clef. 

msinji (mi-) see msingi. 

msinzi, msindi, msizi (mi-) msinzi (species 
of mangrove, Rhizophora mucronata; a red 
dye is prepared from the bark, and the trunk 
is used for boat-building). 

msio (mi-) msio (soft coral stone, used for 
massaging the skin). 

msiri* (wa-) 1. confidant, intimate friend. 
2. secret agent, accomplice. Cf. 1 s iri. 

msirisha (mi-) msirisha (a plant from which 
a black dye is made, Euclea multiflora). 
(- mdaa.) 

msisimko (mi-) gooseflesh, tingling (from 
fright or excitement). (= kimbimbi.) 
Cf. simua. 

msitamu*, mstamu (mi-) naut. keelson. 

msitiri* (wa-) see Imstiri. 

msitu (mi-) land covered with low, shrubby 
vegetation, bush. red. misitumisitu. 
brushwood, undergrowth, thicket. Cf. mwitu. 

msiwana (wa-) ( < si + wana) childless 
person. Cf. mwana. 

msizi (mi-) see msinzi. 

msoa (mi-) large gathering/company 
(of people). 

msokoto (mi-) 1. (act of) twisting, twining 
(thread, etc.). 2. something twisted: curl, 
braid. 3. fig.: - wa tumbo. stomachache, 
colic. Cf. sokota. 




msolo (mi-) msolo (kind of thorny bush, 
Caesalpinia cristata). Cf. solo. 

^msoma (wa-) {always w. foil, obj.) one who 
reads. — gazeti. reader (of a newspaper). 
Cf. soma. 

2msoma (mi-) msoraa (kind of dance). 

lecturer. Cf. soma. 

msomeshaji, msomeshi (wa-) 1. rare - mso- 
maji. 2. teacher, tutor. Cf. soma. 

msomeshi (wa-) see msomeshaji. 

msomi (wa-) see msomaji. 

msomo (mi-) 1. (act of) reading. 2. reading 
matter. 3. studying. 4. subject (of study). 
5. rare class, lesson ( = masomo). Cf. 

msonde (rare msondo) (mi-) msonde (large 
drum). Cf. msondo. 

msondo (mi-) 1. rare - msonde* 2. msondo 
(a dance performed at the initiation rites 
for girls). 3. msondo (a kind of tall fez, 
formerly worn by police). 4. loud, booming 
noise (of a drum, cannon). 

msonga, msongi (mi-) (always w. foil, obj.) 
one who pushes/urges. — mbele. one who 
presses forward. Cf. songa. 

msongano, msonge (mi-) 1. (act of) pushing/ 
shoving/crowding. 2. crowd, mass (of 
people or things). Cf. songa. 

msonge (mi-) see msongano. 

msongi (mi-) see msonga. 

msongo (mi-) 1. (act of) twisting/squeezing/ 
compressing. 2. crowd, throng, mass. 
3. fig. confusion, disorder. Cf. songa. 

msongora (wa-) coll. policeman. 

msono, msonyo (mi-) msono (a whistling in- 
take of breath, indicating contempt or de- 
rision). Cf. fyonya. 

msonobari* (mi-) see msunobari. 

msonyo (mi-) see msono. 

Mspain* tEngl. J (Wa-) Spaniard. 

mstaarabu* (wa-) 1. civilized/cultivated 
person. 2. pi. intelligentsia. Cf. staa- 

mstadi* (wa-) skilled craftsman; specialist, 
expert. Cf. stadi. 

mstafeli* Llnd. J (mi-) mstafeli (soursop 
tree, Annona muricata). 2. = mtopetope. 

mstahifu* (wa-) see mstahivu. 

mstahivu*, mstahifu (wa-) 1. a person who 
respects/esteems others. 2. a person who 
is respected/esteemed. Cf. stahi, stahivu. 




mstaki* (wa-) see mshtaki. 

mstamu* (wa-) see msitamu. 

mstarehe* (— ) see mustarehe. 

mstari* (mi-) 1. line, row. - wa kitako. 

base line, karatasi ya mistari. lined/ruled 
paper, piga -. draw a line. _a -. lined/ 

™1.J O ...1... rr I . . . 

mstatili* (mi-) oblong, rectangle. 

mstiri*, msitiri, mseliri (wa-) one who hides/ 
conceals/makes a secret of something. 
Cf. sliri. 

^mstiri* (wa-) see mshtiri. 

mstuko* (mi-) see mshtuko. 

mstuo (mi-) see mshtuo. 

Msuaheli* (Wa-) see Mswahili. 

msuaki*, mswaki (mi-) 1. a twig or stick 
used to clean the teeth. 2. rec. tooth- 

msuani (mi-) msuani (shroud for women). 

msubili*, mshubiri (mi-) aloe plant. Cf. su- 

msubukuo (mi-) (act of) poking (with the finger, 
as a sign of contempt), piga — . poke, 
nudge, Cf. subukua. 

msul'i* (mi-) kapok tree (Bombax rhodogna- 
phalon). Cf. sufi, usufi. 

msuka (wa-) (always w. foil, obj.) one who 
plaits/braids. — miketa. mat-weaver. 
— nywele. hair-braider. Cf, -^suka, 

-msuka (mi-) 1. the part of a tool which fits 
into rhe handlp r 9 : ^ e spike of a (native) 

msukani* (wa-) 1. naut. helmsman. 
2. driver (of a vehicle). Cf. usukani. 

^msukano (mi-) quarrel, disagreement, dis- 
sension. Cf. 2 su ka. 

Ansukano (mi-) see msukwano. 
msuki (wa-) see msusi. 

1 msuko, msukosuko (mi-) 1. (act of) braid- 
ing, plaiting, twisting. 2. braid, pigtail; 
plaited work. 3. fig. unrest, movement; 
disorder, fracas, riot. 4. fig. % naut. roll- 
ing, tossing (of a ship). Cf. Isuka, 2 su | <a . 

"msuko (mi-) msuko (kind of tree; the leaves 
are used to prepare a medicine). 

msukosuko (mi-) see msuko. 

msukumano (mi-) pushing, shoving; crowd, 
throng. Cf. sukuma, 2 su ka. 

msukumizi (wa-) 1. one who incites/causes 
trouble. 2. unfair/impetuous person. 
Cf. sukuma, suka. 



msukwano*, msukano (mi-) 1. shaft of a drill. 
2. pouch in which a drill is kept. 

msuli* (wa-) hist. Arab trader from the Per- 
sian Gulf (who arrives in his dhow with the 
Northeast Moonsoon and returns with the 
Southwest Moonsoon). 

msuluhifu* (wa-) see msuluhivu. 

msuluhisha* (wa-) see msuluhivu. 

msuluhishi* (wa-) see msuluhivu. 

msuluhivu*, msuluhifu, msuluhisha, msuluhishi 

(wa-) conciliator, arbitrator, mediator, 
peacemaker. — wa vita, negotiator at a 
peace conference. Cf. suluhu. 

msumari*, msomari (mi-) 1. sting(er) (of an 
insect). 2. nail, peg, pin. pigilia (ng'oa) 
— . drive (pull out) a nail. 3.: — wa para- 
fujo. rare screw. 4. spur (of a boot). 

Msumbiji* Mozambique. 

msumbufu (wa-) 1. annoying/importunate per- 
son, one who causes exasperation in others. 
2. one who is exasperated/angry. Cf. su» 
mbufu, sumbua. 

msumeno (mi-) saw. piga (kata kwa) — . to 
saw. — wa kitanda. bow-saw, frame-saw. 
unga wa — . sawdust. Cf. kisu, jino. 

msungo (wa-) boy or girl who has not been 
through the initiation rites, a person inex- 
perienced in matters of sex. Cf. *mrongo, 

msungululu (mi-) msungululu (poisonous 
plant used for medicinal purposes, Stro- 
phantus eminii). 

*msunguti (mi-) msunguti (kind of tree, 
A cokanthera longiflora). 

•'msunguti, mchunguti (mi-) something 
strong/highly flavored (tobacco, coffee, 
etc.). C]. "-chungu ('?). 

msunobari*, msonobari (mi-) 1. (imported) 
pine, fir (timber). 2. rare kind of tree 
(flamboyant, ironwood). 

msnraki, msuruaki (mi-) wooden peg on a 
clog or sandal (passing between the toes 
and holding the clog on the foot). 

msuruaki (mi-) see msuraki. 

msusi, msuka, msuki (wa-) one who braids/ 
twists, msuka mikcka. mat-weaver, 
msusj wa nywele. (women's) hairdresser. 
Cf. *suka. 

*msusu (mi-) tail feathers (of a bird). 

'msusn (mi-) msusu (kind of tree; the roots 
are used to prepare a medicine), 

^msuto (mi-) charge, accusation. Cf. ^suta. 

^msuto* (mi-) see kisutu. 

msuzo (mi-) wooden handle (by which the 
upper stone of a hand-mill is turned). 




Mswahili*, Msuaheli (wa-) a speaker of Swa- 
hili. Cf. Swahili, Kiswahili, Uswahili. 

mswaki* (mi-) see msuaki. 

mtaa* (mi-) 1. district, quarter (of a city). 
kaa — mmoja. live in the same part of 
town, be neighbors. 2. rare state (as an 
administrative or territorial unit). 

mtaala* (mi-) learning, study. Cf. taali. 

mtaalamu* (wa-) 1. educated person, scholar, 
scientist. 2. rec. intellectual, mwandishi 
-. special correspondent. Cf. taalamu, 

mtaawa* (wa-) see mtawa. 

mtabibu* (wa-) see tabibu. 

mtabiri* (wa-) 1. one who reports (news, 
events). 2. commentator. 3. prophet, 
soothsayer. 4. forecaster. — wa hewa. 
weather forecaster, meteorologist. Cf. ta- 

mtafara* (mi-) see mtafura. 

mtafaruku* (mi-) rare disagreement, differ- 
ence of opinion, quarrel, dispute. 

mtafitafi* (wa-) gossip, talebearer. Cf. ta- 

mtafiti* (wa-) inquisitive/impertinent person. 
Cf. tafiti. 

mtafuni (wa-) one who chews. Cf. tafuna. 
mtafuno (mi-) (act of) chewing. Cf. tafuna. 

mtafura*, mtafara (mi-) crupper (leather loop 
passing under the horse's tail and buckled 
to the saddle). 

mtafutaji* (wa-) one who searches. Cf. tafuta. 

mtago (mi-) (act of) laying (eggs). Cf. ^taga. 

mtaguso (mi-) dial, council, assembly, debate. 
— mkuu. rel. ecumenical council. 

mtahamari* (wa-) rare drunkard. (= mlevi.) 

mtahini* (wa-) one who tests, examiner. 
Cf. mlihani. 

mtai (mi-) 1. scratch, abrasion, (superficial) 
wound. 2. (small) incision, piga — . to 

mtaimbo, mtalimbo (mi-) iron bar, crowbar, 
lever, handspike. 

mtajaji (wa-) pol. candidate (for election to 
public office). Cf. taja. 

mtajiri* (wa-) see tajiri. 

mtaka, mtakaji (wa-) one who asks for some- 
thing: applicant, petitioner, prov.: — yote 
hukosa yote. He who asks for everything 
receives nothing. Cf. ^taka. 

mtakadamu* (wa-) see kadamu. 





mtakaji (wa-) see mtaka. 

mtakalamu* (wa-) see mutakalamu. 

mtakaso (mi-) 1. cleansing, purification. 
2. fig. menstruation. Cf. takata. 

mtakatifu (wa-) 1. a pure/clean person. 
2. rel. saint, Cf. takata, takatifu. 

mtakawa (mi-) mtakawa (kind of tulip tree, 
Thespesia populned). 

mtalaleshi* (wa-), talaleshi (ma-) 1. prosti- 
tute. 2. procurer, procuress. 3. slander- 
er, talebearer. Cf. utalaleshi. 

mtalawanda (mi-) 1. species of tree. 
2. (wooden) clog. 

mtali (mi-) (silver) anklet. 

mtalimbo (mi-) see mtaimbo. 

Imtama (mi-) mtama (kind of millet, kafir 
corn, sorghum). — mtindi. half-grown sor- 
ghum. — mtete. sorghum which has not 
quite ripened, prov. penye kuku wengi 
usimwage — . Where there are many 
chickens one should not spill millet. 

^rntama (mi-) see 5 tama. 

mtamani* (wa-) 1. ambitious/pushy person. 
2. greedy /lustful person. Cf. tamani. 

mtamba (mi-) female animal which has not 
yet produced young. — wa ng'ombe. heifer. 

Imtambaa (wa-) (usually w. foil, adjunct) 
creeper, crawler. — chini. coll. snake. 
— jongoo, kind of tree (the wood is used 
to make hoe handles). — miti. a climbing 
plant. Cf. nambaa. 

^mtambaa (mi-) see kitambaa. 

mtambaazi (— ) see mtambazi. 

mtambatamba (wa-) braggart, show-off. 
Cf. tamba. 

mtambazi, mtambaazi (— ) 1. insect. 
( = mdudu). 2, (mnyama — ) reptile. 
Cf. Mambaa, tambazi. 

mtambika (wa-) see mtambikaji. 

mtambikaji, mtambika (wa-) one who makes 
offerings/performs sacrifices. Cf. tambika. 

mtambiko (mi-) act of making an offering to 
propitiate the spirits of the dead. Cf. ta- 

mtambo (mi-) 1. arch, (spring) trap. 
2. spring, compression spring. — wa 
bunduki. lock/action of a gun. 3. mecha- 
nism, drive. — wa saa. works of a watch/ 
clock. — wa stimu. elec. switch, commu- 
tator, 4. machine, motor, engine, (in gen.). 
— wa kupiga chapa. (printing-)press. — wa 
reli. railw. switch, points. — wa kurushia 
maneno. radio transmitter. 5. factory, 

mtambua (wa-) see mtambuzi. 




mtambuu* [ind., Pers.l (mi-) betel plant 
(Piper betel). Cf. tambuu. 

mtambuzi, mtambua (wa-) 1. knowledgeable/ 
well-informed person. 2. interpreter, com- 
mentator. Cf. tambua, tambuzi. 

mtanashati* (wa-) well-dressed person, one 
with good taste in clothing. Cf. tanashati. 

mtanda, mtandi (wa-) (always w. foil, obj.) 
one who spreads. — miongo. spreader of 
lies, gossip, talebearer. Cf. tanda. 

mtande (mi-) 1. something spread out. 

2. a strip of meat or fish laid out to dry. 

3. (weaver's) loom (= kitanda cha mfumi). 
Cf. tanda. 

mtandi (wa-) see mtanda. 

mtandio (mi-) mtandio (kind of shawl worn 
by women). Cf. tanda. 

mtando (mi-) 1. (act of) spreading. 2. ex-, 
pansion, extension. Cf. tanda. 

mtangazi, mtangazaji (wa-) 1. one who pub- 
licly announces or proclaims something. 
2. commentator, announcer (radio). 
Cf. tangaa. 

mtange (mi-) beam (of scales, balance). 

1 mtango (mi-) cucumber plant. Cf. ^tango. 

^mtango (mi-) wandering, idling, loitering, 
vagrancy. Cf. nanga. 

mtangulizi (wa-) one who precedes/leads the 
way: leader; herald, harbinger; forerunner, 
precursor, predecessor; (rel.) John the Bap- 
tist. Cf, tangulia. 

mtanguo (mi-) see kitanguo. 

mtani* (wa-) 1. member of a family/clan/ 
tribe. 2. relative. 3. fellow countryman, 
compatriot, conational. 4. close friend 
(of one's own age-group), hawezi kukasi- 
rika, kwa sababu ni — wangu. He can't be 
angry; he is my mtani. Cf. tania, utani, 

Mtanganyika (wa-) inhabitant of Tanganyika. mtapishi (mi-) med. emetic. Cf. tapika. 

ntangatanga, mtanga (wa-) 1. wanderer, 
tourist. 2. vagabond. Cf. nanga. 

ntangawizi (mi-) ginger plant (Zingiber offi- 
cinale). Cf. tangawizi. 

mtapisho (mi-) mtapisho (a kind of shrub 
used in preparing an emetic). Cf. tapika. 

^mtapo (mi-) mtapo (kind of palm, Cycas 

ntangazaji (wa-) see mtangazi. 

■'mtapo (mi-) ore (iron, gold, silver). 




^mtapo (mi-) shivering, trembling (- kitapo). 
Cf. Itapa. 

mtapta* tEngl. j (wa-) coll. interpreter, 
translator. ( = mfasiri.) 

mtaro (mi-) 1. agr. terrace, terracing. 
2. ditch. 

mtasbihi* (mi-) mtasbih; (kind of plant, Csr.r.c 
indica; the seeds are used for Moslem rosa- 
ries). Cf. tasbihi. 

mtashi (wa-) one who asks/begs/pleads 
earnestly /importunately. Cf. ^taka. 

mtata (mi-) 1. mtata (an ornamental plant, 
also used to make torches). 2. a torch 
(made from this plant). 

mtatago (mi-) 1. small bridge (usually con- 
sisting of a tree trunk). 2. (act of) cross- 
ing; walking with long strides. Cf. tataga. 

mtatio (mi-) L coiling, winding (cord, 

thread). 2. fig. confusion, complication, 
obscurity. 3. fig. something confusing/ 
puzzling/intriguing. Cf. tata. 

mtatizo (mi-) see tatanisho. 

mtawa*, mtaawa (wa-) 1. religious/pious 
person. 2. a person living in seclusion, 
recluse, hermit. 3. girl who enters a con- 
vent. 4. fig. stay-at-home. 5. rare 
priest, missionary. Cf. tawa. 

mtawala*, mtawalaji, mtawali (wa-) ruler, 
governor. — mmoja, autocrat, absolute 
monarch. Cf. tawala. 

mtawalaji* (wa-) see mtawala. 

mtawali* (wa-) see mtawala. 

mtawalia*, mtawalio adv. continuously, per- 
sistently; consecutively, in succession. 

mtawanya (wa-) one who spends lavishly, 
generous person. Cf. tawanya. 

mtawanyo (mi-) 1. (act of) scattering, strew- 
ing. 2. sowing. Cf. tawanya. 

mtazamaji (wa-) spectator, observer. 
Cf. tazama. 

mtazamo (mi-) observation, inspection. 
Cf. tazama. 

mteba (mi-) mteba (a climbing plant, Flagel- 
laria guineensis). 

mtega (wa-) see mtegaji. 

mtegaji, mtega (wa-) one who sets traps/ 
(fig.) ensnares/deceives. Cf. tega. 

mtego (mi-) 1. trap, snare. 2. fig., mil. 
mine, fichia — . lay mines. Cf. tega. 

mteja, mteji (wa-) 1. one who is exorcised 
(by a mganga). 2. assistant of the mganga 
(in exorcising spirits). 




mteka (rare mtekaji) (wa-) (always w. foil, 
obj.) one who takes away. — maji. water- 
carrier, one who draws water. — mateka. 
marauder, plunderer. Cf. teka. 

mtekaji (wa-) rare see mteka. 

mteketeo, mteketezo (mi-) 1. great fire, 
holocaust. 2. fig. destruction, devasta- 
tion. Cf. fpkptpj., 

mteketezo (mi-) see mteketeo. 

mtelemko, mteremko (mi-) 1. (act of) going 
down, descending. 2. declivity, slope, 
Cf. telemua. 

^interna (wa-) see Wemi. 

^interna (wa-) see 2 m temi. 

mtemba (mi-) tobacco pipe. 

mtembezaji (wa-) see mtembezi. 

mtembezi, mtembezaji (wa-) 1. walker, 

stroller, mwanamke — . coll. girl of easy 
morals, prostitute. 2. tourist. — sana. 
He travels a great deal. 3. fig. idler, 
vagrant. Cf. tembea. 

mtembo (mi-) 1. bud, shoot (for planting). 

2. med. fistula (usually a crack in the 
sole of the foot caused by yaws). 

3. (rare) scar. 

^mteini, mtema (wa-) one who cuts, wood- 
cutter, carver. Cf. *• tema. 

^mtemi, mtema (wa-) one who spits out/ex- 
pectorates/coughs up blood. Cf. ' tema. 

'^rnterni (wa-) arch, mtemi (title of a chief in 

mtemo (mi-) (act of) cutting (up, off), carving; 
slash. Cf. 2 t ema. 

^mtemo (mi-) 1. (act of) spitting out/expec- 
torating/coughing up, 2. rare matter spit 
out/coughed up, phlegm, etc. Cf. Mema. 

mtenda (wa-) (always w. foil, obj.) one who 
does something. — kazi. rare worker. 
— dhambi. rel. sinner. Cf. tenda. 

mtendaji (wa-) 1. energetic/enterprising per- 
son. — kazi. working man, workman. 
2. comm. activist. Cf. tenda. 

mtende (mi-) date palm. Cf. 2t ent J e- 

mtendo (mi-) doing, acting, performing; ac- 
complishing. Cf. tenda. 

J mtenga (wa-) 1. one who separates (himself 
from the community), solitary person, re- 
cluse. 2. pol. separatist. Cf. tenga. 

mtenga (mi-) mtenga (carrying-pole, carried 
on the shoulders of two men with the load 
hung in the middle). 

mtengauo (mi-) pol. split, faction, separatism. 
Cf. *tenga. • 

mtenge (mi-) naut. outrigger. 



mtengenezaji, mtengezaji (wa-) 1. arranger, 
organizer, producer. 2. editor. 3. com- 
piler. Cf. tengenea. 

mtengezaji (wa-) see mtengenezaji. 

mtengo (mi-) (act of) separating, dividing off; 
withdrawing, removing. — katika kazi. dis- 
missal, discharge (from a position/ job). 
Cf. Itenga, kitengo. 

mtengwa (wa-) 1. one who is separated/set 
apart. 2. one who is removed/dismissed. 
3. one who is devoted to something (his 
work, a cause). Cf. Menga. 

mtenzi (wa-) rare: ( — wa kazi) worker, 
workman, tradesman. Cf. tenda. 

mteo adv. by boiling, pika — . bring to a 
boil, parboil. 

mtepe (mi-) mtepe (native sailing vessel). 

mtepetevu (wa-) lazy person, idler. Cf. te- 

mteremeshi, mteremezi (wa-) friendly /cheer- 
ful/good-natured person. Cf. terema. 

mteremezi (wa-) see mteremeshi. 

mteremko (mi-) see mtelemko. 

mteremo (mi-), nderemo (— ) joy, happiness; 
cheerfulness, contentment, comfort; light- 
heartedness, freedom from care; amusement. 
Cf. terema. 

mteremuko (mi-) see mtelemko. 

mtesa (wa-) see mtesi. 

mtesaji (wa-) see mtesi. 

mtesi, mtesa, mtesaji (wa-) 1. one who 
causes trouble, quarrelsome/contentious 
person. 2. persecutor, oppressor. 
Cf. tesa. 

mteta (wa-) see mtetaji. 

mtetaji, mteta, mtetea, mtetezi (wa-) trouble- 
maker, intriguer, schemer. Cf. teta. 

mtete (mi-) mtete (kind of reed, Phragmites 
communis). ( = utete.) 

mtetea, mteteaji, mtetezi (wa-) 1. = mtetaji. 
2. defender. 3. opponent, adversary. 
4. quarrelsome/argumentative person; poli- 
tician. Cf. teta. 

mtetemeko (mi-) see mtetemko. 

mtetemko, mtetemeko, mtetemo (mi-) trembling, 
quivering; vibration. — wa nchi. earth- 
quake. — wa meno. chattering of the teeth. 
Cf. tetema. 

mtetemo (mi-) see mtetemko. 

mtetezi (wa-) see mtetea, mtetaji. 

mteua, mteuzi (wa-) 1. one who chooses/se- 
lects. 2. fastidious/fussy person, fault- 
finder. Cf. teua, teuzi. 



mteule (wa-) one who is chosen/picked out 
(for some quality or skill), excellent/out- 
standing person. Cf. teue, leule. 

mteuo (mi-) choice, selection. Cf. teua. 

mteuzi (wa-) see mteua. 

mtezaji, mtezi (wa-) see mtesi. 

mti (mi-) 1. tree, miti ya matunda. fruit- 
trees. 2. wood. 3. (cricket) stump. 
merikebu ya -. wooden boat. - mkavu. 
dry wood, kaa la -. charcoal. 4. post, 
pole, shaft, bar. - wa simu. telegraph 
pole. Cf. jiti, kijiti, ujili, uti. 


-mti sing. (us. maradlii/uele yaAva -) 

(scrofulous/gangrenous) sore, 

mtia, mtiaji (wa-) (always w. foil, obj.) one 
who applies/employs something. - rangi. 
painter. — dawa. one who prescribes 
medicines. - jalada. bookbinder. Cf. tia. 

mtiaji (wa-i 1. "- mtia. 2.: - moto. incen- 
diary, arsonist. Cf. tia. 

mtihani* (mi-) 1. test, examination. - wa 

udaktari. doctoral examination. I'anya 

take an examination, pita (shindwa na) -. 
pass (fail) an examination. 2. fig. trial, 
ordeal, difficult situation, kutana na -. 
get into a difficult situation. Cf. mtahini. 

mtii (wa-) see mtiifu. 

mtiifu*, mtiivu, mtii (wa-) obedient/tractable/ 
obsequious person. Cf. tii. 

mtiivu (wa-) see mtiifu. 

mtikiso (mi-) (act of) shaking; concussion, 
shock, stroke. Cf. tikisa. 

mtikiti (mi-) watermelon vine. Cf. Itikiti. 

mtima (mi-) rare, liter. (= moyo) 1. heart. 
2. feeling, emotion. 3. rel. soul. 

mtimbi (wa-) see chimvi. 

mtimvi (wa-) see mchimbi. 

mtinda (wa-) see kitinda. 

mtindi (mi-), tindi ( ma -) 1. {usually - wa 
maziwa or maziwa ya -) buttermilk. 2. in- 
toxicating (alcoholic) beverage (in gen.). 

mtindo (mi-) 1. form, pattern, model. 
2. kind, sort. 3. quality, nguo hizi ni — 
wa zile. These clothes are of the same 
kind as those. 

"mtindo (mi-) rare end, conclusion. 
Cf. tindika. 

mtini* (mi-) fig tree (Ficus carica). 
Cf. tini. 

mtipitipi, mturituri (mi-) mtipitipi (climbing 
plant, Abrus precatorius), 

mtiriri (wa-) 1. sensuous/lascivious person 
(male or female). 2. restless/lively/irre- 
sponsible child. 3. a person in whom one 
can have no confidence. 




mtiririko (mi-) 1. flowing, trickling, seeping 
(of water). 2. gliding (of snakes, etc .). 

3. mark, track (left by a snake, etc.) 

4. traces left by flowing or trickling 
water: channel, rill. Cf. tiririka. 

mtishaji (wa-) one who frightens/intimidates 
others. Cf. tisha. 

mtiti (mi-) ornith. mtiti (species of owl). 

mtitio (mi-) (act of) sinking, tottering, shak- 
ing, rocking, collapsing. Cf. tita. 

Imto (mi-) river, stream, bonde la — . river 
bed. mkono wa — . branch, tributary (of a 
river). — wa mkono. delta. — wa bahari. 
inlet, bay. — wa barafu. glacier, fuata 
— . go downstream, kata — . go upstream. 
Cf. jito, kijito. 

■^mto (mi-) pillow, cushion. 

mtoa (wa-) (always w. foil, obj.) one who 
issues/dispenses, — dawa. pharmacist, 
druggist. — gazeti. editor/publisher of 
a newspaper. Cf. noa. 

mtoaji (wa-) editor. — wa gazeti. editor of 
a newspaper. Cf. Moa. 

mtobwe (mi-) mtobwe (kind of shrub, Stro- 
phantus courmonti). 

mtofaa*, mtofaha (mi-) rose apple/Malay 
apple tree (Eugenia jambosa/malaccen- 
sis). Cf. tofaa. 

mtofaha* (mi-) see mtofaa. 

mtohara* (wa-) 1. Isl. circumcised person. 
2. Isl. ritually clean person. 3. fig. 
clean/neat/well-dressed person. Cf. to- 

mtoki (mi-) {also matoki pi.) med. 

1. swollen lymph gland. 2. inflamed 

„ . i 
sore, tumor. C/. ' toa. 

mtokoso (mi-) 1. boiling, cooking (by boil- 
ing). 2. frying (in fat/butter). Cf. tokota. 

mtokwe (mi-) mtokwe (kind of tree, Annona 

mtolilio (mi-) sweet-potato leaf (used as a 

mtombo, mtomboro (mi-) ornith. cuckoo. 

mtomo (mi-) 1. (act, method of) reinforcing 
plaster with stone work. 2. paving (a 
road/street) with stone. Cf. tomea. 

mtomoko (mi-) see mtopetope. 

mtomondo (mi-) mtomondo (Malay apple tree, 
Eugenia malaccensis). {- mtofaa.) 
Cf. Momondo. 

mtondo (mi-) the day following the day after 
tomorrow, the third day from today, ku- 
shinda — or — goo. the fourth day from 

mtondoo (mi-) mtondoo (kind of tree, Calo- 
phyllum inophyllum). Cf. tondoo. 




2 mtondoo (mi-), tondoo (ma-) thimble. 
(- kastabini.) 

mtongotongo (mi-) bot. mtongotongo (euphor- 
bia, spurge, Euphorbia abyssinica). 

mtongoza (wa-) see mtongozi. 

mtongozaji (wa-) see mtongozi. 

mtongozi, mtongoza, mtongozaji (wa-) se- 
ducer. Cf. tongoza. 

mtopetope, mtomoko (mi-) mtopetope (cus- 
tard-apple tree, Annona squamosa). 

mtoria (mi-) mtoria (species of rubber liana, 
Landolphia petersiana). Cf. kitoria. 

mtoro (wa-) 1. deserter, truant, runaway; 
refugee. 2. pr. n., masc. Cf. toroka, 

mtoto (wa-) 1. offspring, descendant, child. 

- mwanamume (mwanamke). boy (girl). 

- mchanga. infant, baby. - wa ng'ombe. 
(small) calf, -wakuku. chick. - wa 
mgomba. banana shoot/sprout. 2. de- 
pendent/subordinate person (irrespective 
°f a ge). 3. subordinate/less important/ 
smaller part or adjunct of a thing. - wa 
meza. drawer. - wa mto. rare branch, 
tributary. Cf. toto, kitoto, utoto. 

mtovu (wa-) person who lacks something or 
falls short in some respect, huyu ni - wa 
heshima. This is a person who shows too 
little respect (where it is due). Cf. 2 toa, 

mtoza (wa-) (always w. foil, obj.) one who 
gathers/collects. - kodi (ushuru). tax- 
collector. Cf. Ifoa. 

mtozaji, mtozi (wa-) collector (of taxes). 
Cf. ltoa. 

mtu (watu) 1. human being, person, individ- 
ual, _ mume (mke). man (woman). 
- mzima. grown person, adult, mimi 
mtumtu tu. I am only a simple/ordinary 
person, mapato kwa mtu. per capita in- 
come. 2. someone, somebody, hakuna -. 
No one is there. 3.: pi. watu. people, 
population. - wa nchi hii. the population 
of this country, -a watu. adj. popular, 
people's... (chiefly comm.). jamhuri ya 
watu. People's Republic. Cf. jitu, kijitu, 

mtua, mtula, mtunguja (mi-) bot. wild egg- 
plant (Solanum bojeri), nightshade. 

mtubwi (mi-) yam. 

mtuchi (mi-) med. mtuchi (a disease of the 

mtukufu (wa-) a dignified/respected/impor- 
tant person, notable, dignitary, rel. 
Mungu -. the Most High. Cf. tukuka, tu- 

mtukutu (wa-) 1. active/mischievous child, 
2. restless/nervous/troublesome person. 
Cf. tukuta, tukuta. 

mtula (mi-) see mtua. 




mtule* (wa-) poor/destitute/miserable per- 
son. Cf. tule. 

mtulinga (mi-) anat. clavicle, collarbone, 

mtulivu (wa-) quiet/reserved person. 
Cf. Mua, tulivu. 

mtumainifu* (wa-) one who inspires confi- 
dence, dependable/reliable person. Cf. 
tumaini, tumainifu. 

mtumishi, mtumi, (rare) mtumiki (wa-) 

1. paid domestic servant. Cf. mtumwa. 

2. (in gen.) one who serves/is employed, 
employee. — wa moto. fireman (on a loco- 
motive). 3.: — wa serikali. civil servant. 
Cf. tuma. 

mtumo (mi-) use, employment, utilization, 
application. Cf, tuma. 

mtumwa (wa-) 1. slave. — mwanamke. fe- 
male slave. 2. pr. n. masc. Cf. tuma. 

mtumba (mi-) 1. bale, bundle, bolt (of cloth). 
2. burden, load (for one man). — nguo. a 
load of cloth. Cf. Itumba. 

mtumwaji (wa-) 1. rare messenger, envoy. 
2. someone in another person's employ, 
agent. Cf. tuma. 

mtumbako* tlnd.j (mi-) tobacco plant. 
Cf. tumbaku. 

mtumbuizi (wa-) one who sings/hums under 
his breath (to calm his nerves or to soothe 
a child). Cf. tumbuika. 

mtundu* LPers.J (wa-) 1. sly/crafty person. 
2. spoiled/pampered/precocious child. 
Cf. 2 tundu. 

mtunduizi (wa-) secret agent; spy; (mil.) 
scout. Cf. tunduia, tunduizi. 

mtumbuu (mi-) mtumbuu (kind of small sea 
fish, sprat). 

mtumbwi (mi-) log canoe (dugout, without 
outriggers). Cf. tumbua. 

mtume (mi-) 1. messenger, envoy. 2. cou- 
rier. — wa kidiplomasi. diplomatic cou- 
rier. 3. rel. apostle (Christ.), prophet 
(Isl.). Cf. tuma. 

mtumi (wa-) see mtumishi. 

mtumiki (wa-) see mtumishi. 

mtunga, mtungaji (wa-) 1. one who arranges/ 
constructs/compiles/designs. — mashairi. 
poet. — kitabu. author. — nyimbo. com- 
poser (of music). 2. designer, inventor. 
Cf. *tunga. 

mtungi (mi-) earthenware water jug/pitcher. 

mtungo (mi-) 1. compilation, construction, 
arrangement, composition. — wa habari. 
essay, composition, theme. 2. (act of) 
arranging in a row (on a string, stick, etc.), 
the things so arranged.. — wa samaki. 
a string of fish. Cf. tunga. 



mtunguja (mi-) see mtua. 

mtungule (mi-) tomato plant. (= mnyanya.) 
Cf. tungule. 

mtunguo (mi-) ready-made article of clothing. 
Cf. * tunga. 

mtunza (wa-) protector, keeper; curator (in a 

muxriim etc. I hazir.s/fcdha. trcas -r~- 

Cf. tunza. 

mtupa (wa-) (always w. foil, obj.) one who 
throws/hurls something. — mkuki. spear- 
thrower. Cf. *tupa. 

mtupa (mi-) mtupa (a general designation for 
various poisonous plants). Cf. utupa. 

mtupio (mi-) (act of) throwing down/away. 
vazi la — . worn-out clothing. Cf. nupa. 

mtupo(mi-) 1. (act of) throwing/hurling. 2. 
distance a thing can be thrown, throwing 
distance. Cf. tupa. 

mturituri (mi-) see mtipitipi. 

Mturki* (wa-) see Mturuki. 

Mturuki*, Mturki (wa-) Turk. Cf. Kituruki, 

mtutu (mi-) barrel (of a gun). (= kasiba, 

mtutumo (mi-) deep, rumbling sound. — wa 
ngurumo (bahari). rumble/roar of thunder 
(the sea). — wa tumbo. growling (of the 

stomach). — wa mvua. noise of rain. Cf. 

mtututu, mkarakala (mi-) mtututu (kind of tree, 
Bridelia zanzibarensis ). 

mtwa (wa-) dwarf, pigmy. 

mtwaa, mtwaaji. (wa-) one who carries off/takes 
away. Cf. x twaa. 

mtwaaji (wa-) see mtwaa. 

mtwana (wa-) 1. hist, (young) slave. 2» rogue, 
rascal. 3. uncouth/unmannerly person. Cf. 
twana, kitwana. 

2 mtwana (mi-) naut. a pole strengthening the 
mast (in native vessels). 

mtwango (mi-) (act, manner, etc, of) crushing, 
grinding, pulverizing (with mortar and 
pestle). Cf. twanga. 

mtwanzi (wa-) one who pounds/pulverizes 
(grain). Cf. twanga. 

mtweto (mi-) panting, puffing, gasping, diffi- 
culty in breathing. Cf. tweta. 

mua (miua-) see muwa. 

muaa (miuaa) see mwaa. 

muamuzi (wa-) see mwamua. 

muawana* (— ) help, support, assistance. Cf. 




mubalighi* (wa-) pol. speaker (in the legisla- muharamu* (— ) muharram (the fourth month of 
live assembly). (- mulakalamu.) Muhammadan year). 

muda* (— ) 1. period (of time). — wa saa nne. 
a period of four hours, kwa — (wa). in the 
course of... — wa. during. — (wa) kitambo. 
moment, homa ya — . med. intermittent 
fever. 2. term, set period of time, taka — 
{better: wakati). ask for a delay /extension. 
Cf. mudu. 

mudiri* (wa-) dial, administrative official 
(in districts of Zanzibar). Cf. mudiria. 

mudiria* (— ) dial, (administrative) district 
(Zanzibar). Cf. mudiri. 

muhariri* (wa-) journalist, correspondent, 

muhashamu*, muheshamu (in letters) a very 
formal salutation: Esteemed Sir. Cf. 
heshima, heshimu. 

muhebi*, muhibu (in letters) a salutation used 
to those whom one knows rather well but not 
intimately (older friends, teachers, etc.): 
Dear... Cf. ^ebu, 2 haba. 



mudu* stretch, extend, us. reft, jimudu. 
stretch oneself, move first one limb then 
another (when waking up; after an illness), 
fig. be temperate, exercise self-control; be 
in moderate circumstances/fairly well-off. 
appl. mudia. intr. mudika. Cf. muda. 

muflisi* sing., jur. bankruptcy. Cf. filisi. 

mufti*, mofti LEngl.J adj. /adv., coll. modern, 
elegant, fashionable, stylish (of clothes). 
vaa nguo — . wear modern/stylish clothes. 

muhali*, mhali, umhali (-) something very 
possible, impossibility, impracticability, 
unobtainability, unreasonableness, anitaka 
— . He is asking the impossible of me. ku- 
toka nje wakati wa baridi naona — sana. 
To go outside in the cold is for me abso- 
lutely impossible. 

muhimu* 1. (— ) an important/urgent matter. 
2. adj. important, urgent. 3. adv. especi- 
ally, particularly; significantly. Cf. Iiima. 

muhina* (— ) bleeding from the nose. 

^muhindi* (mi-) 1. maize/corn plant (Zea mays). 
2. a grain of corn. Cf. hindi, mahindi. 

^Muhindi* (wa-) see Mhindi. 

muhogo*, mhogo LTupi-Port. J (mi-) (also, hogo, 
ma-) 1. manioc/cassava plant. 2. manioc 

muhtasari*, mutasari (— ) (brief) outline, ex- 
tract, pre'cis, survey, resume, conspectus; 
table of contents. — ya mafundisho. program, 
schedule (of studies). 

muhula* (— ) 1. rare period (of time). 2. inter- 
mission, break, rest period. 




muhunzi (wa-) see mhunzi. 

muhuri*, mhuri (mi-, -) 1. seal, stamp, tia — . 
to seal/stamp, hati hii si kwela kwa saba- 
bu haina — wa serikali. This document is 
not valid because it does not have the offi- 
cial stamp. 2. visa. 

mujibu*, muujibu 1. sing, what is proper and 
fitting (morally and snrially) according to 
tradition and custom; legal/official action. 
2. adv. in accordance with, according to. 
— wa sheria. according to the law. Cf. 

mukafaa*, mukofu (— ) econ. extra dividend, 

mumu: — humu, adv. in this very place. 

mumunya, munya, munyamunya, mung'unya 

chew, masticate; gnaw. intr. mumunyika. be 
chewed/broken up; be eroded, crumble away 
(plaster, etc.). 

^mumunya (ma-) see mumunye. 

mumunye, mung'unye, mumunya (ma-) kind of 
gourd, calabash, vegetable marrow. Cf. 

muna see mna. 

*munda (miunda) harpoon. ( = chusa.) 

mukofu* (— ) see mukafaa. 

mulika shine, gleam, beam. prov. anayeku- 
mulika mchana usiku atakuunguza. Who 
gives you light by day will burn you by 
night, appl. mulikia. cans, mulikisha. 

mumbi (mi-) see mwumbi. 

mume (waume) husband. Cf. ume. 

mumiani* LPers.J (ma-) mumiani (a gumlike 
substance used as a medicine both inter- 
nally, e.g., against cramps, and externally 
for fractures, etc.). 

muminina*, mmunina (wa-) Isl. an orthodox 
Moslem, a true believer, Cf. ^amini. 

^munda (miunda) plank, board (used in house- 

mundu (miundu) sickle, machete, billhook. — 
na nyundo. comm. hammer and sickle. 

mungu, muungu 1. (miungu) a god. 2. Mungu 
sing, (also Jicho la Mungu) God. 3. (mi- 
ungu) fate, destiny, providence. Cf. uungu, 

mung'unya see ^mumunya. 

mung'unye (ma-) see mumunye. 

mungwana (wangwana) see mwungwana. 

munisipaa* (— ) see munisipali. 

lumo (also — humo) adv. in(side) here. 

munisipali*, manisipali, munisipaa, manisipaa 

LEngl.J (— ) city government, municipal 




administration, kodi za nyumba zitalipwa 
katika afisi ya — . House taxes are paid at 
the municipal administration offices. 

munya see 'mumunya. 

munyu sing., rare salt, Cf. chumvi, cbunyu. 

muo (miuo) stick with an iron tip (for digging 
up stones). 

muombaji (wa-) see mwombaji. 

muradi* (mi-) see mradi. 

muru sing, muru (a root from which is pre- 
pared a medicine for stomach disorders). 
Cf. mviru. 

murua*, muruwa 1. (wa-, mi-) = mrua. 2. 
adj. polite, gracious, amiable; elegant, 

mushkeli* (— ) uncertainty, obscurity; diffi- 
culty, problem, ugonjwa huu umeniletea 
— . This complaint is giving me trouble. 
Cf. shaka, shuku. 

musiki* (— ) see muziki. 

musilimu* (wa-) see mwislamu. 

musimu* (mi-) see msimu. 


limu* (wa-) see mwislamu. 

mustarehe*, mstarehe (-) 1. rest, quiet, 
repose, raha — . absolute repose/comfort. 
2. relaxation, recreation. Cf. raha, 

musuli* LEngl.J (mi-) muscle. — mwingi. strong 

mutakalamu*, mtakalamu (wa-) pol. speaker (in 
the legislative assembly). ( = muhalighi.) 

mutasari* (— ) see muhtasari. 

mutribu* (— ) one who plays the gambusi or zeze 
(q.v.). Cf. tarabu. 

muufi* (wa-) rare potter. ( = mfinyanzi.) 

muujibu* sing. see mujibu. 

muujiza* (mi-) see mwujiza. 

muumba, mwumba, mwumbaji (wa-) 1. originator, 
founder. 2. rel. Creator ( = God; us. — yote 
Creator of All Things). Cf. umba. 

muumbuzi (wa-) one who destroys/annihilates. 
Cf. umba. 

muumishi, mwumikaji, mwumishi, mwumizi (wa-) 
one skilled in medicine (esp. one who cups/ 
bleeds people). Cf. umika. 

muunda (wa-) see mwunda. 

muundi (miundi) 1. (us. — wa miguu) anat. 
shinbone, tibia. 2. rare leg. 

^muundi (wa-) see mwunda. 

muundo (mi-) see mwundo. 

muungamo (mi-) see mwungamo. 
muungano (mi-) see mwungano. 



muungo, mwungo (mi-) 1. (act of) connecting, 
joining; connection, joint. 2. something 
joined; (fig.) seam. Cf. 2 un ga. 

muungu (mi-) see mungu. 

muuya* (mi-) see mauja. 

muuzaji (wa-) see mwuzaji. 

muwa, mua (miwa) sugarcane. 

muweka see mweka. 

muwi (miwi) muwi (kind of mangrove, Bruguiera 

muyombo (mi-) see myombo. 

muziki*, musiki \_Engl. J sing, music. 

mvao, mviko (mi-) manner of dress; style, 
fashion. Cf. vaa. 

^mvi (— ) (also nywele za — ) gray hair, 
mwenye — . gray-haired person. 

^mvi (mi-) arch, arrow. 

mviko (mi-) 1. ~ mvao. 2. clothing, garment, 
dress. Cf. vaa. 

mvinjari* (wavinjari, wamevinjari) loafer, un- 
employed person. Cf. vinjari. 

mvinje (mi-) mvinje (cassowary /beefwood 
tree, Casuarina equisetifolia), 

mvinyo* [.Port. J (— ) 1. spirits (in gen.). 
2. rare wine ( = divai). 

mviringano (mi-) something round/circular/ 
spherical. Cf. viringa, mviringo, uviringo. 

mviringo (mi-), kiviringo (vi-) 1. circle, round- 
ness; circumference. 2. sphere, globe, ball, 
3. adj.: —a — . circular, round, spherical, 
mpira una umbo la — . A ball is spherical. 
Cf. viringa, mviringano, uviringo. 

mviru (mi-) mviru (kind of tree, A remedy for 
stomach complaints is prepared from its 
roots). Cf. muru. 

Mvita sing. Mombasa (city and island). Cf. 
Mmvita, Kimvita. 

mvivu (wa-) lazy person, idler, loafer. Cf. 
vivu, uvivu. 

mviziaji (wa-): — faida. fin. speculator. Cf. 

mvo (mi-) see mfo. 

mvongonya, mvungunya (mi-) mvongonya 
(sausage tree, Datura metel). 

mvua (— ) rain. - inanyesha. It is raining. 
— ya mawe. hail, upinde wa — . rainbow. 
wakati wa — . rainy season. — kubwa 
(nyingi). heavy rain, cloudburst. — ya 
mwaka. light rain (us. in August). 

mvua, mvuo, mvukuto (mi-) (us. pi.) bellows. 
vukuta mivua. blow/work bellows. Cf. 

3mvua (wa-) see mvuvi. 



mvuke (— ) (also uvuke, vuke) 1. steam, steam- 
power. 2. (intense, humid) heat. 3. vapori- 
zation, evaporation. 4. moisture, dampness, 
humidity. 5. rec. gas. Cf. Muka. 

mvuko (mi-) ford, crossing, ferry. Cf. ^vua. 

mvukuto (mi-) see ^mvua. 

mvulana, mvuli (wa-) unmarried young man, 

i U_1 — re \.:-.~\ i 

~ — ..oiui. ^,. M'moiia, uvuiaua. 

mvule (mi-) (species of) teakwood tree (Chlo- 
rophora excelsa). 

mvuli (wa-) see mvulana. 

^mvuli (mi-) 1. - kivuli. 2. = vuli. 

mvuma (wa-) see mvumi. 

^mvuma (mi-) see 1 mvumo. 

mvumanyuki (mi-) mvumanyuki (kind of shrub, 
Premna chrysoclada). 

mvumatiti (— ) see vumatiti. 

mvumbasi (mi-) mvumbasi (kind of plant with 
aromatic leaves, Ocimum sp.). 

mvumi, mvuma (wa-) grumbler, faultfinder. 
Cf. vuma. 

'mvumo, mvuma (mi-) 1. humming, rustling, 
rumbling. — wa mvua. the pounding of 
rain. 2. roaring, growling, bellowing (of 
various animals, usually wild). 3. fig. 

echo, reverberation. 4. fig. rumor. Cf. 

Anvumo (mi-) mvumo (kind of palm, Borassus 

mvunaji, mvuni (wa-) reaper, harvester. Cf. 

mvungu (mi-) 1. hollow, cavity. 2. space under 
something. — wa meza (kitanda). space 
under a table (bed), prov. mpenda cha 
mvunguni sharti ainame. Whoever wants to 
get something from under the bed must 
stoop over (i.e., good things are not easily 
obtained). Cf. vungu. 

mvungunya (mi-) see mvongonya. 

mvuni (wa-) see mvunaji. 

mvunja (wa-) (always w. foil, oh].) one who 
breaks something. — mawe. stonemason. 
— mapesa. money-changer. Cf. vunja. 

mvunjaji (wa-) one who breaks something. — 
wa sheria. lawbreaker. Cf. vunja. 

mvunjiko (mi-) see mvunjo. 

mvunjo (mi-) 1. (act of) breaking, destruction, 
demolition. 2. (also mvunjiko) break, 
fracture. Cf. vunja. 

Imvuo (mi-) (act of) undressing. Cf. vaa. 

2mvuo (mi-) 1. (act of) fishing. 2. catch, haul 
(of fish). 3. (good) place for fishing. Cf. 



mvuruga (wa-) see mvurugaji. 

mvurugaji, mvuruga (wa-) one who causes 
destruction /dissension /confusion, trouble- 
maker, agitator. Cf. vuruga. 

mvurugo (mi-) 1. (act of) stirring, mixing. 2. 
strife, dissension. 3. confusion, disorder. 
Cf. vuruga. 

mvuSunji, mvuslii (wa-) 1. ferryman. 2. run: 
preserver, savior. Cf. 'vua. 

mvushi (wa-) see mvushaji. 

mvuta (wa-): — lumbako. smoker. Cf. vuta. 

mvuto (mi-) 1. (act of) drawing, pulling. 2. 
fig. influence. 3. fig. persuasion, con- 
viction. Cf. vuta. 

mvuvi, mvua (wa-) (also — samaki) fisher- 
man. Cf. vua. 

mvyele (wa-) rare old woman. ( = kizee.) 

mwa conn.: nyumbani — mchuuzi. in the 
house of the shopkeeper. 

mwaa, muaa (miaa, miwaa, miyaa) 1. dwarf 
palm. 2. leaf of the dwarf palm. 3. strip of 
leaf from the dwarf palm (used for plaiting 

mwaandishi (wa-) see mwandishi. 

mwabudu* (wa-) rel. worshipper. — (wa) 
sanamu. idolator. Cf. abudu. 

mwadhini* (wa-) Isl. muezzin. Cf. adhini. 

mwafaka* (mi-) 1. acceptability. 2. unanimity, 
accord. 3. agreement, bargain, pact, con- 
tract. 4. conspiracy. Cf. afiki. 

Mwafrika* [Engl. J (wa-) an African. Cf. 

mwafu* (mi-) hot. wild jasmine (Jasminum 
mauritianum). Cf. afu. 

mwaga pour out, empty, spill, intr. mwagika. 

1. be poured out/spilled, prov. maji yali- 
yomwagika hayazoleki. Spilled water cannot 
be picked up (e.g., something once said 
cannot be retracted). 2. fig. scatter, dis- 
perse, break up. baada ya mkutano watu 
walimwagika. After the meeting the people 
dispersed. Cf. mwagano, mwago. 

mwagano, mwago (mi-) dismissal. Cf. mwaga. 

Imwago (mi-) see mwagano. 

z mwago (mi-) (act of) pouring out, spilling. Cf. 

"'mwago (mi-) mwago (gift given by a husband 
to his first wife when, she agrees to his taking 
a second wife). Cf. aga. 

rawapo (mi-) (act, manner, etc., of) leave- 
taking. Cf. aga. 

mwaguzi (wa-) 1. soothsayer, diviner. Cf. agua. 

2. = mwuguzi. 




Mwajemi* (wa-) a Persian. Cf. Kiajemi, 

mvvaka (miaka) year, kila — , — kwa — . yearly, 
annual. — uliopita, — (wa) jana. last year. 
— ujao, — (wa) kesho. next year. — (wa) 
juzi. year before last, siku ya — mpya. 
New Year's Day. mwakani. in the course of 
a year, in a year's time; (fig.) sooner or 

mwake poss. pron. 3rd pers. sing. see 

*mwako (mi-) 1. flame, blaze. 2. blazing, 
burning. 3. heat, ardor; temperament. Cf. 

■^mwako poss. pron. 2nd pers. sing. see 

mwalamu* (mi-) see mialamu. 

mwale (mi-) raffia palm. 

mwali, mvvari (wali) 1. a boy or girl before 
or during the initiation ceremony. 2. (also 
mwanamwali, pi. wanawali) a girl who 
menstruates for the first time. 

mwali* (nyali) (tongue of) flame. 

mwali, mwari (wa-) ornith. pelican. 

Imwaliko (mi-) (also jaliko, ma-) 1. call, 
summons. 2. invitation, challenge. Cf. 
2 alika. 

■^mwaliko (mi-) cracking (noise), clapping, 
snapping (of the fingers). Cf. ^alika. 

mwalimu* (wa-) 1. educated person, scholar, 
scientist. 2. teacher, tutor. — rakuu. pro- 
fessor. 3. rel. Master (= Christ). 4. rare, 
naut. steersman, pilot. Cf. elimu. 

^mwalishi (wa-) one who invites (to a feast, 
etc.), host* Cf. ^alika. 

^mwalisbi (wa-) one who makes a cracking/ 
snapping noise. Cf. ^alika. 

mwamali* (wa-) 1. one who has a share in some- 
thing, sympathizer, participant. 2. accom- 
plice, (mi-) 1. interest, sympathy, participa- 
tion. 2. activity, action. Cf. *amali. 

mwamana* (wa-) one willing to trust others. 
mtu yule hana — . That person does not trust/ 
have confidence in anybody else. Cf. amana, 


mwamba (mi-), kiamba (vi-) 1. rock, crag, reef. 
2. ridge-pole, roof-tree. 3. fig. steadfast/ 
courageous person. 4. sport, coll. boxer. 

mwambaji, mwambi (wa-) 1. gossip, slanderer. 
2. nagger, faultfinder. Cf. amba. 

mwambao (mi-) rare coast, coastline, shore. 
safari ya — . naut. coastal shipping. Cf. 
am baa. 

mwambi (wa-) see mwambaji. 

mwambo (mi-) financial straits, siku za — . coll. 
the last few days of the month (before payday). 
Cf. wamba. 




mwambula (mi-) hot. mwambula (a bush with 
poisonous roots, Plumbago zeylanica). 

Mwamerika* [.Engl. J (wa-) an American. 

mwamini*, mwaminifu, mwumini (wa-) 1. trust- 
worthy/reliable person. 2. a person in whom 
one has confidence, confidant, confidential 
agent. 3. devout/religious person, (true) 
believer, waamini. the faithful. Cf. "amini. 

mwaminifu* (wa-) see mwamini. 

mwamizi* (wa-) one who watches a planted 
field (and frightens away birds). Cf. amia. 

mwamu, mlamu (wa-) relative by marriage: 

mwamua, mwamuzi (wa-) mediator, peace- 
maker, go-between, arbitrator, umpire. Cf. 

mwamuzi (wa-) see mwamua. 

mwamvuli (mi-) see mwavuli. 

mwana 1. (wana, waana) child (with respect 
to relationship: son, daughter), mwanadamu. 
human being. — haramu. illegitimate child. 
— maji. seaman, sailor. — hewa. aviator, 
pilot. — komiti. member of a committee. 
2. (mamwana) lady, mistress. 3. adopted 
child, dependent, Cf. ''jana, kijana, 
uana, ujana. 

mwanaanga (wanaanga) cosmonaut. 

mwanachama (wa-) member (of an organization, 
party, etc.). yeye ni — cha wafanya kazi. 

He is a member of a labor union. — asiye wa 
desturi. alternate member. Cf. uanachama. 

mwanachuo (wa-) one who learns/studies, 

mwanadamu (wa-) human being. Cf. mwana, 

mwanafunzi (wa-) pupil, apprentice, student. 
Cf. funda. 

mwanagazeti* lEngl. J (wana...) newspaper- 

mwanahewa* (wa-) aviator, pilot. Cf. uanahewa. 

mwanajeshi* (wana.,.) soldier, serviceman. 
Cf. jeshi, uanajeshi. 

mwanamaji (wanamaji) sailor, seaman. 

mwanamimba (wana..., waana...) 1. pregnant 
woman. 2. ailment of women (pains in the 
uterus, chiefly in cases of premature births). 

mwanamizi (wa-) hermit crab, sea urchin. 

mwanamji (wa-) townsman, city-dweller. 

mwanamke (wanawake) woman; (pi.) female sex, 
womenfolk. — mtembezi. coll. girl of easy 
morals, prostitute. Cf. ke. 

mwanamume (wanaume) man; lover, paramour; 
(pi.) male sex, menfolk. Cf. mwana, ^urne. 

mwanamwali (wa-) see *■ mwali. 

mwananchi (wananchi) inhabitant (of a country), 
citizen. Cf. uwananchi. 




mwanasesere (wa-), sesere (— ) doll (child's 

mwanashanga sing, northwest wind. 

mwandikaji, mwandiki (wa-) 1. clerk, copyist. 
2. secretary. 3. writer, author. Cf. andika. 

mwandiki (wa-) see mwandikaji. 

mwanasheria* (wa-) lawyer, attorney, jurist. 
Cf. uanasheria. 

mwanasiasa* (wa-) politician, political figure. 
— mhamaji. political emigrant/refugee. 

mwanathaura* (wa-) revolutionist. 

mwandaji (wa-) see mwandaliaji. 

mwandaliaji, mwandaji (wa-) 1. one who pre- 
pares/arranges something (sets the table, 
etc.). 2. rare cook. Cf. andaa. 

mwandamano (mi-) 1. suite, entourage, retinue. 
2. procession. Cf. andama. 

mwandamizi (wa-) 1. one who follows/accom- 
panies someone. 2. successor. Cf. andama. 

mwandamo (mi-) 1. (act of) following/accom- 
panying. 2. succession, heritability. 3. 
file, line (of people). Cf. andama. 

mwandani (wa-) 1. follower, companion. 2. 
ally. Cf. andama. 

mwandao (mi-) preparation, arrangement. 
(= andao.) Cf. andaa. 

mwandazi (wa-) 1. servant (who sets the 
table). 2. pastry cook. Cf. andaa. 

mwande (mi-): la -. get nothing, be dis- 

mwandiko (mi-) 1. writing, written matter. 2. 
manner of writing, style. — wa michoro. 
cursive writing. — wa chapa. printing. 3. 
script, handwriting; manuscript. 4. inscrip- 
tion, address. Cf. andika. 

mwandishi (wa-) 1. writer, author; newspaper 
reporter; correspondent. 2. secretary. — 
mkuu. secretary-general. Cf. andika. 

^mwanga 1. (mi-) {also mwangaza) light, 
lightness, radiance, clarity. 2. (wa-) (also 
mwangavu, mwangazi) enlightened/culti- 
vated/educated person. Cf. ^anga, angaa. 

^mwanga (mi-) mwanga (kind of rice). 

'^mwanga (mi-) mwanga (species of arrowroot, 
Tacca pinnatifida). 

mwangachaa (mi-) mwangachaa (kind of tree, 
Cerbera Uanghas). 

mwangalifu, mwangalizi (wa-) observant/atten- 
tive person. Cf. angaa. 

mwangalizi (wa-) 1. = mwangalifu. 2. observer. 
3. caretaker, overseer; proctor (in schools). 
Cf. angaa. 

mwangamizi (wa-) one who destroys/ruins. 
Cf. angamia. 

mwangao (mi-) mwangao (species of clove). 




mwangati (mi-) (kind of) cedar tree (Juniperus 
pro c era). 

mwangavu (wa-) see Imwanga 2. 

mwangaza (mi-) 1. hole admitting light, 

(small) window. 2. ray of light, brightness. 
3. fig. clarity. 4. fig. enlightenment, cul- 
ture, education, pata (shikwa na) — . re- 
rpivp >>n!!' r htenni?r.t/ci<!turs. 5. H". "ubl: 
cation, announcement. 6. fig. expedient, 
solution (of a difficulty). Cf. 2 anga, angaa. 

mwangazi (wa-) see Imwanga 2. 

1 mwango (mi-) mwango (kind of tree, Rauwol- 
fia sp.). 

^mwango (mi-) rare see mlango. 

'mwango (mi-) augment, of kiango. 

mwangu poss. pron. 1st pers. sing. see 

mwangushi, mwanguzi (wa-) 1. one who 

destroys/ruins something. 2. one who lets 
something fall/drop. 3. fig. fruit-picker (by 
occupation). — wa nazi. coconut gatherer. 
Cf. angua. 

mwanguzi (wa-) see mwangushi. 

mwangwi (mi-) echo. 

mwani (miani) seaweed. 

mwanya (mi-) split, crack, cleft, crevice, 
notch, gap, small hole/aperture. — wa 

meno. gap between the teeth, meno yake 
yana — . He is missing some teeth. 

mwanzi (mi-) 1. mwanzi (kind of bamboo). 2. 
mwanzi (kind of flute made of bamboo). 3. 
(in gen.) tube, pipe. — wa pua. nostril. — 
wa bunduki. barrel of a gun. 

mwanzilishi, mwanzilizi, mwanzishaji (wa-) 

niiliaLui-, originator, author; founder, pioneer. 
Cf. anza. 

mwanzilizi (wa-) see mwanzilishi. 

mwanzishaji (wa-) see mwanzilishi. 

mwanzo 1. (mi-) start, beginning. 2. adv. in/ 
from the beginning. Cf. anza. 

^mwao (miao) 1. piece of wood used as a sup- 
port/prop. 2. boards in the bottom of a dhow 
(protecting the cargo from the bilge). 

'.. 3rd pers. pi. see *-a 

mwao poss. pron 

mvvapaji (wa-) one who swears an oath. Cf. 

mwapizi (wa-) one who habitually curses. Cf. 

Mwarabu* (Waarabu) an Arab. Cf. Arabu, 
^rabuni, Kiarabu, Uarabu; also Manga. 

mwan (wa 

-) see •'mwali 

mwaridi* (ma-) rosebush (Rosa damascena). 
Cf. waridi, halwaridi. 


mwarita*, mharita \_Ind. J (mi-) soapberry tree 
(Sapindus saponaria). 

mwasha (wa-) (always w. foil, obj.) one who 
lights/kindles/turns on (a fire, light). — 
moto. one who lights /kindles a fire. — 
stimu. one who turns on a light. Cf. waka. 

mwawazi*, mwawadhi (wa-) Almighty (- God). 
Cf. awadha. 

mwayo (miayo) (us. pi.) yawn, piga miayo. to 


mwaza (wa-) see mwazaji. 

mwasherati* (wa-) immoral person, adulterer 
(one who violates the Islamic code of 
marriage morals). Cf. asherati. 

mwashi (waashi) mason. Cf. ^aka. 

mwashiri* (mi-) naut. mwashiri (longitudinal 
beam supporting the mast of a native ves- 

mwasi*, maasum (wa-) disobedient/intractable 
person; rebel, insurgent. Cf. asi. 

Mwasia* {.Engl. J (wa-) an Asiatic. 

mwata (— ) mwata (kind of worm used as fish- 
ing bait). 

mwatuko (mi-) crack, fissure (in the ground, 
etc.). Cf. atua. 

mwavi (mi-) 1. mwavi (kind of tree with 

poisonous bark). 2. arch, a trial by ordeal 
(the suspect drinking a poison prepared from 
the bark of the mwavi tree). 

mwavuli, mwamvuli, mwemvuli (mi-) umbrella, 
parasol. — wa kuchuka. parachute. Cf. 
kivuli, uvuli. 

mwawadhi* (wa-) see mwawazi. 

mwazaji, mwaza, mwazi (wa-) thoughtful/imagi- 
native/creative person. Cf. waza. 

mwazi (wa-) see mwazaji. 

mwazimo (mi-) (act of) lending/borrowing, loan. 
Cf. azima. 

mwega (mi-) see mwegamo. 

mwegamo 1. (mi-) (also mwega) support, prop, 
post. 2. (wa-) one on whom a feeble person 
leans. Cf. egama. 

mwegea (mi-) mwegea (sausage tree). 

mwehu (wehu) madness, lunacy. Cf. ehuka. 

mweka, mwekaji (we-) (always w. foil, obj.) 
one who keeps/preserves. — fedha/hazina/ 
mapesa. treasurer. Cf. weka. 

mwekaji (we-) 1. = mweka. 2. owner, proprietor. 
Cf. weka. 

mweko (mi-) (act of) keeping, preserving, putting 
aside (savings). Cf. weka. 

*mwele (waele, wawele) invalid, cripple. Cf. 



2 mwele (mi-) mwele (kind of millet plant, 
Penicillaria spicata). Cf. mawele, ^uwele. 

mwelekeo (mi-) attitude, tendency, trend. Cf. 

mweleko (mi-) 1. mweleko (cloth sling, for 
carrying children on the back). 2. rifle- 
sling. Cf. eleka. 

mwelewa (wa-) intelligent/perceptive/quick- 
witted person. Cf. elea, elewa. 

mwelezaji (wa-) 1. one who explains. 2. guide 
(for tourists). Cf. elea. 

mwelezo (mi-) 1. explanation; directions, in- 
structions. 2. mark, sign. 3. index (of a 
book). 4. program. Cf. elea, elezo. 

mwembe* \_lnd. J (mi-) mango tree. Cf. embe. 

mwemvuli (mi-) see mwavuli. 

mwenda (wa-) one who goes/walks, passer-by. 
— kwa miguu. pedestrian. — wazimu. mad- 
man (or someone who acts like one). Cf. 

mwendeleo (ma-) (forward) movement, advance- 
ment, improvement, progress. Cf. enda. 

mwendelezi (wa-) 1. one who makes things 
move/progress, a progressive person. 2. 
imitator. Cf. enda. 

mwendesha (wa-) (always w. foil, obj.) one 
who makes something go. — gari. wagon 
driver. — gari la moshi. locomotive engi- 
neer. — ndege. aviator, pilot. Cf. enda. 

mwendeshaji, mwendeshi (wa-) driver (of any 
vehicle). - (wa) ndege. aviator, pilot. Cf. 

mwendo, mwenendo (mi-), wenendo sing. 1. 
movement. 2. march. - wa siku. a day's 
march. 3. course, route. 4. pace, kaza — . 
speed up one's pace. fig. - wa pigo. rhythm 
5. tempo, (rate of) speed. - wa meli hii ni 
n-.u;,; 30 ^ yya y, ua mo ja. This ship makes 
thirty miles an hour. 6. distance (from some- 
thing). 7. elec, meteor, (rare) current. 8. 
fig. behavior, conduct, anajifunza sana 
lakini - wake si mzuri. He learns well, but 
his conduct is bad. Cf. enda. 

mwene (wa-) rare see mwenye. 

mwenea (wa-): - pote. rel. the Omnipresent 
( = God). Cf. enea. 

mwenendo (mi-) see mwendo. 

mwenenzi (wa-) 1. passer-by. 2. traveler. Cf. 

mweneza, mwenezaji, mwenezi (wa-) one who 
distributes/bestows (often = GodJ. _ habari. 
publicity-man, public-relations man. Cf. 

mwenezaji (wa-) see mweneza. 

mwenezi (we-) 1. = mweneza. 2. rec: katibu 
-. secretary for propaganda/publicity. Cf. 

mwenge (mi-) {rare kienge, vi-) 1. tuft of straw, 
etc., used for starting a fire. 2. torch, fig.: 
— wa jua. sunlight. 




mwengero (mi-) 1. mwengero (palm wine in the mwerevu (wa-) clever/cunning/deceitful person, 
fermenting stage), 2. mwengero (the portion fox, cheat. Cf. erevu. 

of palm wine due the owner of a tree who 

allows others to tap it). mwerezi* (mi-) cedar tree (Pygeum africanum). 

mwenu poss. pron. 2nd pers. pi. see -enn. mwetu poss. pron. 1st pers. pi. see -etu. 

mwenye, mwenyewe, mwenyi, mwinyi (wenye) 
owner, proprietor (usually w. foil. pbj.). — 
nyumba (chombo). owner of a house (ship). 
— dcr.i. debtor. — kudhamini. ~ narantor 
bondsman. - kuhozi. monopolist. — 
wazimu. madman. — juhudi. comm. activist. 
Cf. enye, mwenyeji, umwinyi. 

mwenyeji (wenyeji) 1. (regular) owner, pro- 
prietor. 2, master of a house, host. 3. 
native (of a place), resident, inhabitant. 
Cf. enye, mwenye, kienyeji. 

mwenyekiti (wenyekiti) 1. chairman, president. 
2. member (of parliament, etc.). 

mwenyewe (wenyewe) 1. -self, mimi — nime- 
mwona. I have seen him myself. 2. rare = 

mwenyezi (< mwenye ezi) (— ) rel. possessor 
of power (= Cod). - Mungu. God Almighty. 

mwenzi (wenzi) 1. friend, acquaintance, 
companion, comrade, colleague, us. tv. 
poss. suff. mwenzangu. my friend, 
mwenzio. your friend, mwenziwe. his 
friend, 2. associate, partner (in a busi- 
ness). 3, accomplice. Cf. enda. 

mwere (mi-) mwere (species of wild cotton- 

mwewe (— ) ornith. African kite. 

mweza (we-) (always w. foil, obj.) one who has 
puWci uvci BumcLuiiig/ someone. — ncni. ruler 
of a country. — mwenyewe. one who is his own 
master, a self-reliant/capable person. Mweza 
yote. Almighty ( = God). Cf. weza. 

mwezekaji (we-) thatcher, roofer. Cf. ezeka. 

mwezeko (mi-) (act of) thatching (a roof). Cf. 

mwezi (mi-) 1. moon. — mkubwa. full moon. 

— mchanga (or mwandamo). new moon. — 
umepatwa. eclipse of the moon. 2. month. 

— mkubwa. month of thirty days. — mpungufu. 
month of twenty-nine days, kila — . monthly. 
3. Tec. artificial satellite, sputnik. 4. rare 
menstruation. Cf. kimwezi. 

mwia (wa-) someone who lends money /gives 
credit, creditor. Cf. Avia. 

mwiba (miiba) 1. thorn, barb, sting, seng'enge 
yenye miiba. barbed wire. — wa nyuki. sting 
of a bee. — wa samaki. fishbone. 2. fig. 
needle, pin. 3. spur (on a boot). 

mwibaji (wa-) rare see mwizi. 

mwiga (wa-) see mwigaji. 




mwigaji, mwiga, mwigishaji (wa-) (exact, care- 
ful) imitator, mimic; actor. Cf. iga. 

Imwigo (mi-) 1. (act of) imitating, imitation. 
2. counterfeiting, forging, forgery, Cf. iga. 

^mwigo (wa-) ornith. mwigo (large dove). 

mwiko (miiko) 1. (large) spoon, ladle, 2, 

(mason's) trowel. Cf. kijlKO. 

^mwiko (miiko) 1. (act of) abstention; thing 
abstained from, taboo, — wa nyama. food 
taboo, shika (vunja) — . observe (break) a 
taboo, 2. med. regimen, diet, — wa mganga. 
doctor's orders. 

mwiku sing, leftovers (of food, saved from the 
evening meal for the following morning). 

mwiii (miili) 1. body (human or animal). 2, 
trunk (excluding the head). 3. fig., av. fu- 
selage. Cf. kiwiliwili; also wili (?). 

mwima (wa-) 1. a person who carries himself 
erect/has good posture. 2, (mi-) a party of 
women who are making arrangements for a 
funeral, ( = maziko.) Cf. wima. 

mwimba, mwimbaji (wa-) singer, waimbaji. 
chorus, choir. Cf. imba. 

mwimbaji (wa-) see mwimba. 

mwimbishi (wa-) singing teacher; conductor, 
director (of a chorus). Cf. imba. 

mwimo (miimo) (door-) post, (window-) frame. 
Cf. wima. 

mwina (mi-) cavity, pit. Cf. kina. 

mwinamishi (wa-) 1. one who forces others to 
bend, oppressor, tyrant. 2. one who submits 
to others. Cf. inama. 

mwinamo (mi-) 1. bending, stooping. 2. de- 
clivity, slope. Cf. inama. 

mwinda (wa-) see mwindaji. 

mwindaji, mwinda, mwinzi (wa-) hunter, Cf. 

mwingamo (mi-) see "mwungamo. 

mwingasiafu, mbwanda (mi-) mwingasiafu (kind 
of bean, Canavalia ensiformis). 

Mwingereza* (Waingereza) Englishman. Cf. 
Kiingereza, Uingereza. 

mwingi (wingi) see -ingi. 

mwingilizi (wi-) mwingilizi (a man who marries 
the wife of his deceased brother, in accor- 
dance with the practice of levirate). Cf. 

mwingine (wingine) see -ingine. 

mwingizaji, mwingizi (we-) one who introduces 
something (a custom, etc.). Cf. ingia. 

mwinjilisti* \_Engl. J (we-) rel. evangelist. 

mwinuko (mi-) 1. (act of) raising, lifting, eleva- 
tion. 2. prominence, hill, Cf. inua, 

mwinyi (we-) see mwenye. 


mwinzi (we-) rare see mwindaji. 

mvviro (mi-) {us. — wa tembo) trunk of an ele- 
phant. (~ mkono, mkonga.) 

mwisho. 1. (mi-) end, conclusion, siku ya — 

{or kiyama). last day, day of judgment. 2. 

completion, goal. 3. result, outcome. 4. 

destruction, death. 5. adv. {also mwishoni, 

mwishowe) finally, conclusively,, irrevo- 

_ i 
cably. b. —a — . ad], tmal. C/. "isha. 

mwishowe adv. see mwisho 5. 

Mwislamu*, Msilimu, Muslimu, Musilimu (wa-) 
Moslem, Mohammedan. Cf. silimu, Islamu. 

mwita (wa-) see mwitaji. 

mwitaji, mwita (wa-) one who calls/summons. 
Cf. ita. 

mwito (mi-) {also wito) 1. call, summons; 
invitation, itikia — . reply to/accept an 
invitation. 2. slogan, watchword. 3. call- 
ing, vocation; inclination, proclivity. Cf. 

mwitu (mitu, miitu) forest, jungle, mnyama 
wa — . wild animal. — mnene, gongo la — . 
dense forest, jungle. Cf. kimwitu, msitu. 

mwivi (wevi) {also mwizi, mwibaji) thief, 
robber. Cf. iba. 

mwivu (waivu) envious/jealous person. Cf. 

mwiwa (wa-) debtor. ( = mdeni.) Cf. Avia. 

mwizi (wezi) see mwivi. 

^mwoga (wa-) timid/timorous person, coward. 
Cf. 2 oga. 

^mwoga (wa-) see mwogaji. 

mwogaji, mwoga (wa-) bather. Cf. *oga. 

mwogeleaji (wa-) swimmer. Cf. k>e&. 

mwogo, mogo (mi-) bathing, siku ya — . day on 
which boys bathe for the first time after cir- 
cumcision. Cf, oga. 

mwogofyo (mi-) threat, intimidation Cf. oga. 

mwoka (wa-) see mwokaji. 

mwokaji, mwoka (wa-) baker. Cf. oka, 

mwoko (mi-) baking, roasting. Cf. oka. 

mwokosi, mwokoti (wa-) 1. {also mwokotaji) 
one who picks up/gathers something. 2. 
finder (of a lost object). Cf. okota. 

mwokotaji (wa-) 1. = mwokosi. 2. fig. tax- 
collector. Cf. okota. 

mwokoti (wa-) see mwokosi. 

mwokozi (wa-) 1. one who saves/rescues, 2. 
(also rel.). deliverer, savior, preserver. Cf. 

mwomba (wa-) see mwombaji. 




mwombaji, muombaji, mwomba, mwombi (wa-) 

1. one who asks for/requests something, 
petitioner. 2. beggar. 3. rel. one who (re- 
gularly, habitually) prays. Cf. omba. 

mwombelezi (wa-) 1. rare suppliant, petitioner. 

2. mourner. Cf. omba, omboleza. 

mwombezi (wa-) intercessor, advocate. Cf. 

mwombi (wa-) see mwombaji. 

mwonevu (wa-) bully; tyrant, despot. Cf. ona, 

mwongeza (wa-) see mwongezi. 

mwongezi, mwongeza (wa-) 1. fluent/eloquent 
person, good conversationalist. 2. gossip, 
chatterbox. Cf. ^ongea. 

^wongo, mlongo (mi-) 1. number, yuko katika 
miongo yao. He is one of them. loc. mwo- 
ngoni {us. miongoni) mwa... in the midst of..., 
from a number of... 2. decade (division of a 
month). — wa kwanza. first decade. — wa 
kati. second (middle) decade. — wa mwisho. 
third (last) decade. 3. {us. -a miongo) 
decimal, hesabu za miongo. decimal arith- 
methic, decimals. 

mwongo, miongo (waongo, wawongo) liar, 

deceiver. Cf. Iwongo, uwongo. 

mwongofu (wa-) {us. w. foil, obj.) one who is 
directed/guided to something. - wa dini. 
rel. a convert. - w a kazi. clever/skilful 
person, specialist, expert. Cf. ongoa. 

mwongozi (wa-) guide, leader. _ mwenye 
madaraka. responsible leader. Cf. ongoa. 

mwongozo (mi-) 1. guidance, direction. 2. 
instruction, advice. 3. commentary. 4, 
manual, textbook. Cf. ongoa. 

mwonjaji (wa-) taster, one who tastes/tries 
food, etc. Cf. onja. 

mwonjo (mi-) 1. (act of) tasting/trying. 2. test, 
trial. 3. experience. Cf. onja. 

mwonyeshaji (wa-) demonstrator, illustrator. 
Cf. ona. 

mwonzi (mi-) sunbeam, ray of light. 

mwosha (wa-) see mwoshaji. 

mwoshaji, mwosha (wa-) 1. one who washes (in 
gen.). 2.: — maiti. person who makes a busi- 
ness of washing corpses, undertaker. Cf. 

mwosho (mi-) (act, manner, place of) washing. 
Cf. osha. 

mwote see -ote. 

mwozi (wa-) one who performs the marriage 
ceremony. Cf. oa. 

mwua (wa-) see mwuaji. 

mwuaji, mwua (wa-) murderer. Cf. 3 ua. 

mwuguzi, mwaguzi (wa-) medical attendant, 
nurse, orderly. Cf. ugua. 


mwuja* (mi-) see mauja. 

mwujiza*, mwujizi, muujiza (mi-) 1. something 
remarkable/supernatural. 2. rel. miracle. 
3. surprise. 

mwulimwengu (wa-) see mlimwengu. 

mwumba, mwumbaji (wa-) see muumba. 

mwumbi, mumbi (mi-) ornith. mwumbi (a large 
bird resembling the bittern). 

mwumikaji (wa-) see muumishi. 

mwumini (wa-) see mwamini. 

mwumishi (wa-) see muumishi. 

mwumizi (wa-) 1. someone who causes pain. 
2. = muumishi. Cf. uma, umika. 

mwunda, muunda, muundi (wa-) (always w. foil, 
obj.) one who builds/constructs something 
(us. of wood). — chombo. shipbuilder. Cf. 

mwundaji, mwundi, mwunzi (wa-) carpenter. 
Cf. *unda. 

mwundi (wa-) see mwundaji. 

mwundo, muundo (mi-) 1. building, structure. 
2. pattern, model. 3. form, shape, kwa ku- 
fuata -. according to pattern. Cf. unda. 

mwungama, mwungamaji (wa-) 1. one who 
admits/confesses that he has done wrong. 
2. rel. penitent, one who confesses/goes to 

confession. 3. prophet, (us. - Muhammad). 
Cf. ^ungama. 

mwungamaji (wa-) see mwungama. 

mwungamishi (wa-) 1. one who receives/elicits/ 
forces a confession. 2. rel. confessor, Cf. 

'mwungamo, muungamo (mi-) 1. admission, 
acknowledgment, recognition (of an. obliga- 
tion, etc.). 2. rel. confession. Cf. ungama. 

^mwungamo, mwingamo (mi-) bot. mwungamo (a 
tree from the bark of which a yellow dye is 
prepared; = ^mkumbi). Cf. ^ungamo. 

mwunganisho (mi-) see mwungano. 

mwungano, mwunganisho, muungano (mi-) con- 
nection, union, combination, alliance, coali- 
tion. — wa nchi za Amerika. United States 
of America. Cf. ^unga. 

mwungo (mi-) see muungo. 

mwungwana, mngwana, mungwana (waungwana, 
wangwana) 1. hist, free man (as opp. to 
mtumwa, q.v.). 2. polite /cultivated/well- 
bred person, gentleman. Cf. kiungwana, 
Kingwana, uungwana. 

^mwunzi (mi-) see mwundaji. 

2mwunzi sing., rare see uluzi, miunzi. 

mwuo (miuo) pointed stick used for digging. 


mwuza (wa-) see mwuzaji. 

mwuzaji, mwuza, muuzaji (wa-) seller, sales- 
man, trader. Cf. uza. 

m.y. = maana yake. that is to say, i.e. 
See maana. 

Myahudi* (wa-) Jew. Cf. Kiyahudi. 

myombo, muyombo (mi-) myombo (kind of tree; 
the bark is used for making cloth). 

myugwa (mi-) bot. taro plant. Cf. mayugwa, 
2 jimbi. 

mzalia (wa-) see mzaliwa. 

mzalianyuma (mi-) see mzaanyuma. 

mzalisha, mzalishi, mzalishaji (wa-) midwife. 
Cf. zaa. 

mzaliwa, mzalia, mzawa (wa-) 1. a person born 

(in a certain place, etc.), native, inhabitant 

(of a place). — mhplp. fJrot.k^™ L 

_ „„ Ha . 

someone born here. 2. a native/local plant. 

Cf. zaa. 

mzama, mzamaji (wa-) drowning person. Cf. 

Myunani* (wa-) (ancient) Greek, Hellene. Cf. 
Kiyunani, Uyunani. 

mzaa (wa-) 1. one who gives birth/begets, 
parent. 2. coll. mother. - bibi. great- 
grandmother. Cf. zaa. 

mzaanyuma, mzalianyuma (mi-) mzaanyuma 
(variety of spurge/euphorbia; the roots are 
used to prepare a medicine for treating 

mzabibu* (mi-) grapevine. - mwitu. wild 
grapevine, shamba la mizabibu. vineyard. 
Cf. zabibu. 

mzabuni* (wa-) buyer, purchaser, bidder (at 
auction). Cf. zabuni. 

mzaha* (mi-) 1. joke, jest, jina la -. nick- 
name, fanya -. joke, tease. 2. (act of) 
laughing at/deriding someone, fanyizia 
— . laugh at/deride someone. 

mzamaji (wa-) 1. = raZ ama. 2. diver (occupation 
or sport). Cf. 2 zama. 

mzambarau* (mi-) mzambarau (species of plum 
tree. Cf. zambarau. 

mzamia (wa-) one who dives for something. - 
lulu, pearl-diver. Cf. 2 zama, mzamaji 2. 

mzamio, mzamo (mi-) (act of) diving. Cf. 2 zama. 

mzamishi (wa-) 1. one who submerges. 2. person 
who employs divers. Cf. 2 zama. 

mzamisho (mi-) employment of divers. Cf. 2 Z ama. 

mzamo (mi-) see mzamio. 

mzandiki* (wa-), zandiki (ma-) li ar , deceiver, 
hypocrite. Cf. zandiki, uzandiki. 

imzao (wa-) 1. child, descendant, offspring (of 
a human being or an animal). 2. (wazao) 
progeny, issue. Cf. zaa. 



mzao (mi-) birth, delivery. Cf. zaa. 
mzawa (wa-) see mzalivva. 

mziko (mi-) burial, interment. Cf. zika. 
mzikoziko (mi-) pharm. ipecac(uanha). 

mzazi (wa-) 1. one who gives birth/begets. 2. l r 
fertile woman/female animal. 3. parent, baba 
(mama) — . real father (mother). 4.: wazazi. 
parents. Cf. zaa. 

izima 1. (wa-) grown-up person, adult. 2. 
(wa-) healthy person. Cf. zima, uzima. 

mzee (wa-) 1. old man/woman. 2. respected/ 
dignified man. 3. elder. 4.: wazee. parents. 
5. ancestor. 6. liter.: — ndovu. the old ele- 
phant. Cf. zee. 

mzegazega* 1. (wa-) water-carrier (who carries 
two water-tins suspended from either end of 
a carrying pole). 2. (mi-) water-tin. 

mzeituni* (mi-) (cultivated) olive tree. Cf. 
zeituni; also mchekele. 

mzembe (wa-) 1. negligent/slovenly person. 
2. careless/indifferent/superficial person. 
Cf. zembe, kizembe, uzembe. 

mzengwe (mi-) secret meeting/council. 

mzeze (mi-) mzeze (kind of tree). Cf. z zeze. 

mzia (mi-) see msia. 

mzibo (mi-) 1. (act of) closing, stopping. 2. 
stopper, plug, bung. 3. (electric) plug. 4. 
fig. obstruction, stoppage. 5. fig. bolt (on 
a door). Cf. ziba. 

mzigo (mi-) 1. load, burden, funga — . pack/tie 
up a load. — wa bidhaa. load of merchandise. 
mizigo. baggage. 2. fig. sorrow, loss. 1 

2mzima (wa-) (always w. foil, obj.) one who 
extinguishes. — moto. fireman. Cf. zima. 

mzimu (mi-) myth. 1. soul/spirit of a dead 
person/ancestor. 2. place where offerings 
are made to the spirits of ancestors. Cf. 
kuzimu, wazimu, zimwi. 

mzinduko, mzinduo (mi-) 1. sudden awakening. 
2. formal opening, inauguration ceremony. 
Cf. zindua. 

mzinga (mi-) 1. (hollow) cylindrical object. 
{Cf. kuru.) — wa nyuki. beehive. 2. mil. 
cannon (barrel), piga — . fire a cannon. 
mizinga ya salamu. salute, mizinga ya 
kupigia eropleni. antiaircraft artillery. 
Cf. zinga. 

mzingatifu (wa-) see mzingativu. 

mzingativu, mzingatifu (wa-) 1. someone with 
a good memory. 2. sensible/thoughtful per- 
son. 3. person without rigid opinions, un- 
prejudiced/liberal-minded person. Cf. 

mzingefuri*, msingefuri (mi-) kind of plant 
(anatta, from which an orange dye is pre- 
pared). Cf. zingefuri. 

mzingi see msingi. 



mzingi (mi-) ornith. weaverbird. 

mzingile (mi-) labyrinth, maze. _ mwambaji. 
rare puzzle. Cf. zinga. 

mzingo (mi-) 1. circle, curve, bend. 2. circum- 
ference, periphery. 3. environment, neighbor- 
hood. 4. mil. encirclement, investment. Cf. 

mzinifu*, mzinzi (wa-) lecherous/immoral per- 
son, adulterer. Cf. zini, zinifu. 

mzinzi* (wa-) see mzinifu. 

mzio (mi-) prohibition, ban, taboo (for medical 
or magical reasons). Cf. Izia. 

mzira (mi-) mzira (kind of fish, barracuda). 
( = sansuri.) 

mzishi (wa-) one who attends to a burial (either 
a friend who looks after the details of the 
ceremony or a professional undertaker, grave- 
digger, etc.). Cf. zika. 

mziwanda, mzuwanda (wa-) last child (that a 
woman is capable of bearing). 

mziwaziwa (mi-) mziwaziwa (a swamp plant, 
Cyperus flabelliformis). 

mzizi (mi-) 1. root, root-fiber. 2. medicinal 
root. - wa fitina. coll. the root of the 

mzizimi, mzizimizi (wa-) 1. adventurer, globe- 
trotter. 2. swindler, confidence man. Cf. 

mzizimizi (wa-) see mzizimi. 

mzizimo (mi-) coolness, freshness. Cf. Zizima 

mzo* (mi-) 1. mzo (unit of weight, 160 kg). 2. 
rare sixty. 3. large number, great amount. 

mzoea, mzoevu (wa-) one who is familiar with/ 
accustomed to something. _ wa bahari. ex- 
perienced seatarer. Cf. ^oea, zoevu. 

mzoevu, mzoefu (wa-) see mzoea. 

mzofafa* adv.: enda -. walk on tiptoe; (fig.) 
strut, show off. 

mzoga (mi-) dead body, corpse (usually that of 
the victim of an accident, found outside the 
home; cf. maiti/- carrion, carcass. 

mzomari*, mzumari (mi-) mzomari (a kind of 
grass; the roots are used for making a per- 

mzomeo (mi-) abusive/sarcastic speech/remark, 
insult. Cf. zoma. 

mzonazanje (-) mzonazanje (kind of snake). 

mzozo (mi-) quarrel, dispute, difference of 
opinion; nagging, fault-finding. Cf. zoza. 

mzuhali*, mzohari (wa-) someone who is habit- 
ually late/unpunctual, who is never on time. 

mzuka (wa-, mi-) spirit, ghost, phantom, vision. 
Cf. zua, l zuka. 

mzumai* (mi-) mzumai (kind of millet). 


■^mzurnai* (mi-) flotsam and jetsam, driftwood. 

^mzumai* (mi-) lemon grass, khuskhus grass. 
( = mchai.) 

mzumari* (mi-) see mzomari. 

mzungushi (wa-) someone who twists/dis- 
torts. — maneno. 1. someone who twists 
words. 2. loquacious person. Cf. zungua. 

mzungusho (mi-) 1. round, circuit. 2. a forced 
turning back/return. Cf. zungua. 

mzumbao sing. 1. astonishment, amazement. 
2. embarrassment, confusion, pigwa (shi- 
kwa) na — . be astonished/embarrassed/ 

lzushi (wa-) see mzu2 

mzuwanda (wa-) see mziwanda. 

Imzungu (mi-) 1. something remarkable/ 
amazing/rare. 2. talent, ability. 3. skill, 
dexterity. 4. trick, feat. 5. instinct (of 
an animal). 6. mizungu ethn. instructions 
given to girls at the age of puberty. Cf. 
zungu, kizungu, uzungu. 

■'Mzungu (wa-) 1. a European. 2. cards: — wa 
mbili. queen. — wa tatu. jack, knave. — wa 
nne. king, Cf. zungu, Kizungu, ^Uzungu. 

izunguko (mi-), kizunguko (vi-) 1. circular 
movement. 2. turn, bend, njia ya — . 
roundabout way, detour. 3. whirlpool, vor- 
tex, eddy. 4. surroundings, environment. 
5. astr. course, orbit (of a planet). 6. fig. 
outline, contour. Cf. zungua. 

nzungumzaji (wa-) amusing person, good 
conversationalist. Cf. zungumza. 

mzuza (wa-) arch, one who visits a witch 
doctor/who believes in magical powers. 
Cf. zua, -zuka. 

nzuzi, mzushi (wa-) 1. innovator, inventor, 
reformer. 2. slanderer, talebearer. Cf. 
zua, ^zuka. 

mzuzu (wa-) 1. someone who is dejected/ 
shocked/dismayed. 2. simpleton, green- 
horn. Cf. zuzu, zuzua. 

mzuzu (mi-) mzuzu (kind of tree, the roots 
are used for preparing a medicine). 

''mzuzu (mi-) mzuzu (kind of banana which 
is cooked when unripe). 




na 1. with, and. yeye na baba yake. he and his 
father (lit.: with his father), pamoja -. to- 
gether with. 2. in expressions equivalent to 
Engl, 'have,' 'be': alikuwa na fedha. He had 
money, fedha aliyo nayo. the money which 
he had. hana budi. He has no alternative. 
He must. loc. pana, kuna, mna (muna). 


...). 3. by 

(expressing the agent w. the pass.), chakula 
kilipikwa na mke. The food has been cooked 
by the woman. 4. also, but, however, alisa- 
firi kufika Tanga hakukutana na mwenziwe. 
He took a trip to Tanga but did not find his 

nadhiri* (-) oath, vow (often rel.J. weka -. 
take an oath, ondoa -. keep a vow. 

nadi* 1. make known, announce, proclaim. 2. 
fig. offer for public sale, auction off. appl. 
nadia. caus. nadisha. pass, nadiwa. Cf. 
mnada, mnadi. 

nadra* adj. rare, scarce, uncommon, unusual. 

nafaika*, nufaika be successful, have an ad- 
vantage, prosper, win. caus. nafaisha, 
nufaisha. caus.-ass. nafaishana, nufaishana. 

be mutually profitable. Cf. nafuu. 

naam* 1. affirm, part, yes, certainly, of course, nafaka* (_) grain, cereal (in gen.). 

2. intern part. I'm sorry? (would you mind 

repeating what you said, I didn't understand). nafasi* (_) 1. room, space, facilities. 2. spare 

time, leisure. 3. opportunity, possibility. 

nabihi* understand, notice, perceive, remember, wa na -. have an opportunity. 4. (also mus.) 

be fully aware of. intr. nabihika. caus. nabi- period of time, interval. Cf. nafsi, nafisi, 

hisha. Cf. tanabahi. tanafusi. 

nabii* (ma-) rel. prophet. 

nadhari* (-) 1. (power of) judgment, discretion, 
good sense. 2. perspicacity, penetration, 
discernment. 3. decision, choice, wa na 
(hana) -. He has the (no) choice. 4. look, 
gaze, glance. Cf. tanadhari. 

nadhifisha* clean up, put in good order, arrange. 
Cf. nadhifu. 

nadhifu* adj. clean, neat, orderly, well kept. 
Cf. nadhifisha, unadhifu. 

nafasika*, nafasisha 

see nafisi*. 

nafidhi* 1. preserve, protect. 2. help, rescue. 

nafisi* (us. caus. nafisisha, nafasisha) support, 
maintain, provide for (with money), help out. 

intr. nafisika, nafasika. be well off/in easy 
circumstances, refl.-caus. jinafisisha. make 

oneself comfortable, take it easy. Cf. nafasi. 

nafsi* (_) 1. breath, vital essence, soul. 2. 
self, individuality, personality. - yangu. I 
myself, anajipenda -. He loves himself. 
Cf. nafasi. 




nafuu* (— ) 1. advantage, benefit, gain, prov. 
kuvuja pakacha — ya mchukuzi. If something 
falls out of the (heavy) basket, that is a 
benefit to the carrier. 2. increase, growth, 
increment. 3. fig., fin. profit, pata — . to 
profit. 4. fig., med. improvement, recupera- 
tion, amepata — . He is improving/getting 
better. Cf. manufaa, nafaika. 

naliaii* (_) 1. PYnlanaHnn. 9. f»YrijsP ; Pvasjrm, 

pretext. 3. grammar, syntax. 4. rare mean- 

nahodha* (ma-) 1. naut. captain, prov. chombo 
cha manahodha wengi huzama. A ship with 
many captains is liable to sink ( = Many 
cooks spoil the broth). 2. zool. heron, 

naibu* (ma-), niabu, niaba (— ) representative, 
deputy, delegate, kwa niabu ya... in the 
place of, on behalf of, in the name of. Cf. 

nailoni* [.Engl. J (— ) nylon. 


see nauruzi. 

nakawa* adj. 1. pure, clean. 2. fig. immaculate, 
faultless; good-looking. Cf. jinaki. 

nak : di*, nakudi (— ) cash, payment in cash. 

nakili*, nakulu 1. copy. 2. translate. appZ. 
nakilia. intr. nakilika. caus. nakilisha. 
3. (— ) = nakala. 4. (-) translation. Cf. 
manukuu, nakala, kinakilo. 

nakisi* 1. lessen, reduce, curtail. 2. (— ) re- 
duction, cut (in pay); deficit, shortage; flaw, 

nako (<nahuko) and here. 

nakshi*, nakishi 1. carve, engrave, decorate 
(with carving, embroidery, etc.). appl. 
nakshia. intr. nakshika. 2. (-) carving, 
engraving, (carved) ornamentation. 

nakudi* (— ) see nakidi. 


see nakili 


naizesheni benefiting from the effects of... 

najisi* 1. (— ) (ritual) uncleanness; filth, dis- 
order. 2. adj. unclean, impure, dirty, filthy; 
(fig.) profane. 3. v. (also caus. najisisha) 
soil, pollute, defile; (fig.) profane, desecrate; 
violate, ravish (a woman). Cf. mnajisi, 

nakala*, nuku, nakili (-) 1. copy. - ya pili. 
duplicate. 2. issue, number (of a periodical). 
3. article (in a periodical). Cf. manukuu, 

nama 1. be flexible/pliable. 2. adj. flexible, 
pliable, elastic, plastic, kijiti kinama. 
flexible stick. Cf. kinamo. 

namba*, nambari [Engl.l 1. (-) number. - 
kwanza. first quality. — ya simu. telephone 
number, tia — . to number — tasa. math. 
prime number. 2. (ma-) quantity, manamba. 
(great) crowd (of people). 

nambari* [Engl.~] (-, ma-) see namba. 

nambawani* [Engl.l (ma-) rare acknowledged 
leader, victor, first-class man; a thing of first 


nami ( < na mimi) and I, I too. 

namna* [PersJ (_) i. kind> sort> quality> 
kila -. of all sorts, various, heterogeneous. 
- gani? of what kind? dukani kwake kuna 
viatu - kwa _. In his store there are shoes 
of every kind. 2. pattern, model, example. 
3. form, tabulation, paradigm. 

namua take out, remove, set free, extricate, 
nanaa* pi. mint (leaves). Cf. mnanaa. 

nanasi* [/>««.] (ma-) pineapple. Cf. mnanasi, 

nane eight, -a -. eighth. Cf. manane. 

nanga* [Pers. ] (_) naut. anchor, tia -. cast 
anchor, ng'oa -. weigh anchor. 

nang'anika be fat/greasy/oily. 

nangonango (-) worm (in the bowels). 

nani? interrog. pron. who? -a _. whose? 

nanigwanzula (_) nanigwanzula (a small lizard). 

nanua break/split open, open by force, intr. 
nanuka. be split open. 

nanvi (< na ninyi) and you (pi.), you too. 

nao (<na wao) and they, they too. 

napukia be flexible/limber/elastic. 

nargisi* (-) narcissus. 

nasa seize, grasp; catch, hold on to. mnyama 
amenaswa katika mtego. The animal has 
been caught in the trap. appl. nasia. intr. 
nasika. caus. nasisha. inv. nasua. set free, 
release (from a trap). Cf. mnaso; also nata. 

nasaba*(_) 1. lineage, descent. 2. genealogy, 
family tree. 3. relations, relatives, kinsfolk.' 
sina - naye. I am not related to him. Cf. 

nasaha* (-) request for forgiveness/pardon. 
Cf. nasihi. 

nasi (<nasisi) and we, we too. 
2 nasi* [Engl.l (-, ma-) nurse. 
nasibisha* see 2 nasibu. 

^asibu* (-) 1. {us. bahati -) luck, chance, 
kwa _. by chance, perhaps. 2. fate, destiny. 
3.: bahati — . lottery. 

nasibu*, nasibisha trace someone's genealogy. 
Cf. nasaba. 

nasiha* (_) 1. true/sincere friend. 2. wise/ 
reliable adviser. Cf. nasihi. 

nasihi* 1. advise, give (good) advice. 2. beg 
for forgiveness/pardon. Cf. nasaha, nasiha. 

nasua inv. of nasa. 

nasuri* (_) m ed. fistula. 

nata 1. be sticky /viscous. 2. stick/spread on. 
3. fig.: jinata. boast. Cf. nasa. 




natija* (— ) result. 

nauli* 1= hire, pay fare. 2. pay freight, caus. 
naulisha. make arrangements for shipping, 
charter. 3. (-) freight(age) Cf. mnawili. 

nauruzi*, nairuzi, neruzi LPers.J (—) Nauruz 
(Persian New Year's Day, 22 March). 

nchi, inchi (— ) 1. country. — yetu (or ya kwetu). 
our country, our homeland. — za Afrika. the 
countries of Africa. — kubwa. the great powers. 
ndugu wa — moja. compatriot, fellow country- 
man, fukuza katika — . deport, exile (from a 
country). 2. land, earth. — kavu. dry land (as 
opp. to bahari). — sawa. level country. 3. 
rare district, region. 

navya caus. of nawa. 

nawa wash (hands, face, feet), caus. nawisha, 
navya. provide with water for washing (be- 
fore a meal), appl. nawia. maji ya kunawa. 
water for washing. Cf. manavva. 

nawe (< na wewe) and you (sing.), you too. 

nawiri* shine, glow (of the face: have a 
healthy appearance, pleasant expression). 
Cf. nuru. 

naye (< na yeye) and he (she, it), he (she, it) 

nazaa* 1. quarrel, dispute. appZ. nazia. 

appl.-ass. naziana. quarrel with each other. 
2. (— ) quarrel, dispute, dissension, hostili- 
ty. Cf. mnazaa. 

ndago (— ) ndago (a weed, 'nut grass,' Cyperus 
rotundus). — mwitu. papyrus grass. 

ndakaka (— ) ndakaka (long thin pole used in 
thatching roofs). 

ndala (— ) see ndara. 

ndama (— ) 1. calf. 2. young of some other 
animals. — ya mbuzi. kid. 

ndani 1. (— ) inner part, inside. 2. adv. inside, 
within. — ya... inside of... alifika mpaka — . 
He came all the way inside, aliingia — . He 
went in. 3. inwardly, secretly, anadhani — 
ya moyo wake. He thought in his innermost 
heart. Cf. kindanindani, undani. 

ndara, ndala (— ) ndara (leather sandal without 

nazi (— ) (ripe) coconut, prov. — mbovu harabu ndaro (— ) boasting, bragging, sema maneno ya 

ya nzima. A bad coconut destroys the good 
one. Cf. mnazi. 

ncha (— ) 1. tip, point. — ya kalamu. point of 
a pencil. 2. end, extremity, peak. — ya 
kaskazini (kusini). geogr. north (south) 
pole. 3. strand (of a rope, etc.). 4. (final) 
result, outcome. 

— . make boastful statements. 

ndau (— ) dipper, bailer (used for bailing out 
boats). Cf. ndoo. 

^ndege, dege, (arch. ) nyuni (— ) 1. bird. 2. fig. 
{also — ulaya) airplane. — yenye kutua majini 
(or — yenye magalawa). seaplane. — ya jet. 
jet airplane. — ya upelelezi. reconnaissance 





ndege (-) si gn , om en. - njema (mbaja). a 

good (bad) sign/omen. 

ndema(-) see dema. 

ndere (-): uganga wa -. (kind of) powder (re- 
garded as a love-charm). 

nderemo (-) see mteremo. 

nderi (_) ornith. nderi (large bird of prey 
similar to a condor). 

ndevu pi. 1. beard, whiskers. 2. fig. awn, 
beard (of grain). 3. wattle (of birds). Cf. 

ndewe, njewe (-) 1. anat. lobe of the ear. 
2. hole pierced in the lobe of the ear (to 
receive an earring). 

ndezi (-) sleepiness, drowsiness; indolence, 

ndezi (-) ndezi (kind of rat). 

ndia (-) see njia. 

ndiga (_) ndiga (kind of wild grass, Dioscorea 

ndigano (-) ndigano (disease of cattle espe- 
cially prevalent on the east coast of Africa, 
'east-coast fever'), katika wilaya hiyo iko 
-. The east-coast fever has appeared in 
these districts. 

ndilo (< ni hilo) (emph.) That is it! 

ndimi Unimimi) (emph.) That is me! I'm 
the one! 

ndimi pi. of ulimi. 

ndimo (< ni humo) (emph.) In there is where 
it is! 

ndimu* llnd.2 (-) lime (fruit). Cf. mdi m „ : 

ndinyi ( < „i ninyi) (emph.) You (pi.) are the 
ones! Especially you ! 

^dio (<ni wao) (emph.) They are the ones! 
Especially them! 

ndio see ndiyo. 

ndipo (< ni hapo) (emph.) It is there/then 

(that...), aliufunga mlango - akaenda zake. 

He first locked the door and then he went 
his way. 

ndiposa con/., dial, therefore, consequently. 

ndisi ( < ni sisi ) ( em ph.). We are the ones! 
Especially us ! 

ndivyo ( < ni hivyo) (emph.) It is in this/that 
way (that...), kama -. If that is the way it 
is. _ hivyo. in this very way. 

ndiyo, ndio ( < „i hiyo) (emph.) That is the 
way it is! Yes! 

ndizi (-) banana, plantain (fruit of the imgomba, 





ndoa (— ) marriage, wedding, matrimony, fun pa 
— . conclude a marriage, vunja — . break up 
a marriage. Cf. oa. 

ndoana (— ) fishhook. 

ndoero (— ) ornith. ndoero (kind of bird, crab- 

ndugu (— ) 1. relative of the same generation: 
brother, sister, cousin. — mume. brother. 
— mke. sister. — mzazi. blood brother. — 
tumbo moja. child of the same mother, half 
brother/sister. — wa kunyonya. foster 
brother. 2. friend, fellow tribesman. 3, fig. 
citizen, conational. 4. fig. birthmark. Cf. 
kidugu, udugu. 

ndogoro (— ) zool. ndogoro (species of ante- 
lope, waterbuck). 

ndole pi. of udole. 

ndondi adv. with the fist(s). pigana — . fight 
with the fists, box. 

ndongoa (— ) ndongoa (custom of killing an 
animal Lgoat, oxj in front of the house of a 
deceased person). 

ndonya (— ) ndonya (wooden disc/plug inserted 
in a woman's upper lip LMakonde, Wiha, 


ndoo (— ) 1. bucket, pail; dipper, bailer, scoop. 
2. bucket of a dredger, one of the recepta- 
cles on a conveyor belt. 

ndorobo (— ) tsetse fly. (= mbung'o, chafuo.) 

ndoto (— ) 1. dream(ing). 2. rare sleep, 
drowsiness. Cf. "'ota. 

ndovu (— ) dial, elephant. ( = tembo.) 

nduara (— ) nduara (a sea-fish). 

ndubi (— ) naut. outrigger. 

ndui pi., med. smallpox (a single pustule = 
udui). mgonjwa wa — . victim of smallpox. 
chanja — . vaccinate for smallpox. 

nduli (— ) 1. cruel/brutal person, ruffian, thug. 

2. murderer. 3. rel. angel of death. 

ndumakuwili (— ) zool. blindworm (which is 
popularly believed to have a mouth at either 
end; cf. uma, kuwili/ 

ndume (— ) 1. see uume. 2. male (of animals). 

3. strong/vigorous man. Cf. ume. 

ndumiko, umiko (— ) instrument (horn) used for 
cupping/bleeding. Cf. umika. 

nduni (— ) novelty, latest fashion/rage. 

ndururu adj., coll. thin, light, weak; small, 
undersize (of persons). 

ndusi* (-, ma-) box (us. covered with rawhide; 
used by women for clothing, personal orna- 
ments, etc.). Cf. mandusi. 

nduu (— ) dial. - njugu. 

nduvi pi. of uduvi. 



ndwele (-) dial. - uele. 
ndweo (— ) pride, arrogance. 

neema* (-) 1. rel. (divine) favor, grace, 

blessing, benefaction. 2. well-being, com- 
fort. 3. wealth, prosperity, abundance. 
4. generosity, aid, support. Cf. neemeka, 
neemevu, uneemevn. 

neemefu* adj. see neemevu. 

neemeka* 1. be in comfortable circumstances/ 
well-off, own property. 2. be generous/ 
charitable. 3. make a good profit. Cf. 

neemevu*, neemefu adj. plentiful, abundant; 
in comfortable circumstances, prosperous; 
generous, charitable. Cf. neema, neemeka. 

nektai* [Engl.'] (-) necktie. 

neli* Und. ~\ (_) tube, pipe. 

nema rare bend (jntr.). caus. nemesha. intr. 
nemeka. dance gracefully. 

nembo (-) tribal mark/tattoo. Cf. rembo, 

nemsi* (— ) rare good name, honorable reputa- 

1 nena 1. speak, talk, articulate. - vizuri, 
usiseme puani. Articulate clearly, don't 
talk through the nose. 2. mention, speak 
of, talk about. Unayemnena na mfahamu. 
I know the person you are talking about. 

3, name, designate; declare, makamu ame- 
mnena waziri wa ukulima. The president has 
named the minister of agriculture, caus. nenesha, 
neneza. appl. nenea. speak against, contradict 
someone, appl.-ass. neneana. speak against 
each other, argue, blame/accuse each other, 
recriminate. Cf. neno, kijineno, mnena, 
mnenaji, mnenea, unenaji. 

"nena (ma-) anat. groin. Cf. kinena. 

nenda see enda. 

nene adj. 1. thick, broad; fat (of persons or 
animals), corpulent. 2. complete, full. 3. 
fig.: sauti -. a deep voice. Cf. nenepa, 
unene; also nona. 

nenepa become fat/corpulent/unwieldy (of per- 
sons; see nona/ caus. nenepesha. Cf. 

neneza caus. of ^nena. 

neno (ma-) 1. word, expression, utterance. - la 
kweli. a true word. 2. pi., rare language, 
dialect. 3. pi. discussion, debate. 4. state- 
ment, assertion. 5. (important) matter, affair, 
(matter for) concern. - hili limetukasirisha. 
This matter has annoyed us. _ s iri. secret. 
6. objection, sina -. I have no objection. 
Cf. *nena. 

nepa bend down, sink, dip, sag (of a tree branch, 
etc.). caus. nepesha. bend down, press down. 

neruzi* (-) see nauruzi. 

nesa 1. bend, sag (as a branch). (Cf. nepa.; 
2. strike, beat. 


n para 

neva* {.Engl. J (— ) anat. nerve. 

ng'aa, ng'ara, ng'ala shine, gleam, glitter, 
sparkle, caus. ng'aza, ng'ariza, ng'aliza. 
Cf. mng'ariza, mng'arizo, mng'aro, ung'aro. 

ngabu (— ) chisel, gouge (~ bobari). 

ngadu (— ) ngadu (kind of crab). 

ng'akia growl, snarl, show the teeth (dogs, etc). 

ng'ala see ng'aa. 

ngalawa, galawa (— ) naut. native boat with 

ng'aliza caus. of ng'aa. 

Ingama (— ) ngama (kind of white clay). 

2 ngama (-) hold (of a vessel), bilge (= banduru). 

ng'amba (-) 1. (kind of) turtle. 2. (chuma cha 
— ) tortoise-shell. 

ngambi (— ) communal work, mutual assistance 
(organized by a group of people living to- 
gether). Cf. ^amba. 

ng'ambo (-) 1. either of two opposite sides. 

- ya huku. this side. 2. (- ya pili) other/ 
opposite side (of a river, etc.). 3. prep.: 

- ya... on the other side of... 4. rec. abroad. 

ngamia* (-) 1. camel. 2. fig., coll.: ana shingo 
ya -. She has a camel neck (of a girl with a 
long, slim neck, regarded as a mark of 

ng'amua find out, learn about, discover, un- 
ravel; disclose (a secret). Cf. mang'amung'amu. 

Ing'anda (— ) handful. 

^ng'anda, ng'andu sing., astr. Venus. 

^ng'anda (— ) cards pip, spot. 

ng'ang'ama seize, grasp, catch hold of, hold 
fast (something moving, swinging: a branch, 

ng'ang'anaa 1. become dry /hard (from the 
effects of the sun). 2. wilt, wither. 

ng'ang'ania 1. rare beg, implore, entreat, plead 
(persistently and urgently for something one 
wants). 2. vie for, contest (the possession of 
something). Cf. ng'ang'anivu. 

ng'ang'anivu adj. persistent, importunate. Cf. 

Ingano (— ) rare, liter, story, tale, fable. 

^ngano (— ) wheat. 

ngao (— ) (also gao, ma-) 1. shield. 2. house- 
front, fagade. 

ngapi interrog. pron. how many? saa — ? What 
time is it? 

Angara (— ) ngara (male blossom of maize). 



2 ngara (-) rare 1. skin, hide, leather (= ngozi). 
2. ngara (a leather headband worn by chiefs). 

ng'ara see ng'aa. 

ng'arange (-) heartwood (of a tree). 

ngariba (ma-) professional circumciser. 

ng'ariza caus. of ng'aa. 

ngavu pi. of ugavu. 

ngawa (-) zool. civet cat, serval. 

ngazi (-) ladder, steps, (flight of) stairs, fig.; 
— ya noti. (musical) scale. 

Ngazija sing. Great Comoro Island. Cf. 
Kingazija, Mngazija. 

nge (-) see ng'ge. 

ngedere (-) ngedere (small black monkey). 

ngema dial. see njema. 

ngeu (-) 1. red ochre. 2. mark, line (made by 
native carpenters with red ochre). 3. fig. 
bleeding from a head wound. 

ng'ge, nge (-) scorpion. 

ngimbi pi. of ugimbi. 

ngiri (-) 1. warthog. 2. rare wild boar. 
( = nguruwe wa mwitu). mshipa wa -. 
swollen scrotum, scrotal hernia. 

ng'si (-) cuttlefish, wino wa -. sepia. 

ng'o, ng'oo inter/, expressing contempt, 
derision, refusal. 

ngoa (_) 1. desire, lust, timiza -. satisfy 
desire. 2. envy, jealousy. 

ng'oa 1. tear out, pull/dig up. _ mzizi. pull 
up a root, fig., coll. - mzizi wa fitina. re- 
move the roots of an evil. _ jino. pull a 
tooth. 2. raise, hoist. — tanga. naut.. **t 
sail. fig. _ safari, set out on a journey. 
Cf. mng'oaji. 

ngoe (-) augment, of kingoe. 

ngoeka {rare koeka) get hold of something 
(fruit, etc.) with a hook (forked stick, etc.). 
Cf. kingoe, ugoe. 

ng'ofu (-) fish-roe. 

ngogo (-) ngogo (small fish). 

ngoja 1. wait (for). 2. stay, remain behind, 
stop. appl. ngojea. appl.-ass. ngojeana. 
wait for each other; wait together, caus. 
ngojeza. postpone, adjourn; keep someone 
waiting. 3. guard, be on guard, keep watch. 
4. <-) rare (red., w. int. force): ngoja-ngoja 
yaumiza tumbo. Long waiting hurts the 
stomach. Cf. ngojo, kingojo, mngoja, 
mngojezi, ungojaji. 

ngojamaliko (-) ornith. (species of) heron, 

ngojo (-) 1. stopping-place, station. 2. wait- 
ing room. 3. guarding, surveillance. 4. mil. 
patrol. Cf. ngoja. 



n gumma 

ngole (— ) string, twine. 

ngoma (— ) (rare goma, ma-) 1. drum, piga — . 
beat a drum. 2. dance, cheza (ingia) — . 
take part in a dance. 3. music. 

ng'ombe (— ), gombe (ma-) 1. cow, ox, cattle. 
— dume. bull. — jike. cow. — maksai. ox, 
bullock, kama — . milk a cow. ndama ya — . 
calf. prov. wawili hula — . Two can eat an 
ox. 2. fig. stupid person. 

ngome (— ) 1. fort, fortress. 2. fortification, 

ng'onda 1. to dry fish. 2. (-) dried fish. 

Ing'ong'a (— ) 1. war horn. 2. the sound of 
such a horn. 

ng'ong'a 1. hum, buzz. 2. to make a con- 
temptuous noise with tongue and lips (the 
'raspberry'). Cf. king'ong'o. 

ng'ongo pi. of ung'ongo. 

ng'ong'ona gnaw. 

ngongongo (— ) (onom.) freight train. 

ngono pi. 1. sexual intercourse. 2. bedtime, 
nighttime. 3. polyg. a wife's turn for sleep- 
ing with her husband. Cf. gona. 

ng'oo see ng'o. 

ng'ota, ng'uta 1. gnaw. 2. tap, rap (as a wood- 
pecker). 3. pound, beat (pillows, rugs). 4. 
shake, sift. 

^ngovi (— ) see govi. 

Aigovi (— ) see ngozi. 

ngozi, ngovi (— ) 1. skin, hide, leather. 2. fig., 
sport football, football game. 

nguchiro (— ) mongoose. 

l i \ „:jji„ »».J /„U», n«r 0nn /■„.,», 


ngumbi (— ) ngumbi (winged white ant; cf. kumbi- 

ngumi (ma-) fist, piga — . strike with the fist. 
mpiga — . sport boxer. 

ng'ungwe (— ) 1. furrow (prepared for planting 
seeds). 2. a piece of land allotted to some- 
one for cultivation. 

ngungwi (— ) dial. see kungwi. 

^nguo (-) 1. cloth, fabric, material. — za kitanda, 
bedclothes, fuma — . weave cloth. 2. garment, 
clothing, dress, vaa (vua) — . dress (undress) 
oneself, vika — . dress/clothe someone. 3. 

^nguo (— ) nguo (a kind of bird regarded as a 
bringer of misfortune). 

nguri (— ) wooden hammer (used by shoemakers). 

nguru (— ) nguru (a large edible fish). 

nguruma rumble, thunder, growl, roar, bellow 
(indicating any loud, deep sound), prov. 



angurumapo simba nani achezaye? When the 
lion roars, who dances then? Cf. ngurumo, 

ngurumo (-), kingurumo (vi-) any loud, deep 
sound: rumbling, thundering, growling, roar- 
ing, bellowing. - ya simba. the roaring of a 
hon. - ya radi. the rumbling of thunder. Cf. 

nguruwe (_) 1. swine, hog, pig. _ mw itu. wild 
pig. - jike. sow. 2. (also nyama ya -). 

nguruzi (-) plug, peg. 

ng'uta see ng'ota. 

nguu (— ) mountaintop, peak. 

nguva (— ) dugong, manatee. 

nguvu (-) 1. strength, power, force, energy. 
tia nguvuni. arrest, place in custody. _ ya 
umeme. electricity. - za atom, atomic energy. 
- za kubuni. creative forces. 2. power, ability, 
influence, authority. 3. importance, serious- 
ness. 4. passion, vehemence, kwa — . 1. 
strongly, energetically; with authority; 
earnestly; passionately, vehemently. 2. by 
force, under compulsion, reluctantly. 

nguyu (-) anat. ankle bone. 

nguzi (-) nguzi (hole in the bottom of a boat to 
let out water). 

nguzo (-) 1. prop, post, pillar, column, beam, 
girder. 2. fig., hi.: - za Uislamu. the five 
articles of Muhammadan faith. 3. fig. basis, 

support, proof, corroboration; comfort, 
assurance. 4. monument. Cf. kiguzo. 

ng'wafua snatch, snap at something (of an 

ingwe (-) 1. row/bed of plants. 2. plot, parcel 
(of land). 3. the piece of land that a man is 
allotted or assigned to work in a day. 

2 ngwe pi. of ugwe. 

ngwea 1. be exhausted/emaciated. 2. be wilted/ 

ngwena (_) dial, crocodile. (= mamba.) 

ni aux. v. be (serving as a copula), yeye ni 
mgonjwa. He is ill. 

nia* 1. (_) aim, goal, intention, purpose, kwa 
-. intentionally, bila -. unintentionally. 
2. (-) thought, idea; conscience. 3. v. have 
in mind, intend; decide. 4. v. consider, re- 
flect. Cf. ania, nuia, nuio, manuwio. 

niabu*, niaba (_) see naibu. 

nidhamu* (_) order, discipline, endesha -. 
maintain discipline. 

nie nie [Germ, niemand ?] no one at all. 

nikaha*, mikaha, nikahi (_) hi. marriage, 
wedding, fungisha -. solemnize a marriage, 
perform the wedding ceremony. 

nikwata (-) nikwata (a species of small lizard 
which lives in houses). 




nili* (— ) indigo (the dye; cf. mnili). 
Inina (— ) liter, mother. 

^nina aux. v. 1st pers. sing. I have. 

ninga (— ) 1= ninga (species of pigeon). 2. 
Ninga (pr. n., fern.). 

ning'inia move back and forth, swing, sway, 
rock. cans, ning'iniza, ning'inisha. 

nini interrog. pron. what? kwa — ? why? (more 
emphatic than mboria, q.v„). ya — (hii). Why 
(that)? What for? una -? What's the matter 
with you? — maana yake? What is the mean- 
ing of that? hujambo -? How are you? 

ninyi, nyinyi abs. pron. 2nd pers. pi. you (pi.). 

nipo see po. 

nira* (-) (ox-)yoke. 

nisha*, nishaa (-) rare starch(-flour). 
(- *wanga.) 

nishaa* (-) see nisha. 

nishani* (-) medal, badge; order, decoration. 

nishati* (-) rare strength, exertion, energy. 

njaa (-) 1. hunger, appetite, nina (naona) — . 
I am hungry. 2. food shortage, famine. — 
ilikuwa katika nchi hii. There was a famine 
in this country. 

njaanjaa (-) papyrus grass. 

njatna (— ) 1. secret society. 2. secret meeting. 
3. secret message/communication. 

njari* pi. of ujari. 

nje adv. 1. outside. — ya... outside of..., on 
the surface of... — ya maji. on the surface 
of the water. 2. sport offside, 

njegere (— ) (small variety of) pea, pigeon pea. 

njeku (— ) undersized bull. 

njema, (dial. ) ngema 1. adj. ~ ^ema. 2. inter]. 
Good! Certainly! Cf. vema. 

njenje (— ) coll. money. 

njewe (— ) see ndewe. 

njia, ndia (— ) 1. way, route; road, street, path. 
— kuu, highway. — ya reli. railway track. — 
ya kuzunguka. roundabout way, detour. — ya 
kukata. shortcut. — panda, crossroads, loc. 
njiani. on the way, en route. 2. elec: — kuu. 
(power) main. 3. fig. way, means; method. 
tumia — zote uwezavyo umtoe jelani. Use any 
means to get him out of jail, umetumia — 
gani? What kind of method are you using? 
Cf. ja. 

njiti (— ) 1. - kijiti. 2.: — za kibiriti. match. 
3. rec. spoke of a bicycle wheel. 

njiwa (— ) pigeon, dove. 

njombo (— ) njombo (kind of fish). 

njongwanjongwa adv. softly, quietly, stealthily, 
surreptitiously, on tiptoe. 


nong ona 

njorinjori 1. (ma-) a very tall man (often w. 
ref. to Nubians). 2. adj. tall. Cf. kingori- 
ngori. kinjorinjori. 

njozi (— ) phantom, apparition, ghost. 

njuga (-) njuga (a little bell, worn as an orna- 
ment and by dancers). 

"jUk'u \—i peanut, iijugunyasa. (ordinary) peanut 
( = karanga). njugumawe. a hard variety of 
peanut (Madagascar/Bambara peanut). Cf. 
mnjugunyasa, mnjugumawe. 

njukuti pi. see uchukuti. 

njumu*, njumunjumu (— ) (metal) inlay work, 
studding. Cf. mjume, mjumu. 

njumunjumu (— ) see njumu. 

njuti* \_lnd. J (-) shoe (of European style). 

n.k. abbr. - na kadhalika. and so forth. 

nne num. four, watu wanne. four people, —a 
— . fourth. 

noa sharpen, whet, hone. — kisu. sharpen a 
knife, fig. — meno. welcome, approve, appl. 
nolea. ;iwe la kunolea. whetstone, intr. 
noleka. caus. nolesha. Cf. noleo, kinoo, 

4oa see 2 nvoai 

Noeli* \__Fr.-Engl. ] (-) Christmas. 

nofoa, nyofoa, nyafua pull off, strip off (meat 
from bones). Cf. mnofu. 

nofu (-) (piece of) lean meat. Cf. mnofu. 

noga be tasty /sweet, taste sweet, appl. 

nokoa* iPers. J (ma-) 1. observer, spectator. 

2. sub-overseer, assistant (on a plantation). 

3. comm. flunky, stooge, serf. 

noleo (ma-) 1. something used for sharpening: 
whetstone, knife-sharpener, razor strop, etc. 
2. metal ring, ferrule (between the blade and 
handle of a knife). Cf. noa. 

nomi* adv. brimful. 

nona become fat (of animals), appl. nonea. 
caus. nonesha. fatten (up). Cf. nono, kinono, 
unono; also nene, nenepa. 

nondo (— ) 1. (kind of) moth. 2. liter, dragon. 

nonea kiss. ass. noneana. kiss each other. 

nonga be troublesome/importunate/disagree- 
able, caus. nonza. 1. = nonga. 2. bore 
someone, exhaust someone's patience. Cf. 

nongo (-) 1. sweat, perspiration, 2. dirt on 
perspiring skin. 

nong'ona whisper, int. nong'oneza. whisper 
something to someone. Cf. manong'onezo, 
mnong'onezi, mnong'ono, nong'onong'o, 

nong onong o 



nong'onong'o (ma-) 1. whispering. 2. fig. 
rumor, gossip. Cf. nong'ona. 

nongwa (— ) 1. unpleasantness, annoyance, 
trouble. 2. malice, spite. Cf. nonga. 

nono adj. fat, plump, well-fed. Cf. nona. 

nonza caus. of nonga. 

noo (ma-) augment, of kinoo. 

noti* [Engl. J (— ) 1. banknote, bill. 2. mus. 

notisi* \JLngl. J (— ) 1. jur. notice, summons. 
— ya masaa 24. 24 hours' notice. 2. hand- 

Novemba* {Engl. J November. 

nso (— ) anat. 1. kidney. (= buki, figo.) 
2. rare liver. (= ini.) 

nswi (— ) arch. fish. ( = samaki.) 

nta (— ) wax. — ya nyuki. beeswax. 

nti (— ) nti (ear-ornament). 

nufaika* see nafaika. 

nufaishana* caus. -ass. of nafaika. 

nuhusi* (-) see nuksi. 

nuia* 1. think, believe, assume. 2. have in 
mind, intend, resolve, appl. nuilia. intr. 
nuika. nuiza: 1. caus. inculcate, instruct. 

2. int. concentrate one's thoughts on some- 
thing (a particular desire, etc.), make a wish. 
Cf. nia 2, manuwio. 

nuio* (— ) aim, intention, purpose. Cf. nia 1, 
nuia, manuwio. 

nujumu* (— ) see jumu. 

nuka 1. eive off a bad smell, stink. 2. nauseate. 
appl. nukia. smell good/sweet, double appl.- 
int. nukilia (caus. nukiliza). smell out, follow 
a scent, sniff, snuffle, nukilia vizuri. detect/ 
notice a pleasant odor (of perfume, food, etc.). 
caus. nusa, nukiza. have something/someone 

traced/hunted. Cf. nukato, nuko, mnukio, 


nukato (ma-) (usually manukato) something having 
or producing a smell (us. pleasant), scent, per- 
fume. Cf. nuka. 

nukiza caus. of nuka. 

nuklia* LEngl.J adj. nuclear. 

nuko (ma-) smell (either good or bad). — hilo 
mbaya limetokea wapi? What is causing that 
bad smell? manukato ya aina hii yana — 
nzuri sana. This kind of perfume smells very 
good. Cf. nuka. 

nuksani* (— ) see nuksi. 

nuksi*, nuksani, nuhusi (— ) misfortune, bad 
luck, failure, disappointment. 

nukta* (— ) 1. dot, point, mark. 2. punctuation 
mark. 3. diacritical mark, vowel sign (Arabic). 




- mbili. colon. 4. fig. moment, second. _ 
moja. Just a moment. - tano. five seconds. 

nuku* see nakili. 

numbi (-) 1. throwing out a net (in fishing). 
2. catch /haul (of fish). 

nuna sulk, act sullen; be discontented, 
BTumble. complain; he nnfn> n d!y. a~"L 
nunia. be discontented/complain about some- 
thing (to someone); be cross with someone. 
appl.-ass. nuniana. grumble to each other, 
complain about each other, caus. nunisha. 
Cf. mnuna, mnuno, ununaji. 

nunda (-), mnunda (wa-) 1. wild animal, beast 
of prey. 2. half-wild domestic cat. 3. fig. 
cruel, bloodthirsty person. 4. fig. some- 
thing very heavy, 

nundu (-) bump, lump; hump (of native cattle, 
etc.). nundunundu. adj. & adv. lumpy, 
hunchbacked. Cf. kinundu. 

nundunundu see nundu. 

nunge (— ) leper colony. 

nungu, nungunungu (-) 1. porcupine. 2. nungu 
(globe fish, = bunju). 

nung'unika grumble, complain, pout. appl. 
nung'unikia. caus. nung'unisha. Cf. nung'u- 

nung'uniko (ma-) 1. grumbling, pouting, 2, dis- 
satisfaction, complaint. Cf. nung'unika. 

nungunungu (_) see nungu. 
nunu pi. of ununu. 

nunua buy, purchase; bargain over, make a bid 
on. appl. nunulia. intr. nunulika. caus. 
nunuza. Cf. mnunuzi, ununuzi. 

nunulia appZ. of nunua. 

nunuza rub the gums of a child to encourage 

nunuza caus. of nunua. 

nurisha* 1. light up, illuminate, brighten. 2. 
reflect. Cf. nuru. 

nuru* (-) 1. light, illumination, tia -. light 
up, illuminate, brighten; (fig.) clear up, 
elucidate, toa -. emit light, shine. 2. 
brightness, radiance, fig..- uso wa -. a 
bright/cheerful/friendly face, 3. bright 
color. Cf. nawiri, nurisha, ^inara, mnara. 

nusa caus. of nuka. 

nusra* (-) see l nusura, 2 nusura. 

nusu* 1, (-) half, _ saa. half an hour, saa 
u -. an hour and a half. - kipenyo. radius 
(of a circle), gawa - kwa (bi) -. divide in 
half, halve, bunduki ya nusu mtombo. subr 
machine gun. 2, (-) part, piece, - kidogo. 
a small piece, nusu ... nusu. partly ... partly. 
3. adv. in small number, wamekuja — tu. 
Only a few people came. 

nung'unisha caus. of nung'unika. 

nusudunia* (_) hemisphere. 



^nusura*, nusra (— ) help, aid, support, pro- 
tection. Cf. nusuru. 

^nusura*, nusra adv. almost, nearly; about, 
approximately, aliugua — afe (kufa). He was 
so sick he almost died. 

nusurika intr. of nusuru. 

nn«iirn* heln. snnnort; smard. protect, defend. 
intr. nusurika. be saved from/spared a diffi- 
culty. Cf. ^nusura. 

nusushilingi* [Ar.-Engl.l (-) 50-cent piece, 
half a shilling. 

nwa see nywa. 

nya (also inya) 1. drop, discharge. — mvua. 
rain, inakunya. It is raining. 2. (coll. also 
— mavi) defecate, urinate, appl. nyea. prov. 
anayesifu mvua imemnyea. Whoever praises 
rain is rained upon. Cf. nyevu, kinyeleo, 
kinyenyevu, kinyesi, kinyo, mnyevu, mnyevu- 
nyevu, mnyo, unyaji, unyesi, unyevu. 

nyaa (-) rare nail (of finger or toe). (= ukucha.) 

nyafua see nofoa. 

nyagonyago (-) coll. howling, wailing, yelling. 

nyaka (& inv. nyakua) 1. snatch, grab; filch. 
2. pluck, pull up (plants). 

nyakanga (-) nyakanga (person in charge of 
initiation rites, chief of the kungwi, q.v.). 

nyakati* pi. of wakati. 

nyakua inv. of nyaka. 

nyala* pi. of ^ala. 

Inyalio (pi. of 2 walio) 1. a fish-trap. 2. sticks 
laid inside a cooking-pot to keep the food 
from burning. 

2nyalio (— ) welt, weal. Cf. walio. 

nyama (— ) 1. = mnyama. 2. flesh, meat. — ya 
ng'ombe (nguruwe). beef (pork). — ya ma- 
tunda. flesh of a fruit. — ya nazi. meat of 
a coconut. 3. substance, matter. Cf. mnyama. 

nyamaa 1. be silent/still/quiet. 2. suppress 
expression of pain. appl. nyamalia. caus. 
& int. nyamaza. be (quite) still, keep (per- 
fect) silence, imp. sing, nyamaza! pi. nya- 
mazeni! Be still! Keep quiet! Cf. nyamavu, 
mnyamavu, unyamavu. 

*nyamafu see nyamavu. 

2nyamafu (— ) dead animal, carrion. Cf. nyama, 

nyamavu, nyamafu adj. 1. still, quiet, silent. 
2. fig. reserved, taciturn. Cf. nyamaa. 

nyambua 1. tear apart/to pieces, crumble; peel 
off (in strips). 2. fig. find fault, rebuke, 
criticize, appl. nyambulia. intr. nyambuka. 

nyambuo (— ) nyambuo (a small fish). 

^nyanda pi. of 1 wanda. 
^nyanda pi. of uwanda. 




nyangalika adj. unheard-of, nondescript, im- 
possible, useless; (of persons) irresponsible, 
hopeless, nguo hii ni kinyangalika haivaiki. 
This dress is so old that I cannot wear it any 
more, mtu huyu ni kinyangalika. This person 
is irresponsible/hopeless. Cf. kinyangalika, 

nyang'amba (-) nyang'amba (a confection made 
of arrowroot). 

nyang'anya take away by force, rob, plunder; 
abduct, kidnap; annex. Cf. mnyang'anyi, 

nyangumi (— ) whale. 

nyani (— ) ape, baboon. — mkubwa. baboon. 

Inyanya 1. stretch oneself, raise oneself. 2. 
come into prominence, put oneself forward. 
appl. nyanyia. try to get something by under- 
handed means, inv. nyanyua. 1. = nyanya. 
2. raise, lift. Cf. mnyanyuko, unyanya. 

^nyanya (-) tomato. Cf. mnyanya. 
3nyanya (— ) grandmother. 
nyanyasa tease, bother, annoy. 
nyanyua inv. of ^nyanya. 

nyapa, nyapanyapa stalk (game), follow 
stealthily, sneak up on. 

nyapanyapa see nyapa. 

nyapo pi. of *uapo. 

*nyara 1. rob, take by force, abduct; take into 
captivity, imprison. 2. (-) plunder, booty, 
stolen goods. 

nyara be ashamed/embarrassed/humiliated. 
Cf. nyarafu, kinyaa, unyaa, unyarafu. 

nyarafu feel aversion/repugnance/disgust. 
appl. nyarafia. Cf. ^nyara, unyarafu. 

nyaraka* pi. see waraka. 

nyasi 1. ma- grass (in gen.). 2. pi. of unyasi. 

nyata walk quietly /stealthily, steal/sneak 
along, appl. nyatia. - mnyama. stalk an 
animal. — mtu. creep up on a person, inv. 
nyatua. walk unsteadily (with short, quick 
steps, as a child first learning to walk). 
Cf. nyatunyatu. 

nyati (-) buffalo. (= mbogo.) 

nyatua inv. of nyata. 

nyatunyatu adv. quietly, stealthily. Cf. 

nyauka 1. dry up, wither. 2. be distorted (in 
the process of drying), caus. nyausha. 
jinyausha. act/talk in a misleading way, 
give a wrong impression. Watu nchini wana 
njaa sana, bado serikali yajinyausha ati 
mipango ya ukulima imendelea. The govern- 
ment gives the impression that agricultural 
development is increasing; yet people are 
still suffering from hunger. Cf. mnyaufu, 

nyayo pi. of wayo, unyayo. 




inyea 1. itch, tickle. 2. scratch oneself, appl. nyendo (-) activity, movement; expedient. - ya 

,i „ „„ ,„ „,.„ „, »„i Umoja wa Afrika na Asia. Afro-Asian Soli- 

;lea. caus. nveza. pass, nvewa. teel ' 

darity Movement. — ya hila. technical expe- 
dient. Cf. enda. 

nyelea. caus. nyeza. pass, nyewa. 
itchy, be irritated; be excited sexually. Cf. 
kinyevu, mnyeo, unyeo; also nyega. 

Aiyea appl. of nya. 

nyega arouse desire (us. sexual), caus. -int. 
ayegesha, nyegeresha, nyengeresha. Cf. 
^nvpfi. nvppp. kinvpir#»ny*»<Te- 

nyege, unyege sing. 1. desire (us. sexual); (of 
animals) heat, rut. 2. med., rare irritation, 
stimulation. 3. fig., rare exasperation, vexa- 
tion. Cf. nyega. 

nyegere (— ), kinyegere, kinyegele (vi-) nyegere 
(an animal similar to a skunk). 

nyegeresha caus. -int. of nyega. 

nyekenya 1. decompose (from natural decay or 
applied chemical action). 2. med. become 
necro tic/gangrenous. 

^nyele pi- of unywele. 

2nyele pi. of *uwele. 

nyeleo (ma-) see kinyeleo. 

nyemelea steal up on, take by surprise, catch 

nyenga rare interrogate, pump (a person), 
force someone to talk, extort an admission. 
appl. nyengea. intr. nyengeka. caus. 
nyengesha. Cf. nyenya. 

^nyenga (— ) nyenga (large flat fish). 

nyengeresha caus. of *nyenga. 

nyenje, nyenze (— ) nyenje (species of cricket). 

nyenya 1. interrogate, pump (with questions); 
extract information from a person, make some- 
one admit something; ferret out. 2. talk some- 
one into something, persuade, appl. nyenyea. 
double appl. nyenyelea. find out a secret. 
double appl.-caus. nyenyeleza. let someone 
in on a secret, intr. nyenyeka. be talked into 
something, yield to pressure, intr.-appl. 
nyenyekea. subordinate oneself to someone, 
be polite/obsequious to a person, show re- 
spect, intr.-caus. teach someone politeness/ 
humility; humiliate a person, pass, nyenywa. 
Cf. nyenyekevu, mnyenyekeo, mnyenyekevu, 

nyenyekevu adj. modest, humble, unassuming; 
servile, obsequious. Cf. nyenya, mnyenye- 
kevu, unyenyekevu. 

nyemi (-) see kinyemi. nyenze (-) see nyenje. 

nyendea creep up on, stalk, follow on the sly. nyenzo pi. of wenzo. 




nyerere (— ) 1. nyerere (bracelet of brass/cop- 
per wire), 2. Nyerere (pr. n. fern.). 

nyerereza 1. hide, conceal; deceive, cheat. 2. 
disguise, camouflage. 

nyesi (— ) see kinyesi. 

nyeta 1. be proud/arrogant/boastful. 2. be 
rude/iii-mannered/insolent. 3. be dissatis- 
fied/hard to please/insufferable, appl. 
nyetea. behave insolently toward someone. 
caus. nyetesha. Cf. unyeti. 

^nyetea appl. of nyeta. 


^nyetea see jetea. 

nycvu adj. moist, damp, wet. Cf. nya. 

nyewa pass, of lnyea. 

nyiga (ma-) see nyigu. 

nyigu, nyiga (ma-) hornet, wasp. 

nyika (ma-) 1. uninhabited place, barren land, 
wasteland. 2. open, treeless region. 

nyima 1. refuse, withhold, tutamnyima cha- 
kula. refuse to give someone food. 2. hold 
back, repress, refl. jinyima. lazima uji- 
nyime nafsi yako. You must restrain yourself 
somewhat. Cf. nyimivu, mnyima, mnyimo, 

nyiminyimi see nyimivu. 

nyimivu, nyiminyimi adj. 1. frugal, stingy. 
2. poor, .shabby, scanty. Cf. nyima. 

nyinyi see ninyi. 

nyinyiha 1. shine (as if smeared with grease). 
2. shine up, polish. 

nyinyirika, nyiririka glide, slide, slip. Cf. 

nyiririka see nyinyirika. 

nyiza (ma-) strip of dried palm-leaf (for plaiting 

^nyoa 1. pull/strip off, remove. 2. shear (sheep). 
3. shave, cut/dress the hair. appl. nyolea. 
Cf. kinyozi, unyozi. 


■'nyoa, noa straighten, correct; draw out, stretch; 

extract, intr. nyoka. be/become straight, be 

stretched out (to full length). 

nyoe (— ) see 2 n y 0nve- 
nyofoa see nofoa. 

nyofu adj. 1. straight, stretched out, extended. 
2. fig. straightforward, honest. Cf. ^nyoka. 

nyoga pi. of uyoga. 

nyogea (-) see nyongea. 

^nyoka, nyooka, nyoroka be straight straightened; 
(fig.) be frank/outspoken/honest, mstari 
ulionyoka. a straight line. caus. nyosha, 
nyoosha, nyorosha. straighten; (fig.) teach/ 
bring up to be honest, refl. -caus. jinyosha. 
rest, take one's afternoon rest. Cf. nyofu, 
mnyofu, unyofu. 




■^nyoka (— ) 1. snake. 2. worm (in gen.). 

nyoko! inter], a vulgar term of abuse (arch., 
'Your mother' ). 

*nyonga 1. (— ) anat. hip. 2. pi. of unyonga. 

^nyonga 1. squeeze (out), press, wring. 2. 
choke, strangle, throttle. 3. twist, wind, 
coil. 4. fig. irritate, annoy, appl. nyongea. 
intr. nyongeka. caus. nyongesha. refl. 
jinyonga. strangle/hang oneself, inv. nyo- 
ngoa. 1. smoothe out, straighten out (twists, 
kinks in something). 2. stretch oneself 
(after having been in a bent/cramped position). 
Cf. nyonge, nyongea, kinyongo, mnyongaji. 

nyonge adj. 1. low, mean, base, vile. 2. weak, 
sickly, decrepit. 3. slight, insignificant. 4. 
spurious, degraded, debased. Cf. kinyonge, 
mnyonge, unyonge; also ^nyonga, nyongea. 

nyongea, nyogea (— ) med. rachitis, rickets. 
Cf. ^nyonga, nyonge. 

nyongeza (— ) (pi. of obs. uongeza) 1. addition, 
supplement, increase, increment. 2. adden- 
dum, appendix. Cf. *ongea. 

nyongo (-) 1. bile. 2. gallbladder. 

nyongoa inv. o/^nyonga. 

nyong'onyea 1. be weak/feeble/slack/languid. 
2. be depressed/downcast. Cf. kinyong'o- 
nyo, unyogovu. 

nyono (-) the breathing of a sleeping person. 
Cf. gona. 

nyonya suck (of small children and animals). 
ndugu wa kunyonya. foster brother, caus. 
nyonyesha. suckle, feed at the breast. Cf. 
nyonye, mnyonywaji. 

^nyonye, nyonyo (— ) mother's breasts (in the 
speech of small children). Cf. nyonya. 

Aiyonye, nyoe (— ) nyonye (green grasshopper). 

Inyonyo (— ) see ^nyonye. 

Aiyonyo (— ) seed of the castor-oil plant. Cf. 
Imbono, ubono. 

nyonyoa pull out (hair), pluck (feathers), appl. 
nyonyolea. intr. nyonyoka. caus. nyonyosha. 
fig. nag, find fault, criticize; annoy, torment. 

nyonyota, nyotanyota, nyunya trickle, drizzle 
(of light rain). Cf. manyonyota, mnyunyo. 

nyonyotoa break into small pieces, crumble. 
intr. nyonyotoka. fall apart, disintegrate (of 
overcooked food, etc.). 

nyoo! inter], of derision or contempt. 

nyooka see *nyoka. 

nyoosha see *nyoka. 

nyoroka see *nyoka. 

nyorora become thin/emaciated/sickly/exhaus- 
ted (from disease). Cf. ororo. 

nyorosha see ^nyoka. 




nyota (-, ma-) 1. astr. star. - yenye baridi. 
planet. 2. fig..- hana - nzuri. He does not 
have a good star (= He has no luck). 

nyotanyota see nyonyota. 

nyote (ninyi -) all of you. - lazima mfike. 
You should all come. All of you should come. 

r.yotoa L . ut^umc cxiiausLeu/weak (from pain). 
2. feel a sharp pain. 

nyoya (ma-) 1. hair, feather, strand of wool. 2. 
pi. of unyoya. 

nyoyo pi., dial. - mioyo. Cf. moyo. 

nyua pi. of 2 U a. 

nyufa pi. of ufa. 

nyuga pi. of *uga. 

nyugo pi. of ugo. 

nyugwe pi. of ugwe. 

nyuka hit, strike, beat. (= piga.) 

nyuki (-) bee. asali ya — . honey. Cf. uki. 

nyukua pinch, pluck. 

^nyuma 1. (— ) back, rear, reverse, mlango wa 
— . back door. — ya ... behind, after. — 
yangu. behind/after me. 2, (— ) the past. 
mambo ya — . (things which occurred in) the 
past. 3. adv. behind, kwa — . from behind. 
4. adv. back, backwards, rudi — . go back. 
Cf. kinyume. 

2 nyuma pi. of uma 4. 

nyumba (— ) 1. house, dwelling-place. — ya 
udongo. clay house. — ya mawe. stone 
house. 2, building. — ya dawa. drugstore, 
pharmacy. - ya simu. telegraph office. 
— ya ghorofa. apartment house. 3. fig. 
group of related families. Cf. chumba, 
jumba, kinyumba, unyumba. 

nyumbu (-) (also kinyumbu, vi-) l.mule. 

( = baghala.) 2. nyumbu (some kinds of ante- 
lope: hartebeest, topi, gnu; = kongoni.). 

nyumbua stretch, bend, flex (something elastic, 
without breaking), intr. nyumbuka. be flexi- 
ble/elastic. Cf. nyumbufu, unyumbufu. 

nyumbufu adj. flexible, elastic. Cf. nyumbua, 

nyundo (— ) hammer. Cf. ^unda. 

nyundu pi. of undu. 

nyungo pi. of **ungo. 

*nyungunyungu (-) med. inflamed/ulcerous 
fissures between the toes. 

^nyungunyungu (— ) earthworm. 

nyuni (-) arch. - ^ndege. 

nyunya see nyonyota. 

nyunyiza sprinkle. Cf. nyonyota, nyunyu, 



of is 

nyunyu (ma-) (us. manyunyu) light rain, drizzle, nywa, nwa (inv. of nya ?) drink, suck up, ab- 
sorb, appl. nywea. intr. nyweka. cans. 
nywesha. give to drink, provide with water. 

sprinkle, spray, Cf. nyonyota, nyunyiza. 
nyuo pi. of uo. 
nyupo pi. of upo. 
nyushi pi. of ushi, unyushi. 

fiYiiai (Jt. uf usi. 

nyuso pi. of uso. 

nyuta pi. of uta. 

nyuti pi. of uti. 

nyuzi, nyuzinyuzi (pi. of uzi) threads, fibers. 
— zibuniwazo na watu. synthetic fibers. 

nyuzio pi. of uzio. 

nywesha wanyama maji. water livestock. 
nywesha (nyweshea) mashamba. water/irri- 
gate fields. Cf. jinywa, kinywa, kinywaji, 
kinyweo, mnywa, mnywo, unywaji. 

^nywea contract, shrivel/curl up; recoil (from 

2nywea appZ. of nywa. 

nywele pi. of unywele. 

nyweleo (ma-) see kinyeleo. 

nywesha caus. of nywa. 

nzige (— ) locust. 

nzigunzigu (— ) butterfly. 

oa, owa take a wife, marry (of a man), appl. marriage ceremony, ass. oana. intermarry 

olea. intr. oleka. 1. be married (of a woman). (of families). Cf. maozi, mwozi, ndoa, uozi. 

2. be marriageable/nubile, pass, olewa. be/ 

get married (of a woman), caus. oza. ofisa*, afisa LEngl.J (ma-) 1. official. 2. mil. 
1. cause/allow to marry, marry off. amemwoza officer. Cf. uafisa. 

mtoto wake kwa mtu mzee. He has married off 

his daughter to an old man. nioze mtoto wako. ofisi* {.Engl. J (— ) 1. (business) office. 2. 
Permit me to marry your daughter. 2. make (government) bureau, institution, 

preparations for a wedding, perform the 



ofisiboi* [EnglJ ( ma -) office boy, errand boy, 

ofusaidi* lEngLli-) sport offside. 

2 oga (also koga) wash (the body), bathe, take 
a bath. appl. oge a. caus. ogesha. bathe 
someone (e.g., a chili), double appl. ogelea. 
1. swim. 2. fig. turn up, appear, arise (a 
question), occur fan event), double =--„'.- 
intr. ogeleka. baharini hapa hapaogeliki. It 
is not possible to bathe in this sea. double 
appl.-caus. ogeleza, ogelesha. cause/teach 
to swim. Cf. kiogeo, mwogaji, mwogeleaji, 

2oga adj. cowardly, timorous, fainthearted, 
pusillanimous; timid, shy, nervous. Cf. 
ogofyo, ogopa, mwoga, mwogofyo, woga, 

°RO (-) rare see woga. 

ogeleka double appl.-intr. of ^oga. 

ogeleza double appl.-caus. of ioga. 

ogofisha double caus. of ogopa. 

ogofya caus. of ogopa. 

ogofyo (ma-) 1. danger. 2. threat, menace. 
Cf. 2 oga. 

oka 1. roast, bake. _ mk ate. bake bread. - 
nyama. roast meat. 2. dry (fruit). 3. fire 
(pottery), caus. okesha, okeza. inv. koa. 
take away from the fire, remove from the 
oven/kiln. inf. (rare) koka (= kuoka). Cf. 
joko, mwokaji, mwoko, uokaji. 


inv. of oka. 

z okoa 1. save, preserve, rescue, deliver, help 
out of a difficulty/predicament, ametuokoa 
katika taabu zetu. He has helped us out of 
our difficulties, ameniokoa na hatari ya 
mamba. He rescued me from a crocodile (lit.: 
from the danger of a crocodile), appl. okolea. 
intr. okoka. caus. & int. okoza. 1. rescue 
someone. 2. get oneself out of a difficult 
situation. Cf. Ikiokozi, maokozi, mwokozi, 
uokozi, wokovu. 

okota 1. pick up, gather; find. 2. come upon by 
chance/unexpectedly. 3. obtain something 
without effort, appl. okolea. intr. okoteka. 
be capable of being picked up. prov . maji 
yaliyomwagika hayaokoteki. Spilled water can- 
not be picked up. caus. okotesha. Cf. kio- 
kosi, kiokote, mwokosi, mwokotaji, uokosi, 

oktavo* [EnglJ(-) mus . oc tave. 

Oktoba* [EnglJ October. 

ola rare look at, observe. Cf. oleza, ^ioo (?). 

ogopa be afraid/terrified/startled, caus. ogofya 

& double caus. ogofisha. frighten, terrify; ole * (~) l ' fat e, lot, destiny. 2. woe, grief, 
startle; endanger, jeopardize; threaten, mwenye _. despondent/melancholy person, 

menace. Cf. 2 oga. 3. inter;.: - wangu ! Woe is me! 




omo* (ma-) naut. bow (of a ship), Cf. kiomo. 

olevva pass, of oa. 

oleza, oleleza make even/level; make some- 
thing like something else, imitate, copy. Cf. 
kiolezo; also ola (?). 

omba 1. ask, beg, be a beggar. 2. pray. 3. 
implore, entreat, beseech, appl. ombea. 
plead/intercede for someone; ask/demand 
something of someone, intr. ombeka. caus. 
ombesha, ombeza. 4. (ma-) request, en- 
treaty, petition. Cf. ombokeza, omboleza, 
ombolezo, maombi, maombolezo, mwombaji, 
mwombezi, mwombelezi, uombaji, uombezi. 

ombasha* [_Turk.~\ (ma-) mil., arch, (approx.) 

ombojea be soft/overripe/overcooked. 

ombokeza repeat the words of the formula be- 
fore swearing an oath. Cf. omba. 

omboleza 1. bewail, lament, mourn. 2. beseech, 
request urgently. Cf. omba. 

ombolezo (ma-) {us. maombolezo) 1. lament, 
weeping/wailing. 2- ceremonial song of 
mourning, dirge. 3. earnest entreaty, urgent 
request. Cf. omboleza. 

ombwe (-) 1. edge, margin, brink. 2. shore. 

omeka unpack, spread out, lay out, display 
(wares, objects), appl. omekea. int. ome- 
keza. pile up, arrange objects by stacking 
them one on the other. 

omoa 1. open. 2. dig up, break up (soil). 3. 
(fig.) stir up, disturb, cause unrest/disorder. 
4. fig. reveal, bring to light, display, appl. 
omolea. intr. omoka. caus. omosha. 

omolea appZ. of omoa. 

ona 1. see, notice, nionavyo. as I see it, in my 
opinion. 2. feel, sense. — njaa (kiu). feel 
hunger (thirst), be hungry (thirsty). — furaha 
(huzuni). feel joy (sorrow), waonaje? How do 
you feel? How are you? 3. think, believe. 
naona utaona ajabu. I think you will be amazed. 
4. perceive (hear, smell). — kishindo. hear a 
noise. — harufu. detect an odor. — ladha. per- 
ceive a taste. 5. recognize, acknowledge. 
refl. jiona. 1. feel, jiona na nguvu. feel 
strong. 2. fig. be conceited/proud/arrogant. 
ass. onana. see/meet each other (again), appl. 
onea. 1. look at someone. 2. feel... (a certain 
emotion, usually hostility) toward someone. 
onea fulani chuki. feel hatred for someone. 
onea kijicho. envy someone, onea wivu. be 
jealous of someone. 3. look down on some- 
one. 4. mistreat, persecute, oppress, intr. 
oneka & intr. -ass. onekana. 1. be visible/ 
apparent/obvious, seem/appear to be. 2. be 
acceptable, caus. onya. 1. cause/permit to 
see, show, explain. 2. warn, admonish, deter, 
restrain. 3. criticize, disapprove of. caus.- 
intr. onyeka. be warned, caus. -ass. onyana. 
warn each other, exchange warning signals. 
double caus. onyesha. 1. show, indicate, 
point out, explain, clarify, demonstrate. 2. 
display, exhibit, disclose. Cf. kionyo, lonyo, 
maonezi, maoni, maono, maonyo, maonyesho, 
mboni, mwonevu, mwonyeshaji, oneo, onevu, 
ono, onyesho, onyo, uonevu, wonyesho, 



ondoa 1. take away, remove, get rid of, elimi- 
nate. 2. put an end to, abolish; conclude, 
terminate. — matanga. conclude the burial 
ceremony. 3. fig. release, relieve of. — 
madaraka. release from obligations, appl. 
ondolea. remove from, rid of, relieve of. 
ondolea mashaka. relieve of doubts, pass. 
ondolewa. be relieved of (doubts), be ab- 
solved from (sins), intr. ondoka. get up, 
rise; set out, start; leave, depart, withdraw. 
ondoka katika ulimwengu. euph. die (lit.: 
depart from the worlds liter.: paliondoka. 
Now it came to pass... (at the beginning of 
a story), intr. -appl. ondokea. make progress, 
prosper, be successful; develop, grow; 
swell, protrude; stand out, be prominent. 
intr. -double appl. ondokelea. get up and 
leave (a place), caus. ondosha. cause to 
leave, send away, dismiss, ondosha nanga. 
weigh anchor, ondosha mtu kazini. dis- 
charge a worker. Cf. ondokeo, ondoleo, 

ondoka intr. of ondoa. 

ondokelea double appl. of ondoa. 

ondokeo (ma-) (us. maondokeo) 1. departure, 
start (of a journey). 2. prospering, success, 
advancement. 3. rare progress. Cf. ondoa. 

ondolea appl. of ondoa. 

ondoleo (ma-) {us. maondoleo) 1. removal, 
elimination, dismissal, maondoleo ya 
mashaka. removal of doubts. 2. shifting, 
transposition. 3. change of residence. Cf. 

ondosha caus. of ondoa. 

onea appl. of ona. 

onekana intr.-ass. of ona. 

oneo (ma-) (us. maoneo) mistreatment, cruelty, 
bullying, persecution. Cf. ona. 

onevu adj. cruel, malicious, oppressive, vio- 
lent. Cf. ona, mwonevu, uonevu. 

*ongea rare grow, increase, us. caus. ongeza. 
1. grow, increase. 2. add to, enlarge, aug- 
ment, expand, fill up. ongeza mali. add to 
property, ongeza upana. widen, broaden, 
expand, caus. -appl, ongezea. caus. -intr. 
ongezeka. be increased/enlarged/expanded, 
chama hiki kinaongezeka katika nchi nzima. 
This organization is spread over the entire 
country. Cf. ongezo, nyongeza. 

^ongea 1. talk, converse, chat. 2. waste time. 
ass. ongeana. chat with each other, pass the 
time together. Cf. maongezi, mwongezi. 

ongeza caus. of *ongea. 

ongezeko (ma-) see ongezo. 

ongezo, ongezeko (ma-) {us. maongezo, ma- 
ongezeko) increase, growth, addition, en- 
largement, expansion. Cf. ongea. 

ongoa 1. precede, go straight ahead. 2. lead, 
guide. 3. instruct, train. 4. make right, 
correct, improve, reform. 5. cause someone 
to change his views, (rel.) convert. 6. be 
successful, prosper, appl. ongolea. 1. - 
ongoa. 2. liter, rhyme, intr. ongoka. 1. be 
put on a straight course. 2. be reformed/ 
converted, ongoka nafsi. change one's ways, 

on go fu 


turn a new leaf. cans, ongoza. 1. promote, 
advance, expedite. 2. show the way. 3. in- 
struct, teach, train, ongoza maneno. give a 
good turn to a conversation, cans. -ass. 
ongozana. follow each other, move together 
in the same direction/toward a common goal. 
Cf. ongofu, kiongozi, maongozi, mwongofu, 
mwongozi, mwongozo, uongozi, wongofu. 

ongofu adj. 1. straightened out, reformed, 
tuucticu. 2. successful, prosperous. L.f. 

ongofya caus. of ongopa. 

onyeka caus.-intr. of ona. 

onyesha double caus. of ona. 

onyesho (ma-) (us. pi.) display, demonstration, 
exhibition, maonyesho ya vita, military re- 
view, Cf. ona. 

onyo (ma-) (us. maonyo) 1. warning, advice, 
exhortation, hint. 2. indication, mark, index. 
3. iuCnccilui (un u ruucwnej, o/. una. 

onza 1. wound, hurt, do harm to, damage. 2. 
fig. torment, annoy. 

ongopa 1. lie, deceive. 2. slander, make false opoa 1. take/pull out. 2. fig. save, rescue, 
statements, caus. ongofya. 1. = ongopa w. extricate [from difficulties), appl. opolea. 

int. force. 2. lead astray, mislead. Cf. P as s- opolewa. intr. opoka. caus. oposha, 

won go, mwongo, uwongo. 

onja 1. try, test. 2. taste (foods), fig. ameonja 
mapesa. He loves money. 3. examine, inves- 
tigate. appZ. onjea. intr. onjeka. caus. 
onjesha. Cf. onjo, kionja, kionjo, mwonjaji, 
mwonjo, uonjaji. 

onjesha caus. of onja. 

onji (ma-) see onjo. 

onjo, onji (ma-) trial, test, investigation. Cf. 

ono (ma-) 1. perception, sensation, feeling. 2. 
thought, opinion, impression. Cf. ona. 

onya caus. of ona. 
onyana caus. -ass. of ona. 

opoza. Cf. kiopoo. 

orda* LEngl. J (— ) order (for something). 
mchukuaji — wa chakula. one who takes 
orders at the table, waiter. 

orodha*, oroza, worodha (— ) 1. list, register, 
inventory. — ya biashara. commercial register. 

— ya majina. roll, roster, 2. bill, invoice. 
3. catalog, program. — ya masomo. time- 
table, schedule. 

orofa*, ghorofa, gorofa (— ) (upper) floor, story. 

— ya pili. third floor, nyumba ya — nne. a 
four-story house. 

ororo adj. soft, smooth, tender, delicate, sensi- 
tive, ufupa mwororo. gristle, cartilage. Cf. 

oroza* (— ) see 



osha wash (us. objects, clothes, etc.), wash 
off, rinse. appZ. oshea. intr. osheka. be 
washable, haiosheki. It is not washable. 
caus. osheza. Cf. josho, kiosha, kiosho, 
mwoshaji, mwosho, uoshaji. 

lota grow (of hair, nails; rarely of plants), 
appl. otea. intr. oteka. caus. otesha, Cf. 
oteo, uotajt, woto. 

^ota sit, squat, crouch (us. in order to warm 
oneself). — moto. warm oneself at the fire. 
appl. otea. 1. - ota. 2. lie in wait/ambush 
for someone, intr. oteka. caus. otesha. 
stat. otama. be in a sitting/squatting posi- 
tion, stat.-appl. otamia, atamia, latamia, 
tamia. sit on eggs, brood, kuku anaatamia 
mayai. The hen is sitting on eggs. Cf. 
*^oteo, kiota; also ^moto. 

all of us. nyumba yote. the whole house. 
— ote — wili. both. 2. indef. relat. mtu ye 
yote. anyone whatever. Cf. mote. 

otea appl. of *ota, ■'ota, ''ota. 

loteo (ma-) growth. Cf. 'ota. 

2oteo (ma-), kioteo (vi-) hiding-place, ambush. 
Cf. 2 ota. 

ovataimu* LEngl. J (— ) overtime. 

ovu 1. (ma-) (us. maovu) badness, wickedness; 
injustice, coll. mema na maovu ndio uli- 
mwengu. There are both good and bad in the 
world. 2. adj. bad, evil, wicked, wrong, 
depraved; malicious, spiteful. Cf. maovu, 

•'ota 1. dream. — ndoto. have a dream. 2. be ovyo 1. adj. worthless, inferior; (fig.) super- 
half awake, doze, be in a trance. 3. fig. day- ficial, careless. 2. adv. (also ovyoovyo^ 
dream, indulge in reveries, talk foolishly. haphazardly, aimlessly, carelessly, at ran- 
appl. otea. dream about, intr. oteka. ass. dom. fanya kazi ovyoovyo tu. do one's work 
otana. dream about each other. Cf. ndoto. carelessly /in a slipshod way. Cf. maovyo. 

^ota 1. mark, designate. 2. make a mark, leave 
marks (us. welts from blows). Cf. moto. 

otama stat. of ota. 

otamia stat.-appl. of ota. 

r 3 

otana ass. of ota. 

oya (ma-) handful. (- ukofi, konzi, gao.) 

*oza turn bad, decay, rot, decompose, matunda 
yameoza. The fruit is rotten, prov. samaki 
akioza ni mtungo pia. One bad fish spoils 
the whole string. (Cf. mtungo.) appl. ozea. 
intr. ozeka. caus. ozesha. spoil/ruin (some- 
thing, someone). Cf. kioza, wozo. 

ote 1. indef. pron. all, whole, watu wote. all oza caus. of oa. 

people, nchi yote. all countries, sisi sote. 




*pa 1. give. — mkono. give the hand (to ex- 
press congratulation/condolence); lend a 
helping hand. — mgongo (uso). turn the back 
(face). — shauri. give a piece of advice. — 
ruhusa. give permission, allow. 2. carry out, 
perform, accomplish. — tnchezo. play out a 
game. — hadithi. tell a story, refl. jipa. 

1. give oneself, have oneself provided with. 

2. fig. make oneself out to be, act as if, 
pretend to be. jipa ujinga. play the fool, 
feign stupidity, jipa mali. play the great man, 
put on airs. appZ. pea {rare pia). ass. pana. 
give each other something, appl.-ass. peana. 
make an agreement/bargain with each other; 
exchange greetings, peana zawadi. exchange 
presents, kukimbia kwa kupeana. relay race. 
pass. pewa. amepewa_zawadi. He has been 
given a present. Cf. paji, ^kipa, kipaji, 

kipawa, mpaji, uapo, upaji. 

2pa conn, mahali — uhalifu. on the scene of 
the crime. 

Ipaa, para 1. scrape/scratch (off). — magamba 
ya samaki. scale fish. — moto. stir the fire 
(and take out burning coals). 2. paw (the 
ground), farasi anapaa. the horse is pawing. 
3. fig.: — karata. win a game of cards. appZ. 
palia, paria. 1. = paa. 2. rake, gather up 
(leaves); weed (a field), double appl.-caus. 
paliliza. 1. employ someone to pull weeds. 
2. fig. stir up, agitate someone, caus. 
paaza, paraza. grind coarsely, pound (w. 

mortar and pestle), pulverize, intr. palika. 

ass. paana. Cf. palizi, 2 para, 3 para, 

parua, paruparu, mapalio, mpalilio, mpalizi, 

mparuzi, mparuzo. 

^paa 1. rise, get up. 2. go up, rise, ascend, 
mount, appl. palia. wali umenipalia. coll. 
I choked over the rice (i.e., it went down the 
wrong way), appl.-caus. (also int.). paliza. 
raise, lift, paliza sauti. raise the voice, 
speak loudly, caus. paaza, paza. paaza 
ugomvi. goad someone on, start a_ quarrel 
with someone. Cf. ''paa, ^ pao, *kipaa, 
kipao, 1 mpalio. 

''paa (ma-) sloping side of a native thatched 
roof. Cf. ^paa. 

4paa (— ) paa (kind of gazelle, impala). ■(= kino- 
kero. ) 

paana ass. of paa. 

paanda (— ) see 4 panda. 

paaza caus. of *paa, ^paa. 

pacha 1. (ma-) twin, one of twins, watoto hawa 
ni (ma)pacha. These children are twins. 2. 
(ma-) something closely resembling something 
else: double, counterpart, njia — . crossroads, 
(street) crossing, ndizi — . two bananas that 
have grown together. 3. red. pachapacha, 
pachipachi. adj., adv. similar, of the same 
nature; twinned (of rice or millet heads, etc.), 
growing in clusters. 4. v. produce more than 
one plant from a single seed; grow in clusters 
(bananas, etc.). ass. pachana. grow in 

pachapacha see pacha 3. 




pachika fasten, secure, stick in. - kisu kipi- 
nini. fasten a knife-blade in the handle. 
refl. jipachika. 1. interfere/meddle in a 
matter. 2. sit with legs spread, sit astride 
of something, appl. pachikia. intr. pachi- 
kika. inf. pachua. take/draw out, separate, 

pachipachi see pacha 3. 

pachua inv. of pachika. 

pachuri*, pachori, pacholi Llnd.J (— ) pachuri 
(a perfume). 

padiri* (ma-) see padre. 

padre*, padri, padiri \_Port. J (ma-) clergyman 
(priest, pastor, minister; either Roman 
Catholic or Protestant; - kasisi). Cf. 

padri* (ma-) see padre. 

pafu, bafu (ma-) anat. lung. ( = buhumu, 
pumu.) ugonjwa wa mapafu. disease of the 

pagaa 1. carry (a burden, on head or shoulders; 
an amulet). 2. ethn. (us. pass, pagawa,) be 
possessed (by a spirit), amepagawa na 
pepo. He is possessed by a spirit, caus. 
pagaza. 1. employ someone as a bearer/ 
porter. 2. ethn. cause someone to be pos- 
sessed by an evil spirit, bring evil/misfor- 
tune upon someone. 3. strike someone dumb 
(from amazement), astound, dumbfound. 
alitupagaza kwa maneno yake. He dumb- 
founded us with his words, Cf. pagao, 
mpagazi, upagazi. 

pagao, pagaro (ma-) charm, amulet (against evil 
spirits or dangers). Cf. pagaa. 

pagaro (ma-) see pagao. 

pagawa pass, of pagaa. 

pagaza caus. of pagaa. 

pagua see pogoa. 

pahala* (— ) see pahali. 

pahali*, pahala (-) (proper, expected) place, 
situation, position. — pa kupumzika. rest- 
ing-place. — pa kupikia. cooking-place. — 
po pote. in all places, everywhere. Cf. 

Ipainti* \_Engl.~] (-) pint. 

2painti* \_Engl.~\ adj. painted, colored. 

paipu*, peipu [.Engl, pipe] (-) (automobile) 
horn, (ship's) siren, warning horn, piga — . 
sound/blow an automobile horn. 

paja (ma-), upaja (paja) anat. 1. thigh, ham 
(of a human being or an animal). 2. (us. 
pajanij lap. 

Ipaji (ma-) 1. gift, present. 2. sacrifice, offer- 
ing. Cf. !pa. 

2paji (ma-): — la uso. forehead. Cf. ^kipaji, 

*paka, pakaa spread/smear/paint on, apply. 
— udongo. plaster (the wall of a house with 




mud). — chokaa. whitewash, fig., cul.: sa- 
maki wa kupaka. breaded fish. — rangi. 
paint, stain, dye. — mafuta. rub (the body) 
with oil. dawa ya kupaka. salve, ointment. 
appL pakia. caus. pakaza. apply (a bandage, 
splint). Cf. kipaku, Anpaka, mpakato, 
mpako, upakizi. 

2paka rare border on, adjoin, be contiguous. 
us. ass. pakana. border on each other, lie 
side by side, nchi zetu zinapakana. Our 
countries are adjacent. ass.-caus._pakani- 
sha. set boundaries, delimit. Cf. ^rapaka. 

''paka (— ) cat. — mwitu. wild cat. 
pakaa see *paka. 

Ipakacha (ma-) light basket, prov. - kuvuja, 
nafuu ya mchukuzi. A punctured basket is 
advantageous to the carrier. 

2pakacha (— ) see pakaja. 

pakaja, pakacha (-) footpad, highwayman, 

pakana ass. of ^paka. 

pakanga (— ) wormwood, rue. 

pakanisha ass. -caus. of ^paka. 

pakanya (ma-) compensation, indemnification 
(in money or an equivalent present). 

pakari (-) tongs, (flat-nosed) pliers. 

pakasa twist (thread, rope). 

pakata hold, carry. — mtoto. carry a child (in 
one's arms), intr. pakatika. mtoto huyu 
hapakatiki. This child cannot be held (i.e., 
is wild/unruly). Cf. ^paka. 

pakaza caus. of ^paka. 

paketi*, pakiti, pakti [.Engl. J (— ) packet, pack, 
package. — ya sigara. a pack of cigarettes. 

pake his, her. pahali — . his/her place. Cf. 

paki* LEngl.J park (a car). 

Ipakia 1. load, pack, stow. 2. put on board, 
ship. 3. fig. export, mwenye kupakia mali. 
exporter, pass, pakiwa. mali ipakiwayo, 
bidhaa zipakiwazo. export goods/merchandise/ 
articles, appl. pakilia. load/stow something; 
pile up. caus. pakiza, pakisha. have some- 
thing packed/loaded, pakiza gari. have a 
wagon/car loaded, refl.-caus. jipakiza. 1. 
go on board (a ship); book passage. 2. fig. 
accept a responsibility, inv. pakua. 1. un- 
load, discharge. 2.: us. pakua chakula. 
transfer food from a cooking pot to plates, 
dish up, serve. Cf. mapakio, mpakizi, mpa- 
kuzi, upakizi, upakuzi. 

2pakia delimit, fix the limits/bounds of... — 
ngwe. mark out a field for tilling. 

pakilia appl. of *pakia. 
pakio (ma-) see upakio. 




pakiti* (-) see paketi. 

pakiza cons, of *pakia. 

pakti* (-) see paketi. 

paku (ma-) see kipaku. 

pakua inv. of Ipakia. 

pakulalia (— ) (= mahali pa kulalia) sleeping- 

pakulia (— ) (= mahali pa kulia) eating-place. 

pakuogea, pakogea (— ) (= mahali pa kuogea) 
washing-place, bathroom, swimming pool. 

palahala (— ) palahala (sable antelope, Hippo- 
tragus niger). 

palama see parama. 

pale 1. demon.: mahali pale, in that place. 
2. adv. there; then, afterwards, palepale. 
in that very place, in the same place. 

Ipalia appl. of paa, ^paa. 

palika intr. of *paa. 

palikuwa liter. Once upon a time... (at the 
beginning of a story). 

paliliza double ass.-caus. of *paa. 

palipo loc, rare (place) where there is... 
palipoinuka. highland. Cf. inua. 

palizi (ma-) weed (in a cultivated field). Cf. 

-Ipamba 1. decorate, ornament. 2. prepare, ar- 
range. — maiti. prepare a corpse for burial. 
3. fig. furnish (a room, house), chum ha chake 
kimepambwa vizuri. His room is well furnished. 
refl. jipamba. adorn oneself, dress well. 
anapenda kujipamba. He likes to be well 
dressed. s"-l. ".air.bia. I. de^uialc fui some- 
thing/someone. 2. set a table, intr. pambika. 
caus. pambisha. inv. pambua. 1. remove an 
ornament/decoration. 2. move out furniture, 
prepare to change residence. 3. deface, dis- 
figure, inv. -appl. pambulia. inv. -intr. pambu- 
lika. Cf. pambe, pambo, kipambo, ^mpamba, 
mpambe, upambo. 

2 pamba* \_Pers. J (-) 1. cotton, kitambaa cha 
— . cotton cloth. 2. cotton wool, wadding. 
Cf. kipamba, ^mpamba. 

3pamba (ma-) see pambo. 

4 pamba (— ) large number/quantity, multitude. 

5pamba pi. of lupamba, 2 U p amDa . 

pambaja 1. embrace, clasp. 2. (— ) an embrace, 
piga — . embrace. 

pambana 1. come together, meet (in a hostile or 
competitive sense), compete, sport: timu za 
mi ji hii zitapambana kesho. The teams of 
these cities will meet/clash tomorrow. 2. 
collide (of ships), appl. pambania. compete 
for something. Ali na Juma wanapambania 
kiti cha Mombasa. Ali and Huma are running 




for election to the seat for Mombasa. Nita- 
pambania nambari ya kvvanza darasani mwa- 
ngu. I will compete for the first place in my 
class, cans, pambanisha, pambanya. 1. 
bring together, put side by side, exhibit. 
2. compare, contrast. 3. bring into conflict. 
4. contradict, oppose, vote against, inv. 
pambanua. separate (for purposes of com- 
parison), distinguish; pick out, select; com- 
pare, inv.-appl. pambanulia. inv.-intr. 
pambanuka. Cf. mapambano, mpambanisho, 
mpambano, upambano, upambanuzi. 

pambano see mapambano. 

pambanua inv. of pambana. 

pambanuka inv.-intr. of pambana. 

pambanulia inv.-appl. of pambana. 

pambanya caus. of pambana. 

pambauka, pambazuka get light, dawn. Cf. 
pambauko, pambazua. 

pambauko, pambazuko (ma-) (us. pi.) dawn, 
daybreak. Cf. pambauka. 

pambazua make clear/plain, explain, intr. 
pambazuka. only fig. ~ pambauka. 

pambazuko (ma-) see pambauko. 

pambe adj. decorated, dressed up. Cf. 'pamba. 

pambizo, pembizo (ma-) 1. edge, margin, end. 
— la meza. the edge of the table. 2 (room 
for) play, clearance, margin. 3. outskirts, 
environs, periphery. 4. suburb. 

pambo, pamba (ma-) 1. furnishing, decoration 
(of a room, house). 2. ornament, adornment. 
prov. mke mzuri ni — la nyumba. A beautiful 
wife is the adornment of the house. Cf. 

pambua inv. of 'pamba. 

pamoja adv. together, at the same time, in the 
same place. — na... together with... — na 
hayo. nevertheless, in spite of everything. 
—a — . adj. joint, united, collective, taarifa 
ya — . joint communique, umbele mkubwa wa 
— . pol. a broad united front, uongozi wa — . 
collective leadership. Cf. moja. 

pampu* LEngl. J (— ) pump. — ya maji. water 
pump. (= bomba.) 

Ipana, panapana adj. 1. broad, wide, bahari 
panapana. the open sea. 2. flat, level. Cf. 
panua, mapana, upana. 

2pana aux. v. there is, it has. Cf. na. 

panapana adj. see pana. 

panapo relat. 1. where there is/are... 2. when it 
is... — saa tisa. When it is three o'clock. 

Ipanda 1. get (up) on, mount, ride on. — farasi. 
get on/mount a horse, — baisikeli. get on a 
bicycle, — motokaa. get into an automobile. 
2. climb, ascend. — mlima (mti). climb a 
mountain (a tree). 3. mount, cover, copulate 
(with a female; of a male animal). 4. rise, 
increase (in number, weight, quantity, price), 
appl. pandia. intr. pandika. caus. panza, 
pandisha. raise, hoist; increase, fig. 




amepandishwa cheo. He obtained a degree. 
— tanga. set/hoist sail. ass. pandana. lie 
across/overlap/cross each other. Cf. 
pandio, kipandio, kipandisho, 2 mpanda, 
2 mpando, 2 upandaji. 

2panda sow, plant; grow, raise (plants), intr. 
pandika. intr. -int. pandikiza. plant out, 
transplant (seedlings). Cf. pandikizo, 

3 panda (-, ma-) (& mpanda, mi-) 1. division, 
separation. 2. fork(ing), bifurcation, njia 
-.forking of a road.- ya mto. branching of a 
river. — ya mti. branches of a tree. 3. fig. 
catapult, slingshot. 

panda, paanda (-) mus. horn, trumpet, piga 
— . blow a horn/trumpet. 

5 panda (ma-), kipanda (vi-) dial.: - la uso. 
forehead. Cf. 2 paji. 

pandana ass. of Ipanda. 

Ipande {also pandepande) (ma-, -) (augment. 
ofkipande) 1. large piece, lump, chunk, 
block. — la chuma. bar/pig of iron. fig. — la 
mtu. large person, giant. 2. part, section. 
— hizi hatuna nazi. In this part of the country 
there are no coconuts. 

ipande: piga — . be out of sorts/in a bad 

Spande pi. of upande. 
pandekizi see pandikizi. 

pandepande (ma-) see ipande. 

pandikiza intr. -int. of 2 panda. 

pandikizi, pandekizi (ma-) 1. large piece, lump, 
block. 2. fig..- - la mtu. large person, giant, 
Cf. *pande. 

pandikizo (ma-), kipandikizo (vi-) 1. (act of) 
planting out, tiauaplaiuing. 2. seedling, 
slip. Cf. 2 panda. 

pandio (ma-) pandio (a notch cut in a tree-trunk 
to facilitate climbing). Cf. Ipanda. 

pando (ma-) see ^mpando. 

Ipanga 1. put in order, line up, set up, arrange. 
- askari. draw up, dress ranks. _ kambi. set 
up camp. - makundi. group. 2. fig., liter.: 
compose, write (a book, poem). 3. form, 
conclude. _ udugu. conclude a friendship 
(which implies a relation of kinship). 4. 
classify, organize, reft, jipanga. put one- 
self in position, straighten oneself up. 
appl. pangia. double appl. pangilia. set up 
in rows/lines, set out (plants), caus. 
pangisha. take care of the (proper) arrange- 
ment/order (of guests at table, etc.), seat, 
pangisha watu karamuni. seat guests at a 
feast, inv. pangua. create disorder, dis- 
arrange; (fig,) Ml out, quarrel. Cf. pangilio, 
*mpangaji, ^mpango. 

2 panga 1. rent, lease. _ nyumba. rent/lease a 
house. 2. fig., coll. live together without 
being married, caus. pangisha. rent/lease 
(something to someone). Cf. 2 mpangaji, 
mpangishaji, 2 mpango, upangaji. 




^panga (ma-) (augment, o/upanga) 1. long 
knife, machete. 2.: mapanga. screw, pro- 
peller (of ship, airplane) (- majembe). 

^panga (ma-) panga (kind of fish, with prickly 

^panga (— ): — za wazuka (a prickly plant, 
Achyranthes aspera). 

"panga pi. of upanga. 

pange (ma-) gadfly, horsefly. 

pangilio (ma-) {us. mapangilio) 1. succession, 
sequence, alternation, mapangilio ya ma- 
tunda. rotation of crops. 2. layer, stratum. 
min. — la madini. vein/lode of metal. Cf. 


pangisha caus. of Upanga, Upanga. 

pango (— , ma-) 1. hole, hollow, recess. 2. cave, 
cavern. 3. lair, den (of animals). 4. fig.: 
ana — . He has a protruding tooth. 

Ipangua inv. of Upanga. 

^pangua knock off/down (with a single blow). 
pangusa wipe/rub off, dry off, dust off. 

panju (— ) panju (kind of fish). 

panua open up, spread apart, expand, broaden. 

— miguu. spread the legs, take long steps. 
fig. — akili. broaden one's mind, enlarge the 
range of one's ideas, appl. panulia. intr. 
panuka. Cf. 'pana, upanuzi. 

Ipanya (— ) mouse, rat. prov. paka akiondoka 

— hutawnln. When the cat is away the mnnsp 

^panya 1. make an incision/notch. 2. ethn. 
file the teeth (as a family or tribal mark). 

Ipanza caus. of *panda. 

2panza (— ) panza (the residue of coconut left 
after the white part has been scraped out of 
the shell). 

Ipanzi (— ) grasshopper. 

2panzi (— ), also — bahari. flying fish. 

lpao, pau (— ) 1. pao (a thin pole carrying the 
thatch in native houses). 2. framework (of a 
roof). 3.: — la chuma. iron bar/rod. 4. pi. of 

2pao* [Port.] (— ) cards club(s). 

pania lift up, tuck/turn up (clothing, to protect Ipapa 1« beat, throb (heart, pulse). 2. fig. 

it from dirt or damp). — kanzu. tuck up the tremble, quiver, shudder. 3. fig. be worried/ 

kanzu. - suruali. turn up the trouser-legs. upset, appl. papia. be in a hurry over some- 

thing, do something in haste/hastily, papia 

panja (ma-), also — la uso. anat. temple, fore- chakula. eat hastily, papia kazi. work hur- 

lock. Cf. ^paji, ^kipaji. riedly, conl., arch, papata. cont.-intr. 




papatika. flutter, twitch. Cf. papara, papio, 
Ipapo, kipapa, kipapatiko, mpapatiko. 

2papa be porous/permeable, — maji. let water 
through, permit water to pass. 

Jpapa: — hapa. in this very place; at this very 
time, now. 

papio (ma-) 1. haste, hurry, hastiness,, restless- 
ness. 2. avarice, greediness. Cf. ■'papa. 

paplini* [Engl.l (-) poplin. 

Ipapo (ma-) 1. beating, pulsing. - la moyo. 
heartbeat. 2. fig. stimulation, excitement. 
3. rare, naut, surf, breakers. Cf. ^papa. 

4papa (— ) shark. — nnan« 9 . su'ordfish. 

papai* llnd. J (ma-) papai (a melon-like fruit, 
papaya, pawpaw). Cf. mpapai. 

papara (^-) haste, hurry; hastiness, rashness. 
' Cf. Ipapa. 

papasa 1. stroke, touch. 2. grope, feel one's 
way. kipofa anapapasa. A blind man feels 
his way. 

papasi (ma-) tick, homa ya — . med. spirillum 
tick fever. 

papatika cont.-intr. of ^papa. 

papatiko (ma-) see mpapatiko. 

papatua remove husk/shell/rind (fruits, vege- 
tables). — maganda. remove husks/rinds. 
refl. jipapatua. slough (the skin; of snakes), 
appl. papatulia. intr. papatuka. 1. be clean; 
be bright, shine. 2. fig., interj.: nipapatuke! 
Go away! Let me alone! {lit.: Cleanse me of 

papayuka intr. of paya. 

papi pi. of upapi. 

2nann: _ lint.r. nJ„ ;„ ^l,^,^ ..« — -1 _■. ..t -. 

■ ■ r- — — .-v k*">-^» ci. uiai 

very time/moment. 

papua rare see papura. 

papura (rare papua) 1. tear, rip, claw, scratch, 
lacerate, tear to pieces (of wild animals and 
birds of prey). — kwa makucha. scratch/rend 
with the claws/talons. 2. fig. quarrel, dis- 
pute. Cf. mpapuro. 

papuri* llnd. J (ma-) papuri (flat cake made of 
bean meal). 

Ipara see Ipaa. 

2para (-) 1. scratch, superficial wound. 2. bald 
spot, baldness. Cf. *paa, kipara, upaa. 

3 para (-) 1. gnashing, grinding (the teeth). 2. 
scratching, pawijig (e.g., of a horse; us. red. 
paraparaj. Cf. *paa. 

4 para (ma-) para (kind of cake). 

parafujo* [Port.l (-) 1. screw. 2. rare screw- 
driver (= bisibisi.) 

paraga climb (a tree, etc., using arms and legs). 




parago (ma-) 1. parago (a stick on which one 
props oneself when picking cloves). 2. naut. 
balancing-pole (used in dugout canoes). 

parakacha (— ) rustling sound (made by dry 

parama, palama 1. be lacking/deficient. — 
usingizi. fail to get enough sleep. 2. be 
sterile/barren (esp. of trees), appl. paramia. 
use* ir. zr„ ir.v.; see para~.;a „c*gw. 

paramende* (ma-) see peremende. 

paramia (appl. of parama, but used in an inv. 
sense ?) 1. climb/clamber up something 
(quickly), simba alipotokea mtu aliparamia 
mit. When the lion appeared the man quickly 
scrambled up a tree. 2. climb onto/get on 
(vehicles). 3. grasp, take hold of (an oppo- 
nent in fighting); (fig.) assail someone (with 
words), have an argument with someone. 

parange (ma-) broad-bladed knife, machete. 

parapanda (— ) parapanda (trumpet used for 
special ceremonies), rel. the last trump. 

parare, barare (-) large grasshopper. 

paraza caus. of *paa. 

paredi* [.Engl. ] (-) mil. parade, review. 

paria appl. of *paa. 

parokia* \_Port.~] (-) parish. 

paroko* LPort.l (-) parish priest. 

paru (ma-) paru (a confection made of sugar and 

parua, parura scrape, scratch, coll. — kazi. 
do slipshod work. int. paruza. 1. rub on 
something, paruza kibiriti. strike a match. 
2. be rough/harsh; (fig.) be rude /abrupt. Cf. 
*paa, paruparu, mparuzi, mparuzo. 

paruparu 1. adj. rough, coarse; (fig.) rude, un- 
~;„;l 9 „J.. f. i~_:i.. :_ i:__l.j/ 

w..x. _. ... rwxun.wi.ji, ... H Ol.tlOllUU, 

hit-or-miss way, Cf. paa, parua. 



pasa (caus. ofpata ?) concern, affect; be necessary; 
be unalterable/irrevocable, imepasa, yapasa. 
It is right/fitting. It is necessary. One 
must... imempasa aende. He had to go. ass. 
pasana. be mutually obligated, be intimately 
concerned with each other, caus. pasisha, 
obligate someone, impose/inflict something 
on someone, coerce someone. Cf. pata. 

Pasaka* [Port.] (-) Easter. 

pasha caus. of pata. 

lpasi* llnd. J (— , ma-) flatiron. piga — . iron 

2pasi* \_Engl. J (— , ma-) 1. sport pass (foot- 
ball). 2. pass (in an examination). 

3pasi*, paspoti, passipoti \_Engl. J (— , ma-) 
pass, passport, usiingie hapa bila ya — . One 
cannot enter this country without a pass(port). 

4pasi see pasipo. 



^pasi adj., rare avaricious, grasping; pushing, 
ambitious, Cf. pata, mpasi. 

pasia*, pasira \_Engl. j sport 1. to pass (foot- 
ball). 2. concede the championship to some- 
one. Cf. pasi, 

Pasifiki* yEngl. J geogr. Pacific (Ocean), 

pasipo, pasi, (rare) pasi na prep, without, 

— shaka, without doubt. — hofu. without 
fear. — nia. without intention, unintention- 
ally, ameondoka — kuniambia. He left with- 
out telling me (that he was going). 

pasira see pasia. 

paspoti* (— ) see ^pasi. 

passipoti* LEngl.J (—) see ^pasi. 

pasta* \_Engl. J (ma-) rare pastor. Cf. 

pasua 1. tear (into pieces). 2. cut open, split, 

— mti. split a tree. — kuni. split firewood. 

3, eviscerate, remove entrails (of an animal). 

4, vied, operate. 5, tear open. — barua. 
open a letter. 6. burst, explode, appl. 
pasulia, operate on (someone), appl.-pass. 
pasuliwa. intr. pasuka. bomu imepasuka. 
The bomb has exploded. Cf. mpasua, 

pata 1. get, obtain, receive. — fedha (faida). 
receive money, make a profit. 2, reach, at- 
tain, achieve. — nguvu. gain strength, be- 
come strong. — nchi. reach/arrive in a 
country, fig.: anapata miaka kumi. He is 

about ten years old. 3. find, hit upon. — 
sababu. find a reason. — njia. find a way/ 
method. 4. happen, occur, kupata. As it 
happened... (at the beginning of stories). 
5. (in conj. w. other verbs) can, be able, 
succeed in doing. — kufanya kazi. He was 
able to work. — kusikia. He succeeded in 
hearing. 6. suffer, be the victim of. — 
(patwa na) homa. have a fever. — ugonjwa. 
suffer an illness. — baridi, suffer cold, 
catch a cold, appl. patia. procure, secure. 
double appl. patilia. intr. patika, us. intr.- 
ass. patikana. be procurable/obtainable. 
bidhaa hizi hazipatikani sasa. These goods 
are not obtainable now. patikana na hatia. 
be found guilty, njia inapatikana kwa upesi. 
The way could quickly be found, pass, patwa. 
patwa na ugonjwa. be seized by an illness, 
patwa na taabu. be overtaken by difficulties. 
ass. patana. 1. agree, strike a bargain. 2. 
be reconciled, reach an understanding. 3. 
work well/harmoniously together, caus. 
pasha, patisha, patiza. cause to get/have. 
— moto. warm up, heat. ass. -caus. pata- 
nisha. 1. pacify, appease. 2. reconcile. 
Cf. pasa, fpasi, patanisho, patano, pato, 
kipasha, kipato, mpasi, mpatanishi, mpato, 
upasi, upataji, upatanisho, upatikanaji, 

patanisho (ma-) (us. mapatanisho) 1. agree- 
ment. 2, reconciliation. Cf. pata. 

patano (ma-; us. pi.) 1. agreement ( = pata- 
nisho 1). 2. understanding, settlement, con- 
tract, treaty, fanya mapatano. conclude a 
contract/treaty, mapatano ya biashara. 
commercial treaty. — la kuridhiana. compro- 
mise. 3. alliance. 4. conspiracy. Cf. pata. 




patashika pi. jeans, slacks. 

patasi* (— ) chisel. 

pati* LEngl.J (— ) 1. party, social gathering. 
2. rare (political) party. 

patilizo (ma-) see upatilivu. 

pato (ma-) (also upato, ma-; us. mapato) 

j.. auijuisiLioii; proceeds, return. 2. earnings, 
income, mapato kwa mtu. per capita income. 
3. profit, biashara ya nazi haina — . Dealing 
in coconuts is not profitable. 4. achieve- 
ment, enrichment. Cf. pata, kipato, *mpato. 

patu* Und . J 1. pi. of upatu. 2. (ma-) augment, 
of upatu 1. 

pau (ma-) see *■ pao. 

paua construct the roof of a native house. 
nyumba imekwisha lakini haijapauliwa. The 
house is finished, but the roof has not yet 
been constructed. 

paundi* (— ) see pauni. 

pauni*, paundi, poundi [Engl. J (— ) pound 
(unit of currency or weight). 

pawa pi. of upawa. 

paya, payapaya 1. chatter, talk nonsense. 2. 
divulge (a secret), blab. 3. rave, be deliri- 
ous, intr. payuka, payukapayuka, papayuka. 
1.: alishikwa na homa kali akapayuka. He 
had a high fever and was delirious. 2.: siku 
zote anapayuka ovyo. He always talks non- 
sense, caus. payusha. 1. loosen someone's 

tongue, get someone to talk (and divulge 
secrets), 2. bombard someone with questions. 
Cf. payo, mpayukaji, upayukaji. 

payapaya see paya. 

payo (ma-) (us. pi.) 1. chatter, blabbing. 2. 
nonsense. 3. delirium. Cf. paya. 

payuka intr. of paya. 

payukapayuka intr. of paya. 

payusha caus. of paya. 

paza caus. of ^paa. 

pazi (ma-) village elder/headman. 

pazia* (ma-) curtain, screen. — la tumbo. rare, 
anat. diaphragm. — la moshi. recent, pol. 

Ipea 1. be fully developed/mature; be complete- 
ly ripe (fruit)._ 2. fig. attain the peak of per- 
fection. 3. look well/healthy. Cf. kipeo, 
upeo; also pevua. 

2pea rare sweep. (= fagia.) Cf. ^kipeo. 

3pea (— ) rare rhinoceros. (= kifaru.) 

4pea appl. of pa. 

pecha adv. like a cripple, enda — . limp, be 

peipu* (— ) see paipu. 




peke, pekee, pweke (-) solitude, isolation, 
uniqueness. - ya. alone. - yangu. I alone. 
- yao. they alone, -a peke yake, -a pekee. 
alone, single, unique; individual, personal, 
hukumu ya pekee. personal judgment. Cf. 

mpweke, upweke. 

pekecha, peketa 1. twist, twirl, stir, drill. _ 
mashimo. drill holes. - moto. produce fire 
by twirling one stick in a hole in anntlpr 
2. spoil, damage, ruin. 3. fig. hurt, ache. 
mifupa yangu inanipekecha. My bones ache. 
4. annoy /exasperate/bore someone. 5. con- 
fuse, disorganize, intr. pekecheka, peke- 
teka. 1. be drilled/perforated. 2. be well 
stirred, be of a pasty consistency. 3. be 
damaged. 4. be disorganized/in a state of 
confusion. 5. fig. be arrogant/overbearing/ 
impudent, intr.-appl. pekechekea, peketekea 
treat someone with scorn /contempt. Cf. 
peketevu, ^mpekecho, 2 mpe kecho, mpe- 
ketevu, upekecho, upeketevu; also Ipekua. 

pekecheka intr. of pekecha. 

pekecho (ma-) see upekecho. 

pekee (-) see peke. 

pekesheni* \_Engl.~\ 1. (-) inspection, inves- 
tigation, search, nyumbani kwake polisi 
walil'anya — . The police searched his house. 
2. v. investigate, search; eavesdrop. 

peketa see pekecha. 

peketeka intr. of pekecha. 

peketekea intr.-appl. of pekecha. 

peketevu, pekutevu adj. 1. mixed/stirred up, 
well stirred, thick, mushy. 2. annoying, 
troublesome; scornful, contemptuous, defi- 
ant, arrogant. Cf. pekecha, mpeketevu, 

pekua 1. scratch (of hens); paw (the earth; of 
horses). 2. fig. search, investigate; be in- 
quisitive, appl. pekulia. hunt for (someone, 
something): pry intn (snmr> ne' s af f airs\ 
intr. pekulika. red. pekuapekua (w. int. 
force), search diligently, investigate inten- 
sively. 3. coll. run away. Cf. pekuzi, 
mpekuzi, upekuzi. 

pekutevu adj. see peketevu. 

pekuzi adj. curious, inquisitive. Cf. pekua, 
mpekuzi, upekuzi. 

pele pi. of upele. 

pelea appl. of ^pea. 

peleka 1. take (to a particular place or person), 
convey, transport. 2. send, transmit, deliver. 
- simu. telegraph, wire. 3. lead, conduct, 
escort. appL-caus. pelekeza. cause to send, 
have someone send something, pelekeza 
kidole. point with the finger. Cf. mpelekwa, 

pelele (_) pelele (species of rabbit, hyrax). 

2 pelele (_) pelele (disc inserted in the lip). 

peleleza 1. observe, examine (surreptitiously); 
pry into/be curious about. 2. spy (out), re- 
connoiter. - siri. pry into secrets. Cf. 
mpelelezi, upelelezi. 




pelezi (ma-) blunt place, nick (in the edge of pembejo (ma-) anat. thigh; (rare) hip. 

a cutting tool). 

pembenne (— ) quadrilateral, rectangle. Cf. 
, 2 i 

x pemba 1. get hold of (with a hook). - minazi. pembe. 

pull down coconuts. 2. knock off/down (with 

a stick). 3. fig. trick, deceive, cheat. 4. pembetatu (-) triangle. Cf. 2 pembe. 

fig., rare lick, taste (with the tongue). Cf. 

upembo. pembizo (ma-) see pambizo. 

~F emba Femba (an island near Zanzibar, 
famous for its cloves). 

^pembe (— , ma-) 1. horn (of an animal or the 
substance), piga — . strike with the horns, 
butt (cattle, goats, etc.; - kumba,). 
2. elephant's tusk, ivory. 3. mus. horn. 
4. powder-horn/flask. 5. wing (of a build- 
ing, army). 

^pembe (— ) 1. corner. — nne za chumba 
(nyumba). the four corners of the room 
(house), loc. pembeni. in the corner. 2. 
geom. angle, pembemraba. right angle, 
pembekali. acute angle, pembebutu. obtuse 
angle, pembetatu. triangle. 3. corner-post; 
(fig.) prominent feature. 4.: — za mwaka. 
seasons of the year. Cf. kipembe, upembe. 

pembea (rare bembea) 1. swing, rock, oscillate. 
appZ. pembelea. intr. pembeka. caus. pe- 
mbeza. pembeza mtoto. rock a child to 
sleep. 2. (— ) swing, seesaw, trapeze, 
kiti cha — . rocking chair. 

pembeja 1. persuade, cajole, talk someone 
into something. 2. play the hypocrite, 

pembo pi. of upembo. 

pembua 1. sift, winnow. 2. sort out, cull, 
select, appl. pembulia. intr. pembuka. 

penalti* [.Engl. J (— ) sport penalty kick. 

penda i. like, love, be fond of. 2. want, wish; 
choose, prefer, upendavyo. as you like, kwa 
kupenda kwako. for your sake. intr. pendeka. 
be likeable/popular, intr.-caus. pendekeza. 
attract attention, re fl. -intr. -caus. jipende- 
keza. ingratiate oneself, curry favor, double 
appl. pendelea. have a predilection/propen- 
sity for, be partial to, favor, double appl.- 
caus. pendeleza. cause to be partial, win 
favor for, recommend, caus. pendeza. 1. 
cause to like/love, be popular/attractive. 

2. be refreshed/pleased. 3. appease, 
placate, ass. pendana. love each other. 
ass.-paus. pendanisha. reconcile, make 
peace between. Cf. pendevu, pendelevu, 
kipendo, kipenzi, mapendano, mapendeleo, 
mapendezi, mpenda, mpendelevu, mpendevu, 
mpendwa, mpenzi, pendekezo, pendeleo, 
penzi, upendaji, upendano, upendeleo, 
upendelevu, upendezi, upendo, upendwa. 

pendekezo (ma-) 1. wish, desire. 2. decision. 

3. prescription. Cf. penda. 



pendeleo (ma-) (us. mapendeleo) affection, 
goodwill, attachment, favor. Cf. penda. 

pendelevu adj. partial, biased, prejudiced fin 
favor of someone). Cf. penda. 

pendevu adj. kind, affectionate, friendly. Cf. 

pene* (ma-) see peni. 

penesilini* [Engl. ] sing, penicillin. 

penga 1. blow the nose. 2. puff, pant, breathe 

pengee (ma-) (also kipengee, kipenge, ki- 

pengere, kipengele, vi-) 1. side-path, byway, 
indirect route. 2. detour, bypass. 3. evasion, 
excuse, subterfuge, maneno ya mapengee. 
excuses. 4. fig. indiscretion, escapade. 
5. branch, tributary, affluent (of a river, - 
cha mto). 

pengi adv. in many places. Cf. ingi. 

pengine adv. at another place, elsewhere; at 
another time, sometime; (us. red. pengine pe- 
ngine) sometimes. — na — . in any event, 
perhaps. Cf. ingine. 

pengo (-, ma-) 1. nick, notch, cut. 2. gap. 
ana -. He is missing a tooth. 3. fig. flaw, 

peni*, pene [Engl.l (ma-) penny, 

penseli* [Engl.] (-) see pensili. 

pensheni* [Engl. ] (-) pension. 

pensili*, penseli [Engl.'] (_) rare (lead) 
pencil. •(= kalamu.) 

x penu see -enu. 

2 penu pi. of upenu. 

penya 1. penetrate, make one's way through/ 
into. - mwituni. make one's way through the 
forest. 2. fig. arouse desire/greed, ndizi 
zimempenya. He is greedy for bananas (lit.: 
Bananas penetrate into him), caus. penyeza, 
penyesha. put in (by force), force in; smuggle. 
— fedha. force money on someone, bribe, 
penyeza desturi (kawaida). introduce new 
customs/practices without considering those 
previously observed, refl.-caus. jipenyeza. 
insinuate oneself, steal/slip in. Cf. penyenye, 
kipenyo, mpenyezi, mpenyezo, upenyaji. 

penye (<pa + -enye, q.v.) (always w. following 
obj.): - tangi. filling station, prov.: Penye 
urembo ndipo penye urimbo. Where there is 
beauty there is also a trap. 

penyenye (ma-) 1. rare (secret) passage, means 
of access. 2.: mapenyenye. secret matters/ 
affairs. Cf. penya. 

penyewe see -enyewe. 

penyezi see upenyaji. 

penyo (ma-) augment, of kipenyo. 

penzi (ma-) (us. mapenzi) 1. love, favor, 
inclination. 2. desire, wish. Cf. penda. 

peo pi. of upeo. 




pepa 1. swing, shake, wave, fan. 2. stagger, 
totter, reel. appl. pepea, bebea. swing/wave/ 
shake something, pepea vitambaa. swing 
cloths, fan. pepea moto. fan a fire, mvua 
inapepea. the rain beats/drives, double 
appl. pepelea. pepelea fulani chakula. cool 
the food for someone (by fanning), double 
appl.-intr. peperuka (< pepeluka). flyaway, 
be carrieu away, karatasi imepeperuka. the 
paper is blown away (by the wind), double 
appl.-caus. peperusha. blow away, peperusha 
bendere ya... fly the flag of... caus. pepesa. 
pepesa macho, blink/squint the eyes, caus.- 
inv. (w. int. force), pepesua. cause to 
stagger/stumble. caus.-(inv.-)intr. pepesuka. 
1. stagger, stumble, reel, lurch. 2. shake. 
cont. pepeta (also peta). sift, winnow, 
separate, cont.-inv. pepetua = pepeta (cf. 
also papatua^. inv. pepua = pepeta. Cf. 
pepe, pepeo, pepeta, *pepo, kipepeo, kipe- 
po, mpepea, mpepetaji, upepeo, upepezi, 

pepesuka caus.-intr. of pepa. 

pepeta 1. cont. of pepa. 2. (— ): — za mpunga. 
pulverized grains of rice. Cf. pepa. 

pepetua cont.-inv. of pepa. 

Ipepo (— ) 1. spirit. — mwema (mbaya). a good 
(evil) spirit, ingiwa/shikwa/pagawa na — . 
be possessed by a spirit, punga/toa — . 
exorcise a spirit, mvvenye — . one possessed 
by a spirit. 2. dwelling-place of spirits, 
world of spirits, abode of the dead (spirits 
of ancestors). 3. (also — za kesho or loc. 
peponi). the other world, the hereafter. — 
ya leo. the present world, the world of the 
living. 4.: — punda. evil spirit; (med.) 
tetanus. Cf. pepa. 

^pepo pi. of upepo. 

peponi loc. see pepo. 

pepe (ma-) empty /barren ear of grain. Cf. pepa. , 

v v v ' v ' B i r r pepua mv. of pepa. 

pepelea double appl. of pepa. 

pera* \_PorUA (ma-) guava (fruit of the mpera ). 

pepeo (ma-) (augment, of kipepeo) 1. (large) / \ < /_ , , . 

K " v ' v " i r r i n perema (—) med. mumps. (- machumbwi- 

fan (for fanning fires, etc.). 2. fig. ventila- chumbwi.) 

tor. 3. zool. butterfly. 4. pi. of upepeo. 
Cf. pepa. 

peperuka double appl.-intr. of pepa. 

peperusha double appl-caus. of pepa. 

pepesa caus. of pepa. 

pepesua caus. -inv. of pepa. 

peremende*, perementi, paramende \_Engl.J 
(ma-) peppermint, hard candy. 

Ipesa* [Port. J (ma-) 1. arch. pice. 2.: mapesa. 
money, hana mapesa. He has no money. 

2pesa caus. of lpeta. 




peta 1. bend, curve. - uzi. bend a wire. _ 
mguu. bend the leg. 2. turn/roll up. - nguo. 
tuck up a garment, fig. _ uso . wrinkle the 
brow, make a face. caus. petesha. bend 
round, make a ring of something, ass. 
petana. appl.-stat.-ass. petemana. be bent 
round, be formed into a ring, appl.-stat.- 
ass.-caus. petemanisha. bend round, form 
into a ring/hoop, give a curve (to some- 
thing), caus. pesa. wink, blink (the. py P * ; 
cf. pepesa^. inv. petua. turn around/over, 
upset, turn upside down, inv.-appl. petulia. 
mv.-intr. petuka. inv.-caus. petusha. Cf. 
pete ipeto, kipete, kipeto, upeto. 


^peta cont. of pepa. 

pete (-, ma-) 1. ring, circle, hoop. coll. siku 
hizi wamekuwa chanda na -. They are now 
like ring and finger (i.e., close friends). 2. 
hasp, staple (for securing a door). 3. hole 
pierced in a woman's ears (for inserting 
earrings or ornaments), toga mapete. pierce 
the ears. Cf. lpeta. 

petemana appl.-stat.-ass. of lpeta. 

petemanisha appl.-stat.-ass. -caus. of lpeta. 

Ipeto (ma-) 1. bag, sack (made of matting). 
2.: mapeto. chains, fetters. Cf. lpeta. 

2peto pi. of upeto. 

petua inv. of lpeta. 

petuka inv.-intr. of lpeta. 

petulia inv.-appl. of lpeta. 

petusha inv.-caus. of lpeta. 

pevu adj. full grown, mature, adult. Cf. 
pevua, mpevu, upevu. 

pevua 1. develop fully, mature, ripen. 2. over- 
stimulate, pervert, corrupt, intr. pevuka. be 
fully developed/mature; reach a climax/ 
culmination, ugonjwa wake sasa umepevuka. 
His illness has reached its final stage /culmi- 
nation, caus. pevusha. 1. allow to ripen/ 
mature. 2. corrupt, ruin. re/7, jipevua. put 
on airs, show off, be conceited^ Cf. pevu, 
mpevu, mpevushi, upevu; also !pea. 

pewa pass, of pa. 

pezi (ma-) fin (of a fish). 

pi interrog. 1. which? what? mtuyupi? Which 
person? kiti kipi? Which chair? 2. end. 
how? atafanyapi? How will he do it? 3. 
(= wapi) where? to what place? unakwendapi? 
Where are you going? 

Ipia adv. 1. completely, totally, without excep- 
tion. 2. also, even. 

petroli* [Engl J (_) petrol, gasoline, mafuta 2 Pia (-) 1. reel, spool, spindle. 2. top (child's 
ya -. gasoline, fuel. toy J. 3 . fig., anat, - ya goti/mguu. kneecap. 

( kilegesambwa.) 4. fig.: anazunguka kama 
P6lU ^ - 6tU - - He is a ^ays °" the move (lit.: like a top). 




picha LEngl. J (-) 1. picture, drawing, andika pigo (ma-) 1. blow, stroke. - la ngoma. beat 
-. draw (a picture). 2. photograph, piga -. of a drum, mapigo ya moyo. pulsebeat. 

photograph, take a snapshot. 2. hardship, misfortune, accident. Cf. piga. 

piga strike, hit, beat. used. w. a variety of 
direct objects to form verbal expressions: 

— mhuri. stamp. — chapa. print. — simu. 
telephone, telegraph. — taipu. type (= write 
with the typewriter). — muziki. play music. 

— ngoma. beat the drum. — tarumbeta. blow 
the trumpet. — kengeie. ring a bell. — bu- 
nduki. shoot (a gun). — hema. pitch a tent. 

— pasi. iron (clothes). — msumeno. saw 
(wood). — burashi. brush. — mstari. draw a 
line. — picha. draw (pictures), take photo- 
graphs. — stati. start (a car). — fundo. tie 
a knot. — sindano. vaccinate. — kelele. 
yell, scream. — vita, wage a war. — mbio. 
run. — mbizi. dive. — kura. vote. — hodi. 
ask admission, knock. — magoti. kneel. — 
fatiha. perform a ceremony. — makuu. put on 
airs, be arrogant, red, pigapiga. whip (eggs, 
etc.). appl. pigia. pigia kura. elect some- 
one, pigia simu. call someone up (on the 
telephone), send a wire to someone, double 
appl. pigilia. 1. strike in, drive home. 
pigilia msumari. drive a nail. 2. ram down, 
tamp. intr. pigika. caus, pigisha. ass. 
pigana. strike each other, fight, ass. -appl. 
pigania. fight for something. Cf. kipigi, 
kipigo, mapigano, mpiga, mpigaji, mpiganaji, 
mpiganisho, mpigo, mpigwa, pigano, pigo, 
upigaji, upiganaji, upigano. 

pigano (ma-) (us. mapigano; also mpigano, mi-) 
fight, battle, engagement, skirmish; quarrel. 
Cf. piga. 

pigipigi (ma-) see *pikipiki. 

pika 1. prepare food, cook. 2. boil. Cf. 
mapishi, mpishi, Impiko, upishi. 

piki (ma-) see ^pikipiki. 

lpikipiki, piki, pigipigi (ma-), kipiki, kipikipiki 

(vi-) stick used for knocking down fruit. 

lpikipiki (— ) onom. motorcycle. 

piku* [.Port. J 1. cards win (a trick or the game). 
2. cheat (at cards). 3. coll. excel, surpass, 
outdo (= shinda). ananishinda kwa masomo 
ya hesabu, lakini na mimi kwa somo la jio- 
grafia nimempiku. He did better than I did in 
mathematics but I beat him in geography. 
4. (ma-) cheating (at cards). 

pilau*, bilau LPers.J (-) pilau (boiled rice 
with raisins and ghee). 

Ipili num. two. —a — . second, ya —.secondly, 
next, following, mara ya — . for the second 

2pili, piri (-) pili (kind of adder). 

pilipili* LPers, J (-) pepper. - manga (hoho). 
black (red) pepper. Cf. kipilipili, mpilipili. 

pilka-pilka (— ) viewfinder (of a camera). 

pima 1. measure, weigh, test. — upana. measure 
the width. — viazi. weigh potatoes. — joto. 
take a person's temperature. 2. •consider 




critically, form an estimate, criticize. 
nimeyapima maneno yake nimeyaona si 
kweli. I have weighed his words and 
found that they are untrue, appl. pi m i a . 
kitu cha kupimia. measure. 3. (_) fathom, 
two yards, fa., C0 H toa macho ___ 
stare into space. Cf. pimamaji, kipima, 
kipimio, kipimo, mpima, mpimo, upimaji. 

•^mama;! ,.,-=,— piiimsiiarazi) (-) I. water 
level, stage. 2. water gauge. 3. spirit 
level. Cf. pima, maji. 

pimasharazi (- ) see pimamaji. 

pimo (ma-) see kipimo. 

pinda 1. twist, bend, curve. - uzi. twist a 
thread, mstari uliopinda. curvefd line). 
2. fold. - upindo/mshono. turn down a 
seam (on a garment), ass. pindana. be 
folded/fitted together; (fig.) be tense/ 
strained; have a cramp; be stubborn, as- 
sert dogmatically, stat.-ass. pindamana. 
be twisted together/entangled/gnarled; 
(fig.) be convulsed, inv. pindua. turn 
around, overturn, reverse; change direction. 
pindua ukarasa wa kitabu. turn the page of a 
book, pindua meli. change the course of a 
ship, refl.-inv, jipindua. turn around (of 
a person); change one's mind. inv. -appl. 
pindul ia. intr. pinduka. be turned around, 
be changed, take a new direction, inv.-intr.- 
appl. pindukia. climb over something 
(a wall, etc.). caus. pinduza. Cf. ki- 
pindi, kipindo, kipindupindu, mpindani, 
mpindanifu, mpindano, mpinduzi, pindani, 
lpindi, pindo, pindu, pinduani, pinduli, 
pinduo, pindupindu, mapindu, mapinduzi, 
upindani, upinde, upinduzi. 

pindamana stat.-ass. of pinda. 

pindani adj. stubborn/obstinate/unyielding 
Cf. pinda. 

pinde, pindi pi. of upinde, upindi. 

pindi (ma-, -) 1. bend, twist, curve, turn. 

- ya mto. bend of a river. 2. (division 
or interval of) time, time for something. 

- za mchana. the times (= divisions) of 
the day. _ ya chakula. mealtime. _ za 
mti. annual rings (of a tree). 3. lapse, 
course, period (of time), tutaonana - 
mwakani. We shall see each other again 
in the course of the year. 4. conj. (at 
the time) when; if, although, supposing. 
Cf. pinda. 

pindi see pinde. 

pindi, pinda (ma-) = kipinda. 

pindo (ma-) edge, border, hem. Cf. pinda. 

Pindu 1 (ma-) (sudden) turn, somersault, 
cartwheel. 2. adv. upside down, kichwa -. 
head over heels. Cf. pinda. 

pindua inv. of pinda. 

pinduani (ma-) 1. stubborn/determined per- 
son. 2. revolutionist, radical. Cf. pinda. 

pinduka inv.-jntr. of pinda. 

pinduli (ma-) something which produces a 
change of direction/radical change/revolu- 
tion, cause of change. Cf. pinda. 




pindulia inv.-appl. of pinda. 

pinduo (ma-) 1. (radical, drastic) change, 
transformation, alteration. 2. pol. revolu- 
tion. Cf. pinda. 

pindupindu 1. (— ) convulsion, fit, seizure. 
2. adv. head over heels, anguka — . fall 
down head over heels. Cf. pinda. 

pinga (& caus. pinza) 1. lock, fasten. 
— mlango. fasten a door (with a bar). 

2. block, obstruct. — njia. block a road. 

3. fig. oppose, counteract, check, frus- 
trate, thwart. — nia ya fulani. thwart 
someone's plans. 4. fig. refute, revoke, 
contradict. 5. fig. bet, lay a wager, ass. 
pingana. thwart/contradict each other; 
make a bet with each other; challenge/defy 
each other, stat. pingama & stat.-ass. 
pingamana. be opposed/in opposition to 
something, stat.-ass. -caus. pingamanisha 
(w. int. force), deliberately obstruct/frus- 
trate something, inv. pingua. remove, 
carry away; unfasten (a door); cut open, 
cut up (fruit, wood), inv.-appl. pingulia. 
Cf. pingamizi, pingani, pingo, pingu, ki- 
pinga, kipingamizi, kipingili, kipingo, ki- 
pingwa, mpinga, mpingaji, mpinzani, 
upingaji, upingamishi, upinzani. 

pingama stat. of pinga. 

pingamizi (— ) impediment, obstacle; disturb- 
ance, interruption, difficulty, tunataka ku- 
fanya amani lakini kuna — nyingi. We want 
to make peace, but there are many difficul- 
ties. Cf. pinga. 

pingani adj. (of persons) obstructive, con- 
trary, troublesome, difficult. Cf. pinga. 

1 pingili (ma-) augment, of kipingili. 

^pingili (— ) (augment, of kipingili) piece, 
section (e.g., of sugarcane, between joints). 
nipe — tatu za mua. Give me three pieces 
of sugarcane. 

pingo (ma-) (also mpingo, mi-) obstruction, 
barrier, bolt (on a door). Cf. pinga. 

pingu (— , ma-) 1. fetter, shackle; handcuff. 
2. a loop of rope used as an aid in climb- 
ing trees. 3. a disc of wood (ebony) worn 
in the lobe of the ear. 4. a charm protect- 
ing against evil spirits. Cf. pinga. 

pingua (inv. of pinga) cut into pieces/lengths 
(e.g., sugarcane). Cf. kipingili. 

pingulia inv.-appl. of pinga. 

pini (ma-) augment, of kipini. 

2 pini* [Engl. ] (-) pin. 

pinki* \_Engl. J adj. pink. 

pinza caus. of pinga. 

pipa* tPort. J (ma-) barrel, cask, water- 
container, tank. — la maji ya moto. hot- 
water tank. — la mafuta ya petroli. fuel tank. 

piramidi* \_Engl. J (ma-) pyramid. 



Piri (-) see 2 pi \ L 

pirikana be well developed/muscular. 

pisha caus. of pita. 

pishi (— ) pishi (a measure of capacity or 
weight: half a gallon, 6 lb.). 

pisho (ma-) (act of) cauterizing (or the mark 

pistola* (-) see bastola. 

piswa 1. speak confusedly /foolishly (like a 
feeble-minded or senile person). 2. (ma-) 
~~ mapiswa. 

pita 1. go past, pass (by); go on, proceed. 
— mji. pass by a town, mto wapita. the 
river flows past, mvvaka uliopita. the past 
year. 2. go beyond, surpass, excel, ex- 
ceed; distinguish oneself; be better than... 
kitabu hiki ni kizuri kupita kile. This book 
is better than (lit.: surpasses) that one. 
appl. pitia. go past, pass by (something, 
someone), be forgotten, pass, pitiwa. for- 
get, nilipitiwa. I have forgotten. I cannot 
recall/remember, double appl. pitilia 
(w. int. force), nimepitiliwa. I have com- 
pletely forgotten, appl.-ass. pitiana. be 
in constant touch/association with each 
other, be on familiar terms (of social or 
business relationships), caus. pisha, pi- 
tisha. 1. lead, guide, conduct; allow to 
pass, make room for. pitisha hewasafi. 
ventilate, pisha sheria. pass/promulgate 
a law. 2. miss, neglect; waste, pitisha 

wakati. pass/waste time. Cf. pito, ki- 
pito, mpita, mpito. 

pito (ma-) (augment, of kipito) (act, means 
of) passing, passage. Cf. pita. 

plagi* [Engl.1 (-) 1. plug, stopper, bung. 
2. (electric) plug. 

plau* [Engl. ] (_) pl ow . l ima kwa (na) _ 
to plow. 

pi en* [Engl .] 

/'. plain, simple, under- 

po det.: pote, popote. wherever, everywhere. 

poa 1. cool off, become cool, chai imepoa. 
the tea has cooled. 2. recover (from an 
illness), get well, amepoa ugonjwa. He 
has recovered from the illness. 3. cool 
off, calm down, hasira yake imepoa. His 
anger has calmed down. appl. polea. caus. 
poza. 1. cool something (off). 2. calm, 
console, nitakwenda kumpoza. I will go 
to console him/calm him down. 3. cure, 
heal. Cf. mapoza, mpozi. 

pochi* [ind.p] (ma-) pochi (kind of bracelet), 
poda* [Engl.1 (-) powder. Cf. podea. 

podea* [EnglJ powder (a baby, etc.). refl. 
jipodea. powder oneself/one's face. 
Cf. poda. 

podo (ma-) quiver, case for arrows. 

^pofu adj. blind. Cf. pofua. 




2 pofu (-) 


pofua damage, destroy, ruin. - maeho. blind 
{lit.: destroy the eyes), appl, pofulia. 
intr. pofuka. caus. pofusha. Cf. pofu, 
kipofu, upofu. 

pofuka intr. of pofua. 

pofulia appl. of pofua. 

pofusha caus. of pofua. 

pogo 1. (ma-) lopsidedness, irregularity, 
asymmetry, mapogo ya macho, squinting. 
2. adv. sideways, in a crooked/lopsided 
way. enda — . limp, tazama — . squint, 
look sideways. Cf. pogoa. 

pogoa, pokoa, pagua lop, prune (bushes, trees), 
cut off (branches), appl. pogolea. kisu 
cha kupogolea. pruning knife, caus. po- 
gosha Cf. pogo, pogoo, upogo. 

pokea 1. accept, receive; obtain. - barua. 
receive a letter. 2. take in, welcome (as 
a guest), wametupokea vizuri. They have 
given us a good reception. 3. acknowl- 
edge, approve, admit; consent, agree. 
- maneno. acknowledge/admit words/ 
statements, appl. pokelea. appl.-caus. 
pokeleza. caus. pokeza. cause to re- 
ceive, hand out, issue, jana alitupokeza 

mshahara. Yesterdav Yip Isenorl tU ,.,„ — ,, 
, — — fi „.j 

to us. caus.-ass. pokezana & caus. -ass. - 

caus. pokezanya. alternate/take turns 

(at doing something), take/get something 

by turns, pokezana/pokezanya mizigo. 

take turns carrying burdens, wafanya kazi 

wanapokezana kazi kila saa nne. The 

workers relieve each other on the job 

every four hours. Cf. pokezi, kipokee, 

kipokeo, mpokea, upokeaji. 

pokelea appl. of pokea. 

pokeleza appl.-caus. of pokea. 

pogoo (ma-) branch cut off a tree. Cf. pogoa. pokeo (ma-) see pokezi, mapokezi. 

pointi* L Engl. J (-) point, dot. pokezana caus.-ass. of pokea. 

pojo (— ) pojo (kind of bean, Phaseolus 
mungo). (= choroko.) 

pokezanya caus. -ass. -caus. of pokea. 

pojo (— ) pojo (kind of vetch). 

pokezi, pokeo (ma-) (us. mapokezi) 

1. that which is received. 2. acceptance, 

reception. 3. fig. tradition, custom, 

. ,„ , . , usage. 4. fig. superstition. Cf. pokea. 

poka (& inv. pokua) take away, appropriate 

(by force) snatch; rob, steal, ass. pokana. i . , , 

pokoa mv. of poka. 

steal from/rob each other, inv.-caus. (? ) 

pokonya = poka. Cf. upokonyaji. , . , , 

pokonya mv.-caus. of poka. 




Pole, polepole adj./adv. 1. calm, cautious, 
careful, slow, sema pole(pole)! Speak 
slowly, (kwa) polepole. gradually. 
2. mild, gentle, kind. Cf. upole. 

pole inter j. 1. expressing sympathy/ com- 
passion (on occasions of misfortune, 
troubles, illness, death). 2. Sorry! Excuse 
me ! 

polea appl. of poa. 

polisi* [Engl J 1. ( ma _) ( a i so askari _) 
policeman. 2. (-) police force. 

pombe (_) pombe (an intoxicating drink pre- 
pared from millet, bananas, and sugarcane). 

pombo (-, ma-) 1. (in gen.) the leaf of any 
plant used as a vegetable. 2. pombo (a 
kind of vegetable gruel used to thicken 

pomboo (ma-) porpoise. 

pomoka = bomoka intr. of bomoa. 

pomoka see poromoa. 
pomoni adv. chock-full, crowded. 

pona 1. flee, run away (from danger). 2. be 
rescued/saved. 3. make a living; live, 
exist. 4. improve; get better (from an 
illness), appl. ponea. 1. be saved by. 
2, live off, be dependent for one's liveli- 
hood on something, caus. ponya & double 

caus. ponyesha. 1. cause to flee/run 
away. 2. rescue, save. 3. heal, cure, 
mgonjwa ameponywa na mganga. The sick 
person was cured by the doctor, caus.-intr. 

ponyeka. haiponyeki. It is incurable. 

refl.-caus. jiponya. save oneself. Cf. ki- 

ponya, maponea, maponyea, mponyeshaji, 


Ponda 1. pound, ram, tamp. - udongo. ram/ 
tamp clay. 2. pound to pieces, grind, pul- 
verize. 3. destroy, overwhelm, annihilate. 
4. fig. run over (w. a vehicle), amepo- 
ndwa na motokaa. He was run over by an 
automobile, appl. pondea. pondea pili- 
pili kinuni. grind up pepper in a mortar. 
caus. ponza & caus.-appl. ponzea. 
1. have something pounded/ground. 2. ex- 
pose someone to a danger, risk something. 
ametuponzea tukafungwa. He got us into a 
dangerous situation, and we were arrested. 
Cf. pondeo, pondo, kipondwe, mponda, 

pondeo (ma-) pondeo (wooden hammer/mallet 
used by shoemakers). Cf. ponda. 

pondo ( ma -), mpondo (mi-), upondo (-), 
kipondo (vi-) naut. punting pole, boat- 
hook. Cf. ponda. 

pongea I. rare bring something difficult to 
a conclusion. 2. rare recover (from an 
illness), caus. pongeza. congratulate 
(someone who has recovered from an ill- 
ness). Cf. pongezi. 

pongezi (-, ma-) congratulations. Cf. 




pongono (ma-) quiver. 

pongoo pi. of upongoo. 

poni* \_Engl.~] 1. (-) pledge. (= rahani.) 
vveka — . leave as a pledge, pawn. 2. v. 
pledge, pawn. 

pono (— ) pono (a kind of sluggish fish that 
lives among coral), prov. mtu huyu ana 
usingizi kama — . This man sleeps like a 

ponoa 1. pull/strip off (the bark from a tree, 
etc.). 2. wipe off (the hands), appl. po- 

ponta* L Port. J (— ) back stitch, quilting 

ponya caus. of pona. 

ponyeka caus.-intr. of pona. 

ponyesha double caus. of pona. 

ponyoka slip away, escape (unexpectedly, in- 
advertently). — maneno. make a slip of 
the tongue, say the wrong thing. 

ponza caus. of ponda. 

pooza 1. be incompletely developed, tunda 
hili limepooza. This fruit is unripe. 2. be 
paralyzed/crippled; (fig,.) be impotent. 
mkono umepooza. the arm is paralyzed/ 
crippled, mwenye kupooza. a cripple; 
(fig.) an impotent man. 3. fig. feel 

lonely/abandoned, tangu ameondoka tu- 
mepooza. Since he is gone we feel aban- 
doned, caus. poozesha. cripple, muti- 
late, deform, paralyze. 4. (ma-) some- 
thing undeveloped/immature; premature 
birth. 5. adj. undeveloped, immature. 
Cf. kipooza, upooza. 

popo (ma-) 1. zool. bat. 2. rare (us. ki- 
popo) butterfly, moth. 

popoa knock fruit off a tree with a stick/ 
stone, appl, popolea. Cf. 2 m p p 00 . 

popoo* iPers.] (rare bobo) (-) areca/ 
betel nut. Cf. Impopoo. 

popota see pota. 

popote see po. 

popotoa inv. of pota. 

Ipora (ma-) young cock/rooster. 


pora coll. snatch (at something), mwivi 
amempora mfuko wake. The thief 
snatched her purse. 

pori* (ma-) wilderness, uninhabited region 
(without trees). 

poroja, porojo 1, (— ) porridge, gruel; a mix- 
ture of a watery consistency. 2. v. be 
pasty /watery. 

^porojo (ma-) 1. small talk, chitchat, idle/ 
empty talk. 2. pol. propaganda. 




porojo (-) see 


poromoa (& caus. poromosha, rare pomosha) 
slide/roll down. intr. poromoka (rare po- 
moka, bpromoka). mjenzi ameporomoka 
kwenye paa la nyumba. The builder fell 
off the roof of the house, mvua iliporomoka. 
The rain poured down (e.g., in a cloudburst). 
Cf. poromoko. 

poromoko (us. maporomoko) (ma-) 1. steep 
slope, precipice. 2. fall, crash, maporo- 
moko ya mvua. cloudburst, maporomoko ya 
maji. waterfall, maporomoko ya mto. cat- 
aract. 3. landslide, avalanche. Cf. po- 

portangi* [indj (-) (paper) kite. (= tiara.) 

posa 1. ask to marry (a girl), propose; woo, 
be a suitor, appl. posea. mali ya kuposea. 
money for wedding preparations, ass. po- 
sana. reach an agreement on a marriage. 
2. (-) see poso. Cf. maposo, mposaji, 
mposeaji, mposo. 

posha support, maintain, provide with food. 
appl. poshea. caus. posheza. Cf. posho. 

posho (-, ma-) 1. daily rations (e.g., of 

corn meal, issued to workers on plantations). 
2. (in gen.) maintenance, support; means of 
subsistence, livelihood. Cf. posha. 

poso, posa (-) (also uposo, uposa) 1. suit, 
proposal of marriage, peleka -. send a 
proposal of marriage (from the parents of 
the man to the parents of the girl). 2. wed- 
ding preparations. 3. wedding present. 
Cf. posa. 

posta* [Engl.'] (-) post office (building 
and services), tikiti ya -. postage stamp. 
kwa -. by mail, karani wa -. postal em- 
ployee, nyumba ya -. post office (build- 
ing), idara ya -. post-office department. 
benki ya akiba kwa njia ya -. postal 
savings bank. 

pota (rare popota) twist. - uzi. twist/ 
-....._ ....w Utl . — ,„ lf ;„u. tiuss me legs. 
inv. potoa, popotoa. 1. = pota. 
2. ruin, spoil (work); distort, pervert. 
potoa maneno. pervert words, refl.-inv. 
jipotoa. ruin oneself (by drinking, im- 
moral conduct), inv.-appl. potolea. inv.- 
intr. potoka. 1. be twisted/crooked. 

2. fig. be perverse/eccentric/whimsical. 

3. fig. be stubborn/obstinate, inv.-caus. 
potosha. distort; pervert, lead astray, 
spoil. Cf. potea, potoe, mpoto, mpotoe, 
upote, upotovu. 

*pote see — ote. 


-*pote pi. of upote. 

potea (appl. of pota) 1. disappear, be/get 
lost. — njia. lose one's way. — akili. 
lose one's head/senses, become excited/ 
confused. — maneno. say the wrong 
thing, make a slip of the tongue. 2. be 
mistaken, be in the wrong. 3. perish, be 
ruined, appl. potelea. pass, potewa. 
incur/suffer a loss, amepotewa na mapesa 
yake. He has lost his money, caus. po- 
teza. 1. lose. 2. throw away. 3. ruin/ 
corrupt/abuse someone, ass. poteana. 
lose each other, be separated/scattered. 
Cf. potevu, mpotevu, upotevu. 




potevu adj. 1. lost, strayed. 2. destructive. 
3. disastrous, ruinous. 4. wasteful, extrav- 
agant. Cf. potea, mpotevu, upotevu. 

potoa inv. of pota. 

potoe, potovu 1. adj. bent, crooked, askew; 
deformed, distorted; ruined, depraved, de- 
moralized; stubborn, eccentric. 2. rare 
(— ) obstinacy, wilfulness, caprice. Cf. 

potoka inv. -intr. of pota. 

potolea inv.-appl. of pota. 

potosha inv.-caus. of pota. 

potovu see potoe. 

poundi* (— ) see pauni. 

povu (ma-) bubble; lather, foam, froth; scum; 
effervescence, fanya — . foam, bubble, ef- 

poza caus. of poa. 

prediketo* LEngl.l (-) rare, gramm. predi- 

Ipua (— ) 1. nose, piga — . snort; blow the 
nose, tundu la — , mwanzi wa — . nostril. 
sema puani or sema na -. talk through the 
nose, nasalize. 2. sense of smell. 
3. nozzle, spout. Cf. 

2 pua* [Pers.^l (-) (us. chumacha-) 

tempered iron, steel, tia — . harden, temper. 


u pua see puna. 

pua see pura. 

puchari*, buchari L Ind. _J (— ) large knife. 


pugi (— ) ornith. wood dove (Turtur afer). 

pugikikombe (— ) ornith. tambourine dove 

(Tympanistria tympanistria). 

pujua, puchua 1. scratch, scrape. 2. pull/ 
strip off. — embe. peel a mango. — mu- 
Hindi, strip off the grains of an ear of 
maize. 3. rare skin, flay. Cf. chuna. 
4. separate grain from the chaff, appl, 
pujulia. intr. pujuka. pass, pujuliwa. 
refl. jipujua. 1. scratch oneself. 2. fig. 
undress, strip. 3. fig. expose oneself, 
be shameless/immodest. Cf. pujufu, mpu- 

pujufu, pujuzi adj. shameless, immodest; 
wasteful. Cf. pujua, 

pujuzi adj. see pujufu. 

puku (— ) field mouse/rat. 

pukuchua, pukutua inv. of pukuta. 

pukuchulia dehydrate (foods). Cf. pukuta. 




pukupuku see kipukupuku. 

pukusa caus. of pukuta. 

pukusa (-) pukusa (kind of banana). Cf. 


puliza (rare puza) 1. blow, blow up, in- 
flate. - mpira. inflate a ball. 2. blow/ 
fan fa fire), appl. pulizia, (rare) puzia. 
intr. pulizika. 

puluki* (_) see puleki. 

pukuso (ma-) gift, present (on festive occa- 
sions) Cf. pukuta. 

pukuta, pukucha shake off (water), shake down 
(fruit, etc.), strip off. _ mahindi. strip off 
the grains (from an ear of maize), intr. pu- 
kutika. fall off (in great numbers, like 
leaves), fig. watu walipukutika. People 
have fallen like flies (as victims of an epi- 
demic), caus. pukutisha. 1. crumble some- 
thing. 2. let fall, allow to drip, pukutisha 
jasho. drip with sweat, caus. pukusa. 
1. shake off/down, pukusa mwembe mzima. 
shake down the fruit of the mango tree. 
2. fig. pour out, hand out (presents); con- 
gratulate, inv. pukutua, pukuchua = pu- 
kuta. Cf. 2 pu kusa, pukuso, pukute, kipuku, 
ikipukusa, 2kjpukusa, m pukuti. 

pukute (— ): wali wa — or — ya wali. rice 
cooked in such a way that the grains are 
separate. Cf. pukuta. 

puleki*, puluki [Pers.?] (-) 1. tinsel, 
spangle, trinket. 2. pinchbeck, sham, 

pulika rare listen, obey. caus. & int. puli- 
kiza. ass. pulikana. 

pululu (ma-) wilderness, desolate/uninhabited 

puma beat, pulse (of the heart). Cf. pumua. 

pumba (_, ma-) 1. lump; (small) ball, 
bundle. 2. chaff. 3. med. excretion 
(under the foreskin). 

2 pumba (-, ma-) see bumba. 

pumbaa 1. be speechless (from astonishment); 
gape, stare, be nonplussed. 2. be dull-witted/ 
stupid/ignorant. 3. be careless/thought- 
less/absentminded/lazy. _ kazi. do one's 
work carelessly/in a slipshod fashion; 
(fig.) take it easy, amuse oneself, caus. 
pumbaza. 1. render someone speechless, 
embarrass/nonplus someone. 2. delude 
someone, make a fool of someone, refl.- 
caus. jipumbaza. feign stupidity, caus.- 
intr. pumbazika. be deluded/deceived/ 
cheated. Cf. pumbavu, mpumbavu, upu- 

pumbavu adj. dull-witted, stupid, foolish, 
ignorant. Cf. pumbaa, mpumbavu, upu- 

pumbo (ma-) see pumbu. 




pumbu, pumbo (ma-) 1. anat. scrotum. 2. (us. 
mapumbu) testicle. 3. med. disease of 
the scrotum (orchitis, hernia, etc.). Cf. 

pumu (ma-) 1. anat. lung ( = pafu, buhnmu). 
2. med. difficulty in breathing, asthma. 
Cf. pumua. 

pumzikio (ma-) see pumziko. 

pumziko, pumzikio (ma-) 1. rest, relaxation. 
2. place/time for rest/relaxation/recrea- 
tion, holiday resort. 3.: mapumziko. va- 
cation. Cf. pumua. 

pumzisha double caus. of pumua. 

pumua (inv. of puma?) 1. breathe. 2. take a 
deep breath, catch one's breath (after strenu- 
ous effort), sasa naweza kupumua. Now I 
can catch my breath /take a rest. caus. pu- 
muza. caus.-intr. pumzika (< pumuzika). 
1. take a rest. 2. be pensioned off, retire. 
caus.-intr.-appl. pumzikia. mahali pa ku- 
pumzikia. resting place, double caus. 
pumzisha. allow someone to rest, give 
someone peace; (fig.) calm/soothe someone. 
Cf. pumu, pumzi, pumziko, kipumziko, ma- 

pumuza caus. of pumua. 

pumuzi (— ) see pumzi. 

pumuzika caus.-intr. of pumua. 

pumzi, pumuzi (— ) {also upumuo, upumzi 
sing.) 1. breath, breathing, pandisha 
(vuta) — . breathe in, inhale, toa (shusha) 
— . breathe out, exhale, hewa ya — . oxy- 
gen. 2. rest, break, fanya kazi kutwa bila 
— . work the entire day without a break. 
Cf. pumua. 


zika caus.-intr. of pumua. 

puna, pua 1. scrape /strip off. — magnme ya 
mti. strip the bark off a tree. 2. wipe off 
(sweat from the face, etc.). caus. punisha. 
inv. punua = puna. Cf. mapune, punyeto. 

punda (— ) ass, donkey. — kihongwe. pack 
donkey [in contr. w. — Maskati. riding 
donkey). — milia. zebra, pepo — . med. 
tetanus, lockjaw. 

punde adv. a little; soon, in a little while. 
tulikuwa tunamngoja, na— akaja. We 
waited for him, and he soon came. — si — . 
in a moment, directly. — kwa — . little by 
little, gradually. 

punga 1. swing, wave; fan. — mikono. 
swing the arms, give a signal. 2. fig. 
drive away (by waving the arms, gesticu- 
lating). — pepo. exorcise a spirit. 3. fig.: 
— upepo/hewa. get a change of air, take a 
trip (for recreation). Cf. pungwa. 

■'punga decrease, diminish, let up; shorten 
(a dress, etc.). jua limepunga. the heat of 
the sun is decreasing (toward sunset), inv. 
pungua. decrease, diminish (in quantity), 
inv.-intr. punguka. grow less, diminish, 




abate, inv. -caus. punguza. make less, re- 
duce, shorten, lower (prices). Cf. pungufu, 
punguani, kipunguo, kipunguzi, mpungufu, 

"'punga pi. of upunga. 

Ipungu (— ) pungu (species of eagle). 

"pungu, pungo (— ) pungu (a large sea fish). 

^pungua (— ) pungua (kind of drum). 

■^pungua inv. of 2p Un g a , 

punguani (ma-) 1. feebleminded person, 
idiot. 2. half-breed. Cf. 2p un g a , 

pungufu 1. adj. reduced, shortened; wanting, 
defective, imperfect, incomplete; on the 
wane, mwezi mpungufu. an incomplete 
month (of 29 days), pesa hizi ni — . It is 
not the right amount of money (i.e., is too 
little). 2. (ma-) rare deficiency, defect. 
Cf. 2p un jr at mpungufu, upungufu. 

punguka inv.-intr. of 2 punga. 

punguo (ma-) see upungufo. 

punguza inv.-caus. of 2p un g a . 

pungwa (— ) ethn. pungwa (a ceremony/dance 
for exorcising a spirit). Cf. Upunga. 

punja deceive, cheat, swindle, alinipunja 
ratli nzima. He cheated me by a whole 
pound. Cf. kipunjo. 

punje (ma-) (single) grain (of wheat, maize, 

punju, punyu (-) ethn. punju (a medicine for 

punua inv. of puna. 

punyeto sing, masturbation. Cf. puna. 

punyu (-) see punju. 

puo (ma-) see puzo. 

pupa sing, eagerness, zeal, avidity; haste, 
hurry, fanya - ya... be eager/in a hurry 
to do something. Cf. kipupa. 

pura, pua, purura 1. strike, beat, pound. 
- nguo. wash/pound clothes. 2. knock 
down (fruit from a tree with a stick or stone). 
3. strip off (grains of corn, etc.), shell 
(peas, beans). 4. thresh (grain), intr. pu- 
rurika (rare purika). 5. re/7, jipura. mas- 
turbate. 6. ass. purana. fight; have sex- 
ual intercourse. Cf. mpururo. 

pure* DW.J (-) pure (a dish of maize and 

purendi* [Engl.'] (ma-) see mapurendi. 

purukusa see purukusha. 

purukusha (rare purukusa) behave carelessly/ 
frivolously. - tnaneno (sikio). talk (listen) 
heedlessly/inattentively, reft, jipurukusha. 
be frivolous/superficial/inattentive. Cf. pu- 
rukushani, mpurukushani, upurukushaji. 




purukushani (ma-) carelessness, superfici- 
ality, frivolity, negligence, contempt, kwa 
— . carelessly, negligently, fanya — . act 
carelessly/negligently, dereva ameiendesha 
motokaa kwa—. The driver drove the car 
negligently. Cf. purukusha. 

purupuru adj. gay, playful. 

purura see pura. 

pururika intr. of pura. 

pusa gradually cease, abate, let up. mvua 
imepusa. The rain haslet up. 

^pusa (ma-) augment, of kipusa. 

puta, buta beat, whip. — zulia. beat a rug. 

puuza see 2p UZ£u 

puza see puliza. 

puza, puuza talk nonsense; be silly/foolish. 
— kazi. do one's work in a foolish way. 
intr. puzika = puza. caus. puzisha. con- 
fuse/bewilder someone (with nonsensical 
talk). Cf. puzo, kipuzi, mpuzi, upuzi. 

puzia appl. of puliza. 

puzo, puo (ma-) nonsense; stupid/inept 
speech/behavior. Cf. •'puza. 

pwa become dry, dry up. maji yamekupwa. The 
water has dried up. maji ya kupwa. ebb 
tide. appl. pwea & double appl. pwelea. 

1. fig. have a dry throat, sauti imempwea. 
He has a hoarse voice. 2. naut. run 
aground, be stranded, appl.-pass. pwelewa. 
amepwelewa. fig. He had no arguments 
left (i.e., had to be satisfied), caus. 
pwesha, pweza. allow to dry up (a sore), 
double appl.-caus. pweleza. naut. run 
aground, strand (a ship). Cf. pwani, kipwa, 
mapwa, makupwa. 

pwaga pound, grind, 
rice in a mortar. 

mpunga kinuni. grind 

pwagu (— ) see pyagu. 

pwaguzi (— ) see pyagu. 

pwaju (— ) ornith. nightjar. 

pwani (— ) coast (land), littoral. — nabara. 
coast and interior, panda—, run aground, 
be stranded. Cf. pwa. 

pwata see pweteka. 

pwaya hang loose, dangle, be loose, koti 
hili linampwaya. This coat/suit is too big 
for him. 

pwea appl. of pwa. 

pweke see peke. 

pweleza double appl.-caus. of pwa. 

pwesha caus. of pwa. 

pweteka: jipweteka or jipweteka pwata. 
throw oneself down in a sitting position. 



Ipweza (— ) cuttlefish, squid, prov. mimi si 
— kujipalia makaa. I will not get myself in- 
to difficulties (i.e., I will not contribute to 
my own discomfiture, like the cuttlefish, 
which, when roasted on the fire, spasmodi- 
cally pulls coals onto its own body). — mku- 
bwa. octopus, kiti cha — . starfish. 

pweza caus. of pwa. 

pya adj. new, fresh; modern, up-to-date. 
Cf. upya. 

pyagu, pyaguzi, pwagu, pwaguzi (— ) thief. 
prov. pyagu na pyaguzi wamekutana. 

A clever thief and a still more clever one 
met each other. 

pyora 1. boast, exaggerate, lie. 2. use 
obscene language. Cf. pvoro. 

pwita beat, throb, pulsate. 

pyoro, pyororo adj. 1. boastful, deceitful. 
2. obscene. Cf. pyora, mapyoro, mpyoro. 

rabi* (— ) rel. master, lord (used by Moslems 
in reference to God (creator) and by Chris- 
tians in reference to Christ (savior); 
= Bwana wangu, Mungu wangu). 

rabishi* 1. throw into confusion, disarrange. 
2. confuse, nonplus, distract (a person), 
appl. rabishia. bungle/make a mess of 
something, intr. rabishika. be in disorder/ 
confusion. Cf. rabsha. 

rabsha* (— ) 1. disorder, confusion. 2. noise, 
tumult. Cf. rabishi. 

rada* (— ) retribution, punishment. Cf. rudi. 

radhi* 1. forgiveness, pardon, niwie — ! 

Pardon me! taka — . beg pardon. 2. satis- 

faction, approval, blessing, mpango huu 
mimi si — nao. This arrangement does not 
meet with my approval, amekosa — ya baba 
yake. He has been disowned by his father 
(does not have his father's blessing). 

3. adj. satisfied, approving, willing. 

4. v. (also ridhi, taradhia) forgive, par- 
don; satisfy, kumradhi! Pardon me! Cf. 

radi* (— ) (clap of) thunder, lightning. 
(- mngurumo, umeme.) — imepiga. It is 
thundering, pigwa na — . be struck by 

radio* LEngl. J (— ) see redio. 

rafardha* [?J (— ) naut., av. (ship's) screw, 
propeller. (- majembe.) 




rafiki* (-) friend, comrade. Cf. kirafiki, 

*rafu* (— ) drawer, shelf. 

A-afu* I Engl. ] adj. rough, (sport) not fair. 
timu ya K. ilicheza — sana. The team from 
K. played very unfairly. 

ra^ai*. rap-hai spp lawhai. 

rahisisha. cheapen, make cheaper, tajii 
hakurahisisha bei ya bidhaa. The shop- 
keeper has not reduced the prices of the 
goods, prov. rahisi inavunja upishi. 
'Cheap' spoils cookery. Cf. urahisi. 

rahisisha* caus. of rahisi. 

*rai*, rairai flatter, play the hypocrite. 
pass, raiwa. intr. raika. Cf. urai. 

rago (ma-) camp, piga — . pitch camp. 
Cf. kirago. 

-rai* rare give someone something to eat, 
feed someone. 

raha* (— ) rest, peace, quiet; comfort, con- 
tentment; enjoyment, entertainment; happi- 
ness, ona — . find peace/contentment, kaa 
— mustarehe. be in very good circumstan- 
ces. Cf. starehe, starehevu, mustarehe. 

i* (-) 

see ramani. 

rahani*, rehani (— ) pledge, loan, mortgage. 
weka/tia — . mortgage, pawn, weka nyumba 
— . mortgage a house, komboa — . redeem 
a pledge, pay off a mortgage. 

rahimu* adj. the Merciful ( = God). Cf. re- 
hema, rehemu. 

rahisi* 1. adj. cheap, bidhaa — . cheap 
goods. 2. easy, simple, kazi — . easy 
work, lugha — ■ an easy language ( = one 
easy to learn), njia — . a simple method. 
3. v. be cheap; lessen, reduce f the value 
of something), debase; scorn, belittle, de- 
precate, intr. rahisika. bei zimerahisika. 
The prices have been reduced, caus. 

rai* (— ) 1. opinion, point of view, stand- 
point, msimtume huyu kwenye mkutano 
maana hana — . Don't send him to the as- 
sembly, for he has no opinion (of his own). 
kwa — ya... in the opinion of... 2. pro- 
posal, suggestion, advice. 

4 rai* (— ) 1. health, vigor. 2. self-assurance. 

raia* (ma-, — ) citizen (of a country), subject, 
national Cf. kiraia, uraia. 

rairai* see J-rai. 

rais*, mrajis (— , ma-) chairman, president. 

raiti* lEngl. J sing. /adj., sport right. 
(= kuume.) insaidi wa — . inside right 

rajabu*, rajab (— ) 1. seventh month of the 
Muhammadan year. 2. pr. n., masc. 

rajamu* (— ) rare mark, stamp (of a business 
firm), trademark. (= ^chapa.) 




rajua* change one's mind, be undecided; 
postpone, delay. 

-rajua* (_) hope, wa na -. to hope, have 

raka* (ma-) augment, of kiraka. 

rakaa* (_) hi. bow (with the hands on the 
■ cr.ccs, ,*un.u£ piuycr). enda -. to make 
such a bow. 

rakibisha* caus. of Rakibu. 

rakibu*, rekibu, rekebu mount, ride on (a 
horse, etc.). appl. rakibia. intr. rakibika. 
caus. rakibisha, rekibisha. 1. cause to 
mount/ride; put on top of. 2. put together, 
assemble, finish; organize, simplify. 3. be 
directed toward..., be headed for... ndege 
ilirakibishwa kuelekea Nairobi. The air- 
plane is headed for Nairobi. 4. rare mend, 
repair. 5. rare set (a watch or clock). 
caus. -intr. rakibishika. Cf. 2 ra | < i DUi rgkg. 
bisho, tarakibu, urekebisho; also merikebu. 

rakibu (-) good rider. Cf. Rakibu. 

ramadhani* (-) 1. Ramadhan (the last month 
of the Muhammadan year, a month of fasting 
between dawn and sunset). 2. pr. n. masc. 

ramani*, rahamani (— ) 1. sketch, diagram, 
plan, drawing. 2. map. kitabu cha -. 

*ramba* {.Malagasy lamba] (-) ramba (a 
kind of striped cloth made of finely plaited 

ramba* [ind.] ramba (shoemaker's knife). 

3 ramba see lamba. 

rambaza naut. cruise around (in search of 

rambirambi* {-) {also mbirambi) words of 
condolence. _ zako. My sincere condo- 

rambitia, lambitia see lamba. 

ramia* (_) mil. bullet, round (of ammunition). 
(- 2 kiasi, risasi.) 

ramisi* LPers.'] amuse/enjoy oneself. 
Cf. ramsa. 

ramli* (-) ramli (telling fortunes from mark- 
ings on sand), piga-. tell fortunes, 
mpiga — fortune-teller. - yake inaona 
(haioni). His prophecy came true (did not 
come true). 

ramsa* Oers. ] (_) a place where people 
are entertaining themselves (at a fair, etc.). 
Cf. ramisi. 

^ramu* (-) sorrow, grief. 

2 ramu* L?] buildinglot. (= kiwanja.) 
ramuka attack (each other). (= shambulia.) 

randa, randaranda 1. dance (a dance sym- 
bolizing courage or strength). 2. fig. 
boast, show off, act big. 


^randa*, landa [Pers. J (— ) (carpenter's) 
plane, piga — . to plane. 

''randa see Manda. 

randaranda see Iranda. 

rangi* [ind.J (— ) color, pigment, dye. tia 
(paka) — . color, paint, geuka— . change 
L-uiuio — nyeKUiiuu v'lyeusi/. icu vuiauR.; 
pigment/dye. enye — . colored, enye 
rangirangi. varicolored, —a — . colored. 
nyeupe ao ya — ? White or colored? 
ubaguzi wa — . racial discrimination. 

ranki* [Engl. J (— ) rank. 

rarua tear, rip (to pieces), appl. rarulia. intr. 
raruka. kitambaa hiki hakiraruki. This 
cloth will not rip. ass. raruana. fig. abuse 
each other, speak ill of each other. Cf. 
raruo, mrarua, mraruo. 

rarulia appl. of rarua. 

raruo (ma-) 1. tear, rip. 2. fig. rage, fury. 
Cf. rarua. 

ras* (— ) see rasi. 

rasha*, rasharasha 1. smear/daub on, paint, 
whitewash. 2. do something carelessly/ 
superficially, appl. rashia. 1. daub on 
something. 3. sprinkle, rashia maji. 
sprinkle with water. Cf. marasharasha, 
marashi, mrasharasha, mrashi, urasharasha. 

rasharasha* 1. = rasha. 2. (ma-) drizzle 
(of rain). 

rasi*, ras (— ) 1. cape, promontory. 

2. leader, chief. 

rasilimali* (— ) see rasilmali. 

rasilmali*, rasilimali, raslimali (— ) 1. econ. 
capital, assets, principal. 2. (in gen.) 
property, wealth. 

rasimu* 1. set a price; make an opening bid 
(at an auction). 2. rare copy, imitate. 

3. (— ) design, plan, drawing. 

rasisi* plate with tin. appZ. rasisia. intr. 
rasisika. caus. rasisisha. Cf. risasi, 

raslimali* (— ) see rasilmali. 

rasmi* adj. official, legal; formal, fanya 
karamu — . give an official reception, 
nguo za — . uniform. 

rasuli* (— , ma-) prophet, apostle, messenger. 

ratibu*, ratibisha put in order, coordinate. 
appl. ratibia. intr. ratibika. Cf. taratibu. 

ratili* (— ) see ratli. 

ratli*, ratili (— ) ratli (a unit of weight, 1 lb., 
450 g). 

raufu* adj. gentle, well-bred. Cf. uraufu. 

rauka, lauka see Iavva. 

rausi* naut. trim sail. 

re* (ma-) see ree. 


reale*, riale, riali [Ar.-Span.] (-) liter. 
riyal, piaster, dollar. - ya mzinga. 
Spanish dollar. - ya Sham. Maria Theresa 

redio*. radio [Engl.] (-) radio. 

ree*, re [Port.] (ma-) cards ace. 

refarii* referii, rifarii, rifirii [Engl.] (-) 
sport referee. 

refu adj. long, tall; high, deep, mti mrefu. 
a tall tree, kisima kirefu. a deep well. 
kisu kirefu. a long knife, muda mrefu. 
a long period of time. Cf. refusha, marefu, 

refusha make long, lengthen, extend. - 
mstari. extend a line. Cf. refu. 

rega see lega. 

rehani* (-) see rahani. 

rehe* (-) see riahi. 

rehema* (_) 1. pity, mercy; sympathy, com- 
passion; generosity, magnanimity. 2. rel. 
indulgence. Cf. raliimu, rehemu, mare- 
hemu; also huruma ('?), 

rehemu* take pity on, show mercy to, feel 
sympathy for. app^. rehemia. intr. re- 
hemika. caus. rehemisha. please someone 
with something, make someone apresent of 
something. Cf. rehema. 

rejareja* 1. adj.: biashara ya -. retail 
trade, commission business. 2. adv. by/ 
on commission, biashara yake ni ya -. He 
is in the retail business. Cf. rejea. 

rejea* 1. return, go back, begin again. 

- nyuma. retreat. 2. refer to (something). 

- sarufi. refer to the grammar, intr. re- 
jeka. caus. rejesha, rejeza. take/give 

back: rnrrer'f cnmo/j^e, „~..~ _ i 

rejesheana, rejezeana. rejesheana fedha. 
pay back money to each other. Cf. reja- 
reja, rejeo, mrejaa. 

rejeo* (ma-) (us. marejeo) return, baada 
ya marejeo yake. after his return. Cf. 

rejesheana* caus.-appl.-ass. of rejea. 

rejeza* caus. of rejea. 

rejista* [Engl.] (-) registered letter. 

rekabisho* (ma-) see rekebisho. 

rekebisha* caus. of Irakibu. 

rekebisho*, rekabisho (ma-) 1. repair. 
2. organization. Cf. Irakibu. 

rekebu*, rekibu see ^rakibu. 

rekodi* (-) see rikodi. 

reli* [Engl.] (-) railway, railroad, njia 
ya -. railroad line, idara ya -. railroad 



relwe* [Engl. J (— ) railway. 

remba make beautiful/handsome/attractive, 
decorate, ornament, appl. rembea. intr. 
rembeka. caus. rembesha. inv. rembua. 
destroy the beauty of something, disfigure, 
ruin, inv.-appl. rembulia. inv.-intr. re- 
mbuka. inv.-caus. rembusha. Cf. rembo, 
kirembo, mrembo, urembo. 

rembo (ma-) ornament, design, pattern. Cf. 

rembua inv. of remba. 

rembulia inv.-appl. of remba. 

renga fool, hoax, cheat, pass, rengwa. 

rengu (ma-) (us. marengu) naut. outrigger. 

Reno* [Port, reinoj adj. Portuguese. Cf. 
Kireno, Mreno, Ureno. 

resheni* [Engl. J (—) ration, portion, helping. 

resipi* [Engl. J (—) prescription. 

rewa (— ) rewa (signal drum). 

rezolusheni* \_Engl. J resolution, pitisha — . 
adopt a resolution. 

riahi*, rihi, rehe (— ) bloating, flatulence. 

riale*, riali (— ) see reale. 

riaria* rare hunt for; watch, observe. 

riba* (rare iriba) (— ) 1. usury. 2. avarice, 
greed (for money), la — . practice usury. 
mla — . usurer. 

ridhaa* (— ) satisfaction; agreement, approval. 
Cf. ridhi. 

ridhi* be satisfied/pleased, appl. ridhia. 
1. please someone. 2. accept, intr. ri- 
dhika. caus. ridhisha. please, satisfy. 
ass. ridhiana. patano ia kuridhiana. com- 
promise. Cf. radhi, ridhaa, maridhawa, 
maridhia, taradhia, uradhi. 

rifarii*, rifirii [Engl.] (— ) see refarii. 

rifrijireta* [Engl. J (— ) refrigerator. 

riha* (— ) odor, fragrance, aroma. 

rihani* (— ) hot. basil. 

rihi* (— ) see riahi. 

rijali* (— ) rare, liter, man. 

rika (ma-) ethn. contemporary, member of 
the same age-group, hawa ni marika. They 
are of the same age. 

rikebu* (— ) see merikebu. 

rikodi*, rekodi [Engl. \ 1. (— ) (phonograph) 
record; tape(-recorder); (sport) record, 
weka — . set/establish a record. 2. v. 
record, make a (tape) recording. 

riksha* [jap.-Engl.J (—) rickshaw. 



rima (ma-) pit trap (for animals). 

rimbua see limbiia. 

rimende* (-) see rumande. 

rinda see marinda. 

rindima 1. roar, rumble, boom (of thunder, 

Cf. rindimo. 

"ni- sixiKe, nit. 

rindimo (ma-) roaring, thundering. Cf. ri- 

rmga 1. act important, put on airs, swagger. 
2. irritate, provoke. 3. set one's cap for 
someone, Cf. maringo. 

rinksho* see riksha. 

ripea* I Engl J (_) repair. 

ripota* [Engl.j ( ma -) reporter. 

ripoti* lEngl.l 1. (_) report, information. 
2. v. report, inform. 

ripuka see lipuka. 

risaia* (-) 1. message. 2. summary (of a 
speech, etc.), epitome, pre'eis. 3. rare 

risasi*, lisasi (-) 1. solder (tin, lead). 
tia -. to tin-plate. 2. bullet, tia -. 
load a rifle. Cf. 2 kiasi, rasisi, marisaa. 

risavu*, rizavu LEngl.l 1. (_) reserve, 
supply; (tribal) reservation. 2. (ma-) 
sport reserve player. 

rishai* 1. be wet/damp/moist. 2. exude 
(moisture, perspiration). Cf. warishai. 

risiti* I Engl. J (-) 


ritaai- i. deviate, swerve (from one's prin- 
ciples, etc.), backslide. 2. rel. aposta- 
cize. Cf. rudi. 

ritani* [Engl J (-) return, profit, income. 

rithi* inherit, fall heir to. - mali nyingi. 
inherit a great deal ofproperty. appl. 
rithia. caus. rithisha. 1. leave, be- 
queath something. 2. divide up the prop- 
erty of a deceased person. Cf. mirathi, 
mrithi, mrithisha, uritlii, warithi. 

riza*, liza (-) door chain. 

nzavu* (_, ma -) see risavu. 

riziki* (_) means of subsistence, food, 
nourishment, tangu asubihi hajapata -. 
He has had nothing to eat since morning. 
Cf. ruzuku. 

robo* (-) 1. fourth, quarter, kasa -. three 
quarters, saa mbili kasa -. 7:45 o'clock. 
2. (also roboo) coll. one shilling. 

robota* (ma-) bundle, bale. _ | a pamba. 
a bale of cotton. 



robu* (— ): maziwa ya — . curdled milk, curds. 

roda* L Port. J (— ) (sheave of a) pulley, 

rodi*, lodi \_Engl. lord J (_ ) 1. pompous/ 
arrogant person; talebearer. 2. monocle. 

roga see loga. 

rogoa, iogoa inv. of ioga. 

roho* (— ) 1. soul, spirit, life. — Mtakatifu. 
rel. Holy Ghost. 2. breath. 3. throat. 
4. disposition. 5 r character, personality, 
individuality, ana — njema. He has good 
character. 6. (also uroho) greed, glut- 
tony; avarice, miserliness. Cf. kiroho, 

roja*, loja be astonished/amazed. Cf. kiroja. 

rojorojo 1. adj. thick, gelatinous (of foods). 
2. (— ) gravy. 

roketi* LEngl.J (—) rocket, kiwanja cha 
kurusha — . launching pad/platform. 

roku* \_Engl. j recent dance the rock-and-roll. 

rondea see londea. 

rongaronga 1. beseech, implore. 2. carry 
with great care (something fragile or dam- 

rongera (— ) rongera (native beer before fer- 

ropoka, lopoka talk nonsense, speak without 
thinking, appl. ropokea. caus. ropokesha. 

roshani* LPers.] balcony, veranda. 

ruba (ma-), mruba (mi-) leech; (fig.) t usurer. 

rubani* (ma-) 1. naut. pilot, helmsman. 
2. av. pilot. 3. leader, director. — la 
k- va -— -l. -:- i c - j c - 

rubuni* deceive, cheat, lead astray, appl. 

rudi* 1. come back, return — katika safari. 
return from a journey. 2. give/take/send 
back. 3. reply, respond. 4. find fault, 
reprove, correct. — (kwa) makosa. correct 
mistakes, appl. rudia. amemrudia mkewe. 
He went back to his wife (after a separa- 
tion), rudia neno. contradict, appl.-ass. 
rudiana. 1. return to each other. 2. rep- 
rimand/correct each other, intr. rudika. 
caus. rudisha. give/send back, return, 
restore, caus. -intr.: hairudishiki. It is 
irrevocable. Cf. marudi, mardudi, rada, 
ritadi, urudishaji. 

rudufu* 1. to double, intr. rudufika. caus. 
rudufisha, rudufya. 2. adj. - maradufu 2. 

rufaa*, rufaani, rufani (— ) freight, cargo. 
Cf. rufai, marufaa. 

rufai* L mount. 2. rare go away quickly; 
get rid of something quickly (by throwing 
it away). Cf. rufaa. 

ronjo see lonjo. 




Wani* (-) jur. appeal, taka (chukua) -. 
appeal (a case), batilisha -. dismiss an 
appeal, kubali -. allow an appeal. 

2 rufani* (-) see rufaa. 

rufuku* 1. rare forbid, prohibit; deter. 

(= kataza.) appl. rufukia. caus. rufukisha 
2. (ma-) see marufuku. 

rugaruga (wa-) see mrugaruga. 

ruhsa* (-) see ruhusa. 

ruhusa*, ruhsa, rukhsa (-) 1. permission. 
omba — . ask for permission, toa — . give 
permission. 2. vacation, holiday. 3. dis- 
missal. 4. econ. permit, license. 5, v. 
permit, allow, appl. ruhusia. intr. ruhusi- 
ka. caus. ruhusisha. 

rujumu* kill by stoning, appl. rujumia. intr. 
rujumika. caus. rujumisha. 

ruka 1. jump, hop. bao la kuruka. diving 
board, trampoline. - juu. av. take off. 
kuruka kwa mbali. broad jump, kuruka na 
mti. pole-vault. 2. pass over/beyond, 
cross; transgress, trespass. - mpaka. ex- 
ceed a limit, go beyond bounds. 3. fly. 
4. swell, wali umeruka. The rice has 
swelled up. appl. rukia. attack someone 
(in a conversation), intr. rukika. caus. 
rusha. cause to jump/fly, throw up/off; 
launch (a rocket, etc.). nisha akili. cause 
someone to lose his head, startle, rusha 
ndege. fly an airplane, pass, rukwa: rukwa 
na akili. lose one's head. Cf. ruko, rusho, 
kirukanjia, kirukia, mrukaji, mruko, urukaji. 

rukhsa* (-) see ruhusa. 

ruko (ma-) 1. jump, hop. 2. fig. transgres- 
sion, trespass. 3. fig. omission. Cf. ruka. 

rukudhu* 1. lose one's way; enter without 
authorization, trespass. 2. fig. insult 

riikiin* /.«/. bow with thehar.dcT iL ~ ' 

(in prayer). 

rukwama (-) truck, van. 

rula* LEngl.1 ruler. 

Rum* arch. Turkey, sultani -. the sultan of 
Turkey. Bahari ya -. Mediterranean. 

rumada* [Port. ] (-) naut. rudder-pivot. 

rumande*, rumenda, rimende [Engl.] (_) 
remand, arrest, imprisonment, weka — . 

rumbi (— ) rumbi (large water-jug). 

rumenda* (-) see rumande. 

rumi* adj. Roman. Cf. kirumi, Mruma. 

runda 1. be retarded in development, be 
stunted. 2. be crippled, 3. fig. be bad- 

rundika see lundika. 

runga rare collect, gather. 

rungu, Iungu (_) knobbed stick. Cf. kirungu. 



rungula see lungula. 

rupia* tlnd.] (— ) rupee (l£ = 13 rupees). 

rupu see marupurupu. 

rusha caus. of ruka. 

rusho (ma-) (act of) throwing off/away. Cf. 

rutubika* 1. be moist/damp. 2. be fertile. 
caus. rutubisha. make moist/fertile, kwa 
kutia mbolea sasa shamba limerutubishwa. 
This manure has made the field fertile. 
3. fig. be refreshed/invigorated. Cf. ru- 

ruwaza* (— ) sample, model, pattern. 

rushwa* (— ) bribe, toa — . to bribe, la — . 
accept a bribe. 

rusu* (— ) layer, tier, row (of piled objects); 
stratum, level. 

rutuba* (— ) dampness, moisture; fertility. 
ardhi ina — . The soil is fertile. Cf. rutu- 

ruzu* get into difficulties; be impoverished; 
abandon hope. appZ. ruzia. intr. ruzika. 

ruzuku*, tarazaki provide for, support, main- 
tain; preserve, store up. Cf. riziki. 

ruzuna* (— ): us. dawa ya — . a medicine for 
whooping cough. 

*saa* (— ) 1. hour, (period of) time. - ngapi? Isaada* (— ) see seyyida. 
What time is it? {lit.: what kind of an hour?) 

nusu -. half an hour. 2. watch, clock. - ya 2 saada * (_) see msaa d a . 
mkono. wristwatch. — yamfuko. pocket 

watch. - ya ukuta. wall-clock. saanda* (-) see sanda. 

2saa* remain, be left (over), fig. stay, linger. saari* (— ) 1. rare price, value. (= bei, 

oppZ. salia - saa. caus. saza. 1, leave 
(over/behind). 2. leave out, omit; leave un- 
done/unfinished/unsaid, Cf. masaa, msazo. 

''saa inter], of impatience or amazement. 
sema -. Well, say something, will you? 

thamani, 1 kiasi, Ikima.) 2. econ. face 
value (of money, etc.). 

saba* 1. num. seven, —a — . seventh. 2. 
(-) coll. week. - mbili. two weeks. 
See also Saba-Saba. 




sababisha*, sabibisha give as the reason 
for..., regard as the cause of... pass, sa- 
bibishwa. be caused by. Cf. sababu. 

sababu* (— ) cause, reason, motive, kwa — . 
because, since, kwa— ya... because of... 
(kwa) - gani? why? ndio -. for that reason, 
therefore, bila (pasipo) -. without reason. 
toa _. give a reason. Cf. sababisha. ki- 

sabaha* (ma-) successor (in an office). Cf. 

sabahi*, sabihi wish someone good morning, 
pay a morning call on someone. Cf. asu- 

sabaini* see sabini. 

sabalheri* (-) see sabalklieri. 

sabalkheri*, sabalheri, subalkheri salutation: 
Good morning. Cf. masalkheri. 

Saba-Saba 7 July, the Anniversary of TANU 
(- Tanzania National Union). 

sabasi* (-) enmity, hostility, ill-will, dissen- 

sabatashara* arch. num. seventeen. (= kumi 
na saba.) —a — . seventeenth. 

sabibisha* see sababisha. 

sahidi* arrange, settle (a debt). 

^sabihi* = sabahi. 

sabihi* be face to face with someone, 
nilimsabihi yeye mwenyewe. I have met 
him personally. 

sabiki* 1. (-) cause, reason, supposition. 
2. v. go before, lead. 

sabili* 1. make way /room for, allow to pass. 
2. remove, clear away. 3. permit, allow, 

aA™;t a x,„ ...•-. . . -.r 

.... -„ ..ui^|,uuwn,civitu someone. 

5. loosen, relax, relieve, appl. sabilia. 
intr. sabilika. 6. (-) removal; permis- 
sion; relief, relaxation. 7. adj. free, 
mobile, unimpeded, relaxed. 

sabini*, sabaini num. seventy. 

sabiti* rare = thabiti. 

sabmarini* [Engl.l (-) submarine. 

sabuni* (-) soap povu la -. suds, lather. 

saburi*, subiri 1. be patient/calm/resigned. 
2. wait {more polite than ngoja). nisaburi. 
wait for me. appl. saburia. caus. sabu- 
risha. calm, pacify. 3. {also subira) (-) 

patience, forbearance, resignation, prov. 

— yavutaheri. Patience brings blessing. 
coll. kutokuwa na — ni kubaya. To be im- 
patient is bad. 

sadaka* (-) 1. alms, charity. 2. rel. of- 
fering, sacrifice. Cf. sadaki, sadiki. 

sadaki* 1. give alms. 2. make a sacrifice. 
Cf. sadaka, 

sadifu* 1. be true /right/proper/exact. 2. adj. 
true, right, proper, correct, exact. 



sadiki* believe, trust, appl. sadikia. intr. 
sadikika. be credible/trustworthy, caus. 
sadikisha. win confidence; justify, con- 
firm; convince; (w. int. force) believe 
firmly, trust implicitly. Cf. sadikifu, msa- 
dikifu, suduku; also sadaka, sadaki. 

safii* see safihi. 

safika* intr. of safi. 

safina* sing. (orig. boat, ship; now only:) 
rel. Noah's ark. 

sadikifu* adj. 1. trusting, credulous. 

2. credible, trustworthy; dependable, re- 
UaMe, hnnpst-. Cf = »diki ; 

sadoka, sotoka (— ) dial, cattle plague, 

safiri* travel, set out on a journey/expedi- 
tion. appZ. safiria. intr. safirika. caus. 
safirisha. 1. make preparations for a 
journey. 2. send off/out, transport. 
3. econ. export. Cf. safari, msafara, 
msafiri, msafirishaji, usafiri, usafirishaji. 

safari* (— ) 1. journey, trip, expedition; de- 
parture. 2. see msafara. 3. time, moment. 
— hii sitasema naye. This time I shall not 
talk with him. — nyingine. at another time. 
Cf. safiri. 

safi* 1. {also swafi) adj. clean, pure, clear, 
bright; transparent; true, honest, candid, un- 
selfish; real, genuine, hewa — . fresh air. 
sema Kisvvahili — . speak good/pure Swa- 
hili. 2. (us. caus. safisha) v. clean, 
purify; clarify, put in order; correct; defe- 
cate, safisha picha (filmu). develop a 
film. appZ. safia. intr. safika. Cf. rasa- 
fishaji, usafi, usafishaji. 

safidi*, tasifida [fers.J clean, put in order, 
arrange, appl. safidia. intr. safidika. 
caus. safidisha. Cf. safi, usafidi. 

safihi*, safii 1. offend, insult, abuse; treat 
with scorn/contempt/derision. 2. be rude/ 
insolent/impudent. 3. (— ) boor, lout, im- 
pudent person. 4. adj. rude, offensive, 
insolent. Cf. msafihi, usafihi. 

safisha* caus. of safi. 

safu* (— , ma-), msafa (mi-) row, line, series. 
— ya milima. range of mountains, weka 
(panga) — . put/set in a row. jipanga — . 
mil. form ranks. 

safura* (— ) med. 1. jaundice. 2. anemia. 
3.: —a — . adj. pale, pallid. 

saga 1. grind, pulverize. — meno. grind/ 
gnash the teeth. 2. fig. oppress, appl. 
sagia. kinu cha kusagia kahawa. coffee 
mill. 3. {& ass. sagana) commit an act 
of female homosexuality/lesbianism. 
Cf. ^aago (?), *kisaga, msaga, msaga- 
liwa, Amsago. 

sagai* (— ) (short) spear, assegai. 

sagama rare ~ sakama. 

sago*, sagu Llnd. J (— ) sago. 

^sago, msago adv. without interruption, 
continuously. Cf. saga (?). 


sagu* (_) see lsago. 

sagua laugh at, deride. Cf. saguo. 

saguo (ma-) (act of) laughing at someone, de- 
rision, mockery. Cf. sagua. 

sahala* adj. light, easy. Cf. sahalia, tasi- 

sahalia* be light/easy. caus. sahalisha. 
lighten, facilitate. Cf. sahala. 

sahalisha* caus. of sahalia. 

sahani* (-) 1. dish, plate. - za kaule. 
(imported) earthenware, china. 2. fig.: 
— ya santuri. (phonograph) record. 3. cav- 
ity, depression. Cf. kisahani. 

sahau* 1. forget, not remember; fail to do 
something; be careless/inattentive, appl. 
sahaulia. intr. sahaulika. caus. sa- 
haulisha. 2. n. failure to remember some- 
thing, lapse of memory. Cf. sahaulifu, 
msahau, usahaulifu. 

sahaulifu* adj. forgetful, absentminded, in- 
attentive. Cf. sahau. 

sahib* (-, ma-) see sahibu. 

sahibu*, sahib, suhuba (-, ma-) 1. friend. 
2. master, sir. Cf. suhubiana, masahaba, 

sahifa*, sahifu (-) rare page (of a book). 
{- ukurasa.) Cf. msahafu. 

sahihi* 1. {us. caus. sahihisha) correct, 
read proof; attest, authenticate, prove; 
sign, appl., rare, sahihia, as. sahihishia. 
intr. sahihika. 2. (— ) correction, revi- 
sion; proof; attestation, security, guaran- 
tee. 3. signature. — yako. your signa- 
ture, tia — . sign fa document) {see also 
saini). 4. adj. & adv. {also sahihifu) 
right, correct, true, genuine, valid. Cf. 
sahihisho. usahihi. 

sahihisho* (ma-) correction, revision; at- 
testation, authentication, confirmation. 
Cf. sahihi. 

saidi*, sayidi (ma-) 1. hist, lord, master, 
ruler. 2. pr. n. masc. Cf. seyyedia, 
seyyid, seyyida. 

saidia* help, assist, aid, support; favor, pro- 
mote; protect, defend; approve, sanction. 
intr. saidika. caus. saidiza. pass. 
saidiwa. Cf. msaada, msaidizi. 

saikoloji*, saikolojia, sikolojia [Engl. ] (-) 

saili* ask, inquire; investigate, examine. 
appl. sailia. caus. sailisha. ass. saili- 
ana. Cf. swali, masahala. 

saini* I Engl. J (-) signature, sign, mark, 
tia/weka — . to sign. See also sahihi. 

sairi* 1. paddle, loll about fin the water). 
2. fig., nauU hug the shore. 

sairi* pound a residue on the side of a mortar. 


saisi* (ma-) groom, coachman. 

saiti* L Engl. J (—) auto, turn-signal, de- 
reva hakutoa — . The driver did not give a 

saizi* LEngl. J (— ) size. 

sajin* {.Engl.} (ma-) mil. sergeant. 

saka chase, hunt (wild animals by driving); 
catch (in a trap), caus. sakiza. Cf. 
msakaji, msako, usasi; also sakama. 

sakafu* (— ) 1. floor (of hard-packed mud or 
concrete). 2. roof (of a flat-roofed clay or 
stone building). Cf. sakifu. 

sakama (rare sagama) stick, be caught ('e.g., 
of an animal in a trap), mwibawa samaki 
umemsakama kooni. The fishbone stuck in 
his throat, fig. maneno yao yametusakama 
moyoni. Their words made a lasting im- 
pression on us (lit.: stuck in our hearts). 
caus. sakamisha. fasten, secure. Cf. 
saka, msakamo. 

sakara* (us. intr. sakarika) 1. be exhausted/ 
debilitated (by hunger, thirst, heat). 2. over- 
eat (with resulting sluggishness). 

sakata 1. strike, hit, beat. (= piga.) 2. de- 
vour, eat up, finish off. 

saki* 1. press, squeeze, be tight, njaa ina- 
saki. I am dying of hunger. 2. fig. have 
a profound influence, affect deeply, move. 
appl. sakia. intr. sakika. caus. sakisha. 
pass, sakiwa. Cf. kisaki. 

sakifu* pack mud, make a (hard-packed) mud 
or concrete floor, appZ. sakifia. intr. 
sakifika. caus. sakifisha. pass, saki- 
fiwa. Cf. sakafu. 

sakimu* rare be ill/ailing. ( = ugua. ) 

^sakini* settle down, stay in a place. Cf. 

^sakini (— ) see sekini. 

sakiti* 1. reduce, diminish. 2. fig. soothe, 

sakitu* (— ) (white) frost, hoarfrost. 
Cf. jalidi. 

sakubimbi, chakubimbi (— ) troublemaker, 
gossip, talebearer, sneak. ( = mfitini, 

sala* (— ) rel. prayer. — ya Bwana. the 
Lord's Prayer. — ya kupunga pepo 
wabaya. exorcism. Cf. sali, msala. 

salaam* (— ) see salama, salamu. 

saladi* L Engl. J (—) salad. 

Isalala*, sarara (— ) chine, sirloin, fillet. 

^salala* inter j. of surprise. 

salama*, salaam 1. (— ) peace, tranquillity, 
security; health, well-being. 2. adj. 
peaceful, calm, safe, unharmed; favorable, 
satisfactory, mwisho — . a favorable out- 



come. 3. adv. (also salama salimini). 
(quite) safely, in perfectly good order. Cf. 
salamu, salimu, usalama. 

salamu*, salaam 1. (_) greeting, salutation; 
bow. toa (pa) -. greet, salute, mizinga 
ya -. salute (by firing guns), pokea -. 
accept a greeting, peana _. greet each 

other. 2. adj. safe and sound, prosperous, 

f| n .,.,vl;.. rr i 

--- — *""•" 5- •-■/. summa, saiimu, taslimu, 


salasila* (-) see silasila. 

salata* (_) harshness, want of consideration, 
ruthlessness; sharpness, sarcasm. 
Cf. 2 saliti, msalata, lasliti. 

sali* Isl. pray. appl. salia. caus. salisha. 
ass. saliana. Cf. sala. 

^salia* appl. of sali. 

^salia* appl. of 2 saa . 

salihi* adj. good, in good condition, sound; 
honest, upright, of good character; useful, 
proper, suitable. Cf. msalihina. 

salihina* (-) see msalihina. 

salili (-) (various species of) duck. (= bata.) 

salimini* adv. see salama. 

salimu* 1. greet, salute; congratulate; bow. 
2. hand over, deliver; entrust; capitulate. 
fig. — roho. give up the ghost, die. 

3. save, rescue, appl. salimia. 1. greet 
someone, give someone regards, ukimwona 
fulani nisalimie. If you meet X, give him 
my regards. 2. entrust something to some- 
one, intr. salimika. caus. salimisha. 
refl.-caus. jisalimisha. surrender (one- 
self), give oneself up. Cf. salama, salamu. 

salio (ma-) see masaa. 

saliti* put together, mix. ukisaliti jinsi 
mbili za mchanga huu utapata mchanga 
mzuri. If you mix these two kinds of sand 
together, you will get good sand. 

2 saliti* 1. be sharp/sarcastic. 2. irritate, 
stir up, disturb, annoy, confuse. 3. be- 
tray, falsify, deceive, cheat. 4. set at 
variance, alienate, mgeni ndiye aliyetu- 
saliti. It was a stranger who alienated us. 
appl. salitia. Cf. salata. 

saluti* lEngl.l (-) salute, greeting. 
pokea -. accept a greeting, be made 

sama* stop up, choke; stick in the throat. 

samadari* [/rarf.] (-) bedstead (iron or 

samadi* (-) fertilizer (natural manure mixed 
with ashes). Cf. simadi. 

samaha* (ma-) see msamaha. 

samaki* (-) fish (in gen.) - mbichi (mkavu). 
fresh (dried) fish, vua -. to fish, tunga-. 



string fish on a stick (for drying), prov. 
— mmoja akioza, wote wameoza^ One bad 
fish infects all the rest. 

samani* \_Ind. J (— ) instrument, implement, 
tool, utensil; piece of (movable) property, 
article of furniture. — za mwashi. stone- 
mason's tools. 

>J V— ) vcoiiee-;urn 

(with brazier). 

samawati*, samawi (— ) 1. sky. 2.: rangi 
ya — . sky-blue, azure. 

samawi* (— ) see samawati. 

sambaa be spread/scattered. appl. sambalia. 
intr. sambalika. caus. sambalisha. 

sambamba adv. side by side, shoulder to 
shoulder; parallel; simultaneously, 
mistari iliyo — . parallel lines. 

sambaratika disintegrate. 

sambusa* [Pers.j sambusa (a pastry made of 
meat, onions, and pepper). 

samehe* 1. forgive, pardon, remit, pass over 
(mistakes, offenses, etc.). — makosa. pass 
over/overlook mistakes (failings). 2. give 
up, stop trying, nimeitafuta sikuiona, kwa 
hiyo nimeisamehe. I have hunted for it, but 
did not find it; so I have given up. 3. rare 
save, rescue. Cf. msamaha, msamehaji. 

samesame* (— ) 1. samesame (red glass bead). 
2. samesame (a kind of red ant). 

samli* {rare samuli) (— ) clarified butter, 
ghee (used only for cooking). 

sampuli* [Engl.] (—) sample, model, ex- 

samu* (— ) see saumu. 

samuli* (— ) rare see samli. 

*sana* adv. very, very much, to a high de- 
gree, to a great extent, tazamia — . ex- 
amine carefully, lia — . weep copiously. 
la — . eat heavily, asante — . many thanks, 
sema — . speak loudly/emphatically. 

sana* hammer, forge (something). Cf. 
-msana, usani. 

sanaa* 1. (— ) (work of) skilled craftsman- 
ship, art. 2. v. {also sanii) make, con- 
struct, fabricate, appl. sanalia. Cf. 

sanamaki* (— ) senna (used as a purgative). 

sanamu* (— ) 1. image, idol, ibada ya — . 
idolatry. 2. statue, chora — . make a 
statue, mchonga — . sculptor. 3. picture, 
painting, photograph; figure, diagram. 
Cf. kisanamu. 

sanati*, sene (— ) arch., liter, year (in dating 

sanda*, saanda, shanda (— ) burial cloth, 

sandal i 


sandali* (-) sandalwood, mafuta ya -. 
sandalwood oil. Cf. msandali. 

sandarusi* (-) gum copa l. C f. msandarusi. 

sanduku* (-, ma -) box, chest, trunk. _ la 
kupiga kura. ballot box. _ I a posta. mail- 
box; letters to the editor (in a newspaper). 
Cf. kijisanduku. 

sangaa see shangaa. 

sangara (-) sangara (red ant). 

sangaza caus. of shangaa. 

sanifu* work skilfully, invent, compose, write. 
Cf. usanifu. 

sanii* see sanaa 2. 

sanjari*, shanjari, chanjari [Pers.l 1. ac- 
company, escort; follow in succession, 
move in a line or column (ships, etc.). 
2. adv. in single file, in line/column for- 

sansuri* (-) 1. sansuri (kind of fish, barra- 
cuda). (= mzira.) 2. a large knife with a 
blunt edge. 

santuri*, senturi (-) 1. santuri (a musical in- 
strument resembling a zither). 2. fig. 
phonograph, barrel organ (or other devices). 

sao (ma-) see masalio. 

sapa (us. red. sapasapa) 1. tout, spiel 
(to attract customers). 2. take everything 
one has, make a clean sweep. 

Sapatu* L Port J (_) (house-)slipper. 

sapatu (-, ma-) sapatu (plaited cording to 
support a bed). 

sarabi* (-) mirage, fata morgana. 

sarafa* (ma-) see sharafa. 

sarafu*, sarufu, sarifu, sarifa (-) 1. coin, 
(small) change. 2. (rate of) exchange. 
Cf. Isarifu, masurufu. 

saraka* [PersJ (-) drawer (of a chest of 
drawers or a table/desk). 

sarakasi* [Engl.'] (-) circus. 

sarara* (_) see sa l a la. 

sare (-) the incision made in the ritual of 
blood brotherhood. 

sare (-) sport draw, tie. 


sare adv. at the same time, simultaneously. 
( = 2 su lul Ul ) 

sare (-) 1. (= jinala-) the name given to 
a child immediately after birth. 2. nick- 



sari* \_Ind. J sari (woman's garment). 
sarifa* (— ) see sarafu. 

Isarifu*, serifu 1. exchange money. 2. ar- 
range, put in order; have a good command of 
a language. — maneno (mwandiko) kwa 
uzuri. speak (write) correctly /well. Cf. 

-sarifu* (— ) see sarafu. 

sarufi* (— ) grammar, kitabu cha — . a gram- 
mar (book). 

sarufu* (— ) see sarafu. 

*saruji*, seruji (— ) 1. cement, concrete. 
tia — . to cement (a floor). 2. rubble. 

^saruji*, seruji (— ) saddle. 

sasa* 1. adv. now, at present, nowadays. 
— hivi. at once, immediately; now. —a — 
or —a kisasa. modern, up-to-date, fashion- 
able. 2. inter], pf surprise Well, what do 
you know? Cf. kisasa. 

sataranji* (— ) 1. chess. 2. a kind of sleep- 

satini* (— ) satini (kind of cloth). 

satua* [?](—) rare possibility, chance. 

saujika* see sawajika. 

J-saumu*, tumu l.(— ) Isl. fasting. 2. to 

^saumu, samu, thumu, tumu (— ): kitunguu — . 

sauti* (— ) 1. voice, sound, noise. — moja. 
unanimity; (mus.) unison. — ya kiume. 
deep (male) voice. — ya kitoto. high 

a loud voice, paza — . raise the voice. 2. 
fig., pari. vote, tutawapa — wanachama 
wa chama chetu. We will give our vote to 
the members of our party, fig. — ya 
Tanganyika. The Voice of Tanganyika 
(the radio company). 

sawa* 1. (— ) 1. likeness, similarity. 2. (— ) 
geogr. plain. 3. adj. alike, the same, 
similar, equal; right, exact; fair, just, im- 
partial. 4. adj. level, flat, straight. 
nchi — . flat country. 5. adv. (also sawa- 
sawa) equally, fairly, (just) the same, ex- 
actly, fanya — . make even, equalize; act 
fairly, gawia — . divide into equal parts. 
saa hii inakwenda — . This watch is run- 
ning right, mtoto huyu nababa yake ni — . 
This child resembles his father, coll.: 
— kama sahani na kawa. getting on to- 
gether like a dish and its cover. Cf. sa- 
wia, sawazisha, kisawazisha, usawa, 

sawadi* (— ) see zawadi. 

sawajika*, saujika 1. be exhausted/debili- 
tated/emaciated (from illness, hunger). 
2. be disfigured/crippled. 




sawanyisha* see sawazisha. 
sawasawa* see sawa 3. 

sawazisha* (rare sawanyisha) make even, 
equal, similar; compare. Cf. sawa, ki- 

sawia* adv. then, at that time; at that very r.syc andiiku— . Ke arrived 
too at that very time. Cf. sawa. 

sawidi* make black; (fig.) calumniate, 
slander, besmirch. 

sawiri* form, shape; draw a picture. 

sayansi* [EnglJ (_) science. 

sayari* (-) astr. planet. 

sayidi* (ma-) see saidi. 

saza* caus. of 2 saa , 

sazo (ma-) see masaa. 

sebeha* rare to breakfast. 

sebule* (-) reception room, antechamber, 
hall, porch. 

sebusebu* refuse, reject (unwillingly, regret- 
fully); relinquish, forgo. 

sedeka*. seteka belong/protracted (of an 

sefu* [EnglJ (_) 1. safe. 2. refrigerator. 

sefule!* inter], see \du. 

sega (ma-) (us. pi.) honeycomb. 

sega lift, turn up (skirt, trousers, to keep 
them clean). - nguo. tuck up a dress. 
a ?pl. segea. intr. segeka. 

seeele. shprolo (_\ *,<-„: *l__j- 

" "- > ' -"-"& "i ^auo worn 

around the loins by children. Cf. kondavi. 

segua see sekua. 

sehelea see Iselea. 

sehemu* (-) 1. par t, share. - ya mwe- 
nzangu. my friend's share. 2. fraction, 
instalment. - ya kumi. a tenth. - za 
kumi. tenths, decimals. _ za m ia. hun- 
dredths, percentages. 3. section, para- 
graph. 4. mil. unit, detachment. 5.: _ 
ya mtambo. part/element of a machine. 
6. region, district. - inayojitawala we- 
nyewe. autonomous region. Cf. kijise- 

sekeneka be infected (by syphilis), waste 
a way. Cf. sekeneko. 

sekeneko (-) rare, med. syphilis. 
(= kaswende.) Cf. sekeneka. 

sekini, sakini (-) eth. sekini (shaving the 
head so that only a tuft or strip is left in 
the middle). 

sekua, segua push, shove (along, aside). 
sekunde* (-) see sekundi. 




sekundi*, sekunde [Engl.] second (of time). 

selaha* (— ) see silaha. 

Selani* [Engl.] Ceylon. 

Iselea, sehelea (& appZ. selelea) 1. stay, 
continue to live in (a place that one visits 
and finds attractive), join (a new group). 
2. be attracted/attached to something. 

selea (— ) s 

ee seleha 


seleha, selea (— ) seleha (a red glass bead). 
selehi* see suluhi.